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1.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 17, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692628

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlights the need of developing vaccines with broad protection. Here, according to the immune-escape capability and evolutionary convergence, the representative SARS-CoV-2 strains carrying the hotspot mutations were selected. Then, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mutI-tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, which combined heterologous RBDs from different representative strains into a hybrid immunogen and integrated immune-escape hotspots into a single antigen. When compared with a homo-tri-RBD vaccine candidate in the stage of phase II trial, of which all three RBDs are derived from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, mutI-tri-RBD induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta and Beta variants, and maintained a similar immune response against the prototype strain. Pseudo-virus neutralization assay demonstrated that mutI-tri-RBD also induced broadly strong neutralizing activities against all tested 23 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The in vivo protective capability of mutI-tri-RBD was further validated in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged by the live virus, and the results showed that mutI-tri-RBD provided potent protection not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against the Delta and Beta variants.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 619482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295715

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the association of gender with psychological status and clinical outcomes among patients with 2019-nCoV infection to provide new directions for the prevention and control of the pandemic. Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight patients with confirmed 2019-nCoV infection at Wuhan Union Hospital, between February 8 and March 31, 2020, were included in the study analysis. General information and data on clinical characteristics were collected from patients' medical records. Participants' responses to self-report measures of psychological status were also collected. Results: Anxiety levels, depression levels, and recovery rates were significantly higher among women compared to men. Conversely, chronic disease history and smoking rates, dry cough incidence, C-reactive protein levels, and disease severity were significantly higher among men than women (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Female patients experienced more severe psychological issues, due to higher levels of anxiety and stress, than male patients; indicating that more attention should be paid to the psychological care of female patients. In contrast, the general condition of male patients was more severe, particularly among elderly male patients with a history of chronic disease and smoking, suggesting that, to prevent and control 2019-nCoV infection, male patients should be encouraged to quit smoking as soon as possible to reduce the risk of severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
3.
Mol Cell ; 81(12): 2656-2668.e8, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179919

ABSTRACT

A deficient interferon (IFN) response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been implicated as a determinant of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To identify the molecular effectors that govern IFN control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted a large-scale gain-of-function analysis that evaluated the impact of human IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) on viral replication. A limited subset of ISGs were found to control viral infection, including endosomal factors inhibiting viral entry, RNA binding proteins suppressing viral RNA synthesis, and a highly enriched cluster of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-resident ISGs inhibiting viral assembly/egress. These included broad-acting antiviral ISGs and eight ISGs that specifically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 replication. Among the broad-acting ISGs was BST2/tetherin, which impeded viral release and is antagonized by SARS-CoV-2 Orf7a protein. Overall, these data illuminate a set of ISGs that underlie innate immune control of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV-1 infection, which will facilitate the understanding of host determinants that impact disease severity and offer potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , Antigens, CD/chemistry , Antigens, CD/immunology , Binding Sites , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum/immunology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , GPI-Linked Proteins/chemistry , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Golgi Apparatus/genetics , Golgi Apparatus/immunology , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factors/classification , Interferon Regulatory Factors/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/genetics , Virus Release/immunology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
4.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 21, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015895

ABSTRACT

In any 'omics study, the scale of analysis can dramatically affect the outcome. For instance, when clustering single-cell transcriptomes, is the analysis tuned to discover broad or specific cell types? Likewise, protein communities revealed from protein networks can vary widely in sizes depending on the method. Here, we use the concept of persistent homology, drawn from mathematical topology, to identify robust structures in data at all scales simultaneously. Application to mouse single-cell transcriptomes significantly expands the catalog of identified cell types, while analysis of SARS-COV-2 protein interactions suggests hijacking of WNT. The method, HiDeF, is available via Python and Cytoscape.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Algorithms , Animals , Humans , Mice , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20077743

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies could be antivirals against COVID-19 pandemics. Here, we report the isolation of four human-origin monoclonal antibodies from a convalescent patient in China. All of these isolated antibodies display neutralization abilities in vitro. Two of them (B38 and H4) block the binding between RBD and vial cellular receptor ACE2. Further competition assay indicates that B38 and H4 recognize different epitopes on the RBD, which is ideal for a virus-targeting mAb-pair to avoid immune escape in the future clinical applications. Moreover, therapeutic study on the mouse model validated that these two antibodies can reduce virus titers in the infected mouse lungs. Structure of RBD-B38 complex revealed that most residues on the epitope are overlapped with the RBD-ACE2 binding interface, which explained the blocking efficacy and neutralizing capacity. Our results highlight the promise of antibody-based therapeutics and provide the structural basis of rational vaccine design. One Sentence SummaryA pair of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19 compete cellular receptor binding but with different epitopes, and with post-exposure viral load reduction activity.

6.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-057265

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused huge number of human deaths. Currently, there are no specific drugs or vaccines available for this virus. The viral polymerase is a promising antiviral target. However, the structure of COVID-19 virus polymerase is yet unknown. Here, we describe the near-atomic resolution structure of its core polymerase complex, consisting of nsp12 catalytic subunit and nsp7-nsp8 cofactors. This structure highly resembles the counterpart of SARS-CoV with conserved motifs for all viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, and suggests the mechanism for activation by cofactors. Biochemical studies revealed reduced activity of the core polymerase complex and lower thermostability of individual subunits of COVID-19 virus as compared to that of SARS-CoV. These findings provide important insights into RNA synthesis by coronavirus polymerase and indicate a well adaptation of COVID-19 virus towards humans with relatively lower body temperatures than the natural bat hosts.

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