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1.
Phytother Res ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128041

ABSTRACT

Until now, no specific and effective treatment exists for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) have established antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, we tested their efficacy for this disease in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, and randomized clinical trial at four medical care facilities in Pakistan. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 adults showing moderate or severe disease were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either honey (1 g kg-1 day-1 ) and Nigella sativa seeds (80 mg kg-1 day-1 ) or a placebo for up to 13 days along with standard care. The outcomes included symptoms' alleviation, viral clearance, and 30-day mortality in the intention-to-treat population. Three hundred and thirteen patients, 210 with moderate and 103 with severe disease, underwent randomization from April 30 to July 29, 2020. Among the moderate cases, 107 were assigned to HNS, whereas 103 were assigned to the placebo group. Among the severe cases, 50 were given HNS, and 53 were given the placebo. HNS resulted in ~50% reduction in time taken to alleviate symptoms as compared to placebo (moderate cases: 4 vs. 7 days, Hazard Ratio [HR]: 6.11; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 4.23-8.84, p < 0.0001 and for severe cases: 6 vs. 13 days, HR: 4.04; 95% CI: 2.46-6.64; p < 0.0001). HNS also cleared the virus earlier than placebo in both moderate cases (6 vs. 10 days, HR: 5.53; 95% CI: 3.76-8.14, p < 0.0001) and severe cases (8.5 vs. 12 days, HR: 4.32; 95% CI: 2.62-7.13, p < 0.0001). HNS further led to a better clinical score on day 6 with normal activity resumption in 63.6% vs. 10.9% among moderate cases (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.03-0.13, p < 0.0001) and hospital discharge in 50% versus 2.8% in severe cases (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.09, p < 0.0001). In severe cases, the mortality rate was less than 1/4th in the HNS group than in placebo (4% vs. 18.87%, OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-0.92, p = 0.029). No HNS-related adverse effects were observed. HNS, compared with placebo, significantly improved symptoms, expedited viral load clearance, and reduced mortality in COVID-19 patients. This trial was registered on April 15, 2020 with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04347382.

2.
BMJ Innovations ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121388

ABSTRACT

BackgroundEye protection is a mandatory component of the personal protective equipment in healthcare settings, especially for suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 and during aerosolising procedures. Fogging of protective eyewear is a frequent problem experienced by providers. The hydrophilic property of a sulfonated polymer, BiaXam, may be able to decrease fogging through wicking moisture from the lens. In this study, we tested the anti-fogging properties of this polymer when applied to protective eyewear. MethodsAn investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, single-blinded cross-over study was conducted in an emergency department in a large, tertiary care hospital. Participants were blinded and randomised first to either a pair of anti-fog coated or uncoated eyewear, and then to the alternative pair after 2 hours. Study participants completed an identical survey at the end of each 2-hour period. Results50 emergency medicine healthcare providers were enrolled and 48 completed the study. Results demonstrated a significant difference in fogging between the coated and uncoated eyewear, as 81% of the participants reported fogging of the uncoated lenses and only 55% of the participants reported fogging in the coated pair (p=0.0029). Participants reported that the uncoated lenses fogged two times as frequently on a 10-point Likert scale (4.5 +/- 3.3 vs 2.1 +/- 2.5;p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis of participants who wore only a surgical mask demonstrated even more efficacious results with coated eyewear. ConclusionOverall, sulfonated polymer-coated eyewear improved provider visualisation, user experience and perceived mitigation of potential medical errors.

3.
International Journal of Distance Education Technologies ; 19(4):1-17, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2080587

ABSTRACT

Many educational institutions have adopted e-learning methods during the COVID-19 pandemic to maintain school teaching activities. However, systematic research on e-learning effectiveness in such a crisis is quite insufficient. This study aims to explore the impact of e-learning quality on students' satisfaction during the pandemic in regard to academic achievement and behavioral intention. Through a questionnaire and semester score database, the relevant data of 683 students were collected and then analyzed by PLS-SEM. The result shows that instructor teaching quality and e-learning system quality influence students' academic achievement and behavioral intention through increasing students' e-learning satisfaction. E-learning system quality moderated the impact of instructor teaching quality on students' e-learning satisfaction. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the comprehensive implementation of e-learning during a crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967051, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043445

ABSTRACT

Background: BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are widely-used, World Health Organization-emergency-listed vaccines. Understanding antibody level changes over time after vaccination is important for booster dose policies. We evaluated neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers and associated factors for the first 12 months after primary-series vaccination with BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac. Methods: Our study consisted of a set of cross-sectional sero-surveys in Zhejiang and Shanxi provinces, China. In 2021, we enrolled 1,527 consenting 18-59-year-olds who received two doses of BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac 1, 3, 6, 9, or 12 months earlier and obtained blood samples and demographic and medical data. We obtained 6-month convalescent sera from 62 individuals in Hebei province. Serum nAb titers were measured by standard micro-neutralization cytopathic effect assay in Vero cells with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain HB01. We used the first WHO International Standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (NIBSC code 20/136) to standardized geometric mean concentrations (IU/mL) derived from the nAb geometric mean titers (GMT over 1:4 was considered seropositive). We analyzed nAb titer trends using Chi-square and factors related to nAb titers with logistic regression and linear models. Results: Numbers of subjects in each of the five month-groupings ranged from 100 to 200 for each vaccine and met group-specific target sample sizes. Seropositivity rates from BBIBP-CorV were 98.0% at 1 month and 53.5% at 12 months, and GMTs were 25.0 and 4.0. Respective seropositivity rates from CoronaVac were 90.0% and 62.5%, and GMTs were 20.2 and 4.1. One-, three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-month GMCs were 217.2, 84.1, 85.7, 44.6, and 10.9 IU/mL in BBIBP-CorV recipients and 195.7, 94.6, 51.7, 27.6, and 13.4 IU/mL in CoronaVac recipients. Six-month convalescent seropositivity was 95.2%; GMC was 108.9 IU/mL. Seropositivity and GMCs were associated with age, sex, and time since vaccination. Conclusions: Neutralizing Ab levels against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 from BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac vaccination were similar and decreased with increasing time since vaccination; over half of 12-month post-vaccination subjects were seropositive. Seropositivity and GMCs from BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac six and nine months after vaccination were similar to or slightly lower than in six-month convalescent sera. These real-world data suggest necessity of six-month booster doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vero Cells
5.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(9): 100728, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984241

ABSTRACT

There is a need for safe and effective platform vaccines to protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other infectious diseases. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of a multi-dose Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19 and other infectious disease in a COVID-19-unvaccinated, at-risk-community-based cohort. The at-risk population is made of up of adults with type 1 diabetes. We enrolled 144 subjects and randomized 96 to BCG and 48 to placebo. There were no dropouts over the 15-month trial. A cumulative incidence of 12.5% of placebo-treated and 1% of BCG-treated participants meets criteria for confirmed COVID-19, yielding an efficacy of 92%. The BCG group also displayed fewer infectious disease symptoms and lesser severity and fewer infectious disease events per patient, including COVID-19. There were no BCG-related systemic adverse events. BCG's broad-based infection protection suggests that it may provide platform protection against new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Mycobacterium bovis , Adult , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5271-5278, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As the variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to emerge, periodic vaccine booster immunization may become a normal policy. This study investigated the changes and factors associated with vaccination intentions in various epidemic situations, which can provide suggestions for the construction and modification of routine vaccination program strategies. METHODS: Two cross-sectional online surveys were conducted in January and June of 2021. The willingness and confidence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination were measured following propensity score matching (PSM) treatment. The difference in the willingness for COVID-19 Vaccination in the two surveys was analyzed by single or multi-factor analyses. RESULTS: The willingness to accept the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was higher in the second survey than that in the first survey (90.5% vs. 66.6%, p < 0.001). Concerns about the vaccine's safety declined (71.0% vs. 47.6%, p < 0.001), but concerns about the efficacy increased (22.4% vs. 30.9%, p < 0.001). Confidence in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine had an important impact on the increased uptake willingness (odds ratio = 3.19, 95% confidence interval: 2.23-4.58, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There has been a significant increase in attitudes towards the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine which was associated with higher vaccine confidence. Vaccine effectiveness received more concerns from respondents rather than safety after nearly 6 months' utilization of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It indicates that aggressive communication and timely disclosure of vaccine data can build vaccine confidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1950-1958, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937611

ABSTRACT

Using a three-prefecture, two-variant COVID-19 outbreak in Henan province in January 2022, we evaluated the associations of primary and booster immunization with China-produced COVID-19 vaccines and COVID-19 pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 viral load among persons infected by Delta or Omicron variant. We obtained demographic, clinical, vaccination, and multiple Ct values of infections ≥3 years of age. Vaccination status was either primary series ≥180 days prior to infection; primary series <180 days prior to infection, or booster dose recipient. We used logistic regression to determine odds ratios (OR) of Delta and Omicron COVID-19 pneumonia by vaccination status. We analysed minimum Ct values by vaccination status, age, and variant. Of 826 eligible cases, 405 were Delta and 421 were Omicron cases; 48.9% of Delta and 19.0% of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. Compared with full primary vaccination ≥180 days before infection, the aOR of pneumonia was 0.48 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days and 0.18 among booster recipients among these Delta infections. Among Omicron infections, the corresponding aOR was 0.34 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days. There were too few (ten) Omicron cases among booster dose recipients to calculate a reliable OR. There were no differences in minimum Ct values by vaccination status among the 356 Delta cases or 70 Omicron cases. COVID-19 pneumonia was less common among Omicron cases than Delta cases. Full primary vaccination reduced pneumonia effectively for 6 months; boosting six months after primary vaccination resulted in further reduction. We recommend accelerating the pace of booster dose administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
8.
9.
Clin Chem ; 68(8): 1042-1052, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge, and effective tracking requires rapid return of results. Surveillance of variants is typically performed by whole genome sequencing (WGS), which can be financially prohibitive and requires specialized equipment and bioinformatic expertise. Genotyping approaches are rapid methods for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 variants but require continuous adaptation. Fragment analysis may represent an approach for improved SARS-CoV-2 variant detection. METHODS: A multiplex fragment analysis approach (CoVarScan) was validated using PCR targeting variants by size and fluorescent color. Eight SARS-CoV-2 mutational hot spots in variants of concern (VOCs) were targeted. Three primer pairs (recurrently deleted region [RDR] 1, RDR2, and RDR3-4) flank RDRs in the S-gene. Three allele-specific primers target recurrent spike receptor binding domain mutants. Lastly, 2 primer pairs target recurrent deletions or insertions in ORF1A and ORF8. Fragments were resolved and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (ABI 3730XL), and mutational signatures were compared to WGS results. RESULTS: We validated CoVarScan using 3544 clinical respiratory specimens. The assay exhibited 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity compared to WGS. The limit of detection for the core targets (RDR1, RDR2, and ORF1A) was 5 copies/reaction. Variants were identified in 95% of samples with cycle threshold (CT) <30 and 75% of samples with a CT 34 to 35. Assay design was frozen April 2021, but all subsequent VOCs have been detected including Delta (n = 2820), Mu, (n = 6), Lambda (n = 6), and Omicron (n = 309). Genotyping results are available in as little as 4 h. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex fragment analysis is adaptable and rapid and has similar accuracy to WGS to classify SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(14): 293-297, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786625

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Compared with the international mRNA and adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, there is less real-world research data about breakthrough cases in people vaccinated with China-made COVID-19 vaccines. Analyses of clinical outcomes of breakthrough cases will be an important supplement to the clinical trial efficacy and observational effectiveness data of China-made COVID-19 vaccines. What is added by this report?: COVID-19 vaccine age-eligible individuals (≥3 years old) who received full primary series and a booster dose of China-made COVID-19 vaccines had good protection from pneumonia caused by Delta variant infection. There was only one serious Delta case in children (unvaccinated), but among adults 18 years and older, there was good protection from serious illness with primary vaccination and booster vaccination. Among people ≥60 years, full vaccination and booster vaccination were associated with protection from pneumonia and risk of serious COVID-19 caused by Omicron variant infection. There were few serious Omicron cases. What are the implications for public health practice?: Everyone 3 years and older without contraindications should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19; schedule-eligible adults should receive booster doses. The pace of booster dose administration, especially among the elderly, should be accelerated.

11.
Vaccine ; 40(20): 2869-2874, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In partial response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries around the world are conducting large-scale vaccination campaigns. Real-world estimates of vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant are still limited. An outbreak in Ruili city of Chinaprovided an opportunity to evaluate VE against the Delta variant of two types of COVID-19 vaccines in use in China and globally - inactivated (CoronaVac and BBIBP-CorV) and adenovirus type 5 vectored (Convidecia) vaccines. METHODS: We estimated VE using a retrospective cohort study two months after the Ruili vaccination campaign (median: 63 days). Close contacts of infected people (Chinese nationality, 18 years and above) were included to assess VE against symptomatic Covid-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, and severe COVID-19. We calculated the relative risks (RR) of the outcomes for unvaccinated compared with fully vaccinated individuals. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate adjusted VEs, controlling for gender and age group (18-59 years and 60 years and over).We compared unvaccinated and fully vaccinated individuals on duration of RT-PCR positivity and Ct value. FINDINGS: There were 686 close contacts eligible for VE estimates. Adjusted VE ofad5-vectored vaccine was 61.5% (95% CI, 9.5-83.6) against symptomatic COVID-19, 67.9% (95%CI: 1.7-89.9) against pneumonia, and 100% (95%CI: 36.6-100) against severe/critical illness. For the two inactivated vaccines, combined VE was 74.6% (95% CI, 36.0-90.0) against symptomatic COVID-19, 76.7% (95% CI: 19.3-93.3) against pneumonia, and 100% (95% CI: 47.6-100) against severe/critical COVID-19. There were no statistically significant differences in VE between twoinactivated vaccines for symptomatic COVID-19 and for pneumonia, nor were there statistically significant differences between inactivated and ad5-vectored VE in any of the three outcomes. The median durations of RT-PCR positivity were 17 days for fifteen people vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine, 18 days for forty-four people vaccinated with the Ad5 vectored vaccine, and 26 days for eleven unvaccinated individuals. INTERPRETATION: These results provide reassuring evidence that the three vaccines are effective at preventing Delta-variant COVID-19 in short term following vaccination campaign, and are most effective at preventing more serious illness. The findings of reduced duration of RT-PCR positivity and length of hospital stay associated with full vaccination suggests potential saving of health-care system resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(4): 57-65, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631490

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: Effectiveness of China's 2 inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac) against pre-Delta severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants ranged from 47% to over 90%, depending on the clinical endpoint, and with greater effectiveness against more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). During an outbreak in Guangdong, inactivated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the Delta variant was 70% for symptomatic infection and 100% for severe COVID-19. However, separate or combined VE estimates for the two inactivated vaccines against Delta are not available. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: In an outbreak that started in a hospital, VEs of completed primary vaccination with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines against symptomatic COVID-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, and severe COVID-19 caused by the Delta variant were 51%, 61%, and 82%. Completed primary vaccination reduced the risk of progressing from mild to moderate or severe COVID-19 by 74%. VE estimates for BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac or combined vaccination were similar, and partial vaccination was ineffective. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: Completed primary vaccination with either of the 2 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines reduces risk of symptomatic COVID-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, and severe COVID-19 caused by the Delta variant. Completion of the completed primary vaccination with two doses is necessary for protection from Delta.

13.
J Surg Res ; 269: 76-82, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine has become a key modality for health care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, including for endocrine surgery. Little data exists on patients' and referring endocrinologists' perspectives of its use. The study aimed to assess and compare endocrine surgery patients' attitudes about telemedicine to that of referring endocrinologists. METHOD: Patients from a regional endocrine surgery practice and referring endocrinologists were sent surveys about their perspectives on telemedicine use. RESULTS: Fifty two patients responded: average age was 58.3 years; 78% were female; 33% were Black. Sixteen referring endocrinologists responded: average age was 52.4 years; 62.5% were female. Nearly all patients (92%) and providers (100%) would try telemedicine or use it again. Providers were more likely than patients to use telemedicine because of COVID-19 (100% versus 70.6%, P = 0.03). Patients were more concerned about the lack of personal connection with telemedicine than providers (60.8% versus 25.0%, P = 0.02). Endocrinologists were more interested in using telemedicine to review abnormal results (81.3% versus 35.3%, P <0.01), and more patients were specifically disinterested in reviewing abnormal results via telemedicine (54.9% versus 6.3%, P = 0.04). Patients were more interested in its use for postoperative visits (47.1% versus 0%, P <0.01). More endocrinologists were specifically disinclined to conduct new consultations with telemedicine (87.5% versus 58.8%, P <0.01). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is a mutually acceptable method for patients and their referring providers for endocrine surgery delivery, although in-person visits continue to have their place. Telemedicine use may continue to expand after the pandemic as an important point of access for endocrine surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrine Surgical Procedures , Endocrinology/trends , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390818

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has been widely rolled out globally in the general populations. However, specific data on vaccination confidence, willingness or coverage among health care workers (HCWs) has been less reported. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted to specify the basic data and patterns of vaccination confidence, willingness and coverage among HCWs nationwide. Results: In total, 2386 out of 2583 (92.4%) participants were enrolled for analysis, and the rates of confidence in vaccine, professional institutes and government were 75.1%, 85.2% and 85.4%, respectively. The overall vaccination coverage rate was 63.6% which was adjusted as 82.8% for participants under current medical conditions or having contraindications. Confidence in vaccine safety was shown to be the most related factor to willingness among doctors, nurses, medical technicians and hospital administrators, while confidence in vaccine effectiveness as well as trust in government played the key role in formulating public health employees' willingness. 130 (7.1% of 1833) participants reporting willingness still not been vaccinated regardless of contraindications. Multivariate analysis among willingness participants showed that males, aged over 30 years, public health employees and higher vaccination confidence had significantly higher vaccination rates with ORs (95% confidence intervals) as 1.64 (1.08-2.49), 3.14 (2.14-4.62), 2.43 (1.46-4.04) or 2.31 (1.24-4.33). Conclusions: HCWs' confidence, willingness and coverage rates to the vaccine were generally at high levels. Heterogeneity among HCWs should be considered for future vaccination promotion strategies. The population's confidence in vaccination is not only the determinant to their willingness, but also guarantees their actual vaccine uptake.

17.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335034

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has not only changed people's health behavior, but also induced a psychological reaction among the public. Research data is needed to develop scientific evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse mental health effects. The aims of this study are to evaluate the anxiety reaction of Chinese people and the related determinants during the earliest phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Evidence from this survey will contribute to a targeted reference on how to deliver psychological counseling service in the face of outbreaks. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based online survey was conducted from 28 January to 5 February 2020 using an open online questionnaire for people aged 18 years or above, residing in China and abroad. The socio-demographic information of the respondents was collected, and anxiety scores were calculated. A direct standardization method was used to standardize anxiety scores and a general linear model was used to identify associations between some factors (e.g., sex, age, education, etc.) and anxiety scores. (3) Results: A total of 10,946 eligible participants were recruited in this study, with a completion rate of 98.16% (10,946/11,151). The average anxiety score was 6.46 ± 4.12 (total score = 15); women (6.86 ± 4.11) scored higher than men (5.67 ± 4.04). The age variable was inversely and significantly associated with the anxiety score (ß = -2.12, 95% CI: -2.47--1.78). People possessing higher education (ß = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.88-1.41) or a higher awareness of cognitive risk (ß = 4.89, 95% CI: 4.33-5.46) reported higher levels of anxiety. There was a close association between poor subjective health and anxiety status (ß = 2.83, 95% CI: 2.58-3.09). With the increase of confidence, the anxiety of the population exhibited a gradual decline (ß = -2.45, 95% CI: -2.77--2.13). (4) Conclusion: Most people were vulnerable to anxiety during the earliest phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Younger women, individuals with high education, people with high cognitive risk and subjective poor health were vulnerable to anxiety during the epidemic. In addition, increasing confidence in resisting this pandemic is a protective determinant for individuals to develop anxiety. The findings suggest that policymakers adopt psychosocial interventions to reduce anxiety during the pandemic.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 658571, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 broke out in China and spread rapidly in January and February 2020. Following the prevention and control measures of the Chinese government, the outbreak was gradually brought under control after March. The changes in people's attention to the epidemic, individual prevention practice and psychological effect from the early outbreak stage to the under controlled stage need to be evaluated. METHODS: Two cross-sectional, population-based online surveys were conducted from January 28 to February 1, 2020 and from February1 to March 18, 2020. Socio-demographic information and individual protective practice were collected and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used for measuring anxiety. The range of STAI score was 5-25, and the higher the score, the more anxious it was. The respondents of the two surveys were matched on a one-to-one basis according to their province, gender, age, education, and marriage. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare STAI score changes in two stages and in different demographic characteristics. RESULTS: We included 9,764 individuals in the first survey and 1,669 in the second survey, covering 30 provincial administrative regions in Mainland China. COVID-19 has affected almost every aspect of people's normal life, especially lifestyle. The proportion of people who paid attention to it every day had dropped from 97.6 to 88.9%. We identified that vast majority people wore masks when they went out. The proportion has declined from 96.5 to 92.4% for hand hygiene and from 98.4 to 95.3% for not attending parties. People's anxiety (STAI score) across the country has decreased from a median of 19 in the early outbreak stage to a median of 12, including people with all demographic characteristics, but some have increased in 16 provinces. CONCLUSION: People's attention to information about the epidemic has declined slightly, but a high proportion of people maintained good practices such as wearing masks, hand hygiene, and not attending parties. People's anxiety had generally declined from the early outbreak stage to the under controlled stage, but it was still at a high level.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 701, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, and often leads to extrapulmonary organ injury. However, the risk factors for extrapulmonary organ injury are still unclear. We aim to explore the risk factors for extrapulmonary organ injury and the association between extrapulmonary organ injury and the prognosis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We implemented a single-center, retrospective, observational study, in which a total of 349 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 25, 2020, to February 25, 2020, were enrolled. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data from electronic medical records. Potential risk factors for extrapulmonary organ injury of COVID-19 patients were analyzed by a multivariable binary logistic model, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for survival analysis in the patients with extrapulmonary organ injury. RESULTS: The average age of the included patients was 61.73±14.64 years. In the final logistic model, variables including aged 60 or older [odds ratio (OR) 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.060-3.142], acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 2.748, 95% CI: 1.051-7.185), lymphocytes count lower than 1.1×109/L (OR 0.478, 95% CI: 0.240-0.949), level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) greater than 7 pg/mL (OR 1.664, 95% CI: 1.005-2.751) and D-Dimer greater than 0.5 µg/mL (OR 2.190, 95% CI: 1.176-4.084) were significantly associated with the extrapulmonary organ injury. Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test showed that the probabilities of survival for patients with extrapulmonary organ injury were significantly lower than those without extrapulmonary organ injury. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that only myocardial injury (P=0.000, HR: 5.068, 95% CI: 2.728-9.417) and circulatory system injury (P=0.000, HR: 4.076, 95% CI: 2.216-7.498) were the independent factors associated with COVID-19 patients' poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, lymphocytopenia, high level of D-Dimer and IL-6, and the severity of lung injury were the high-risk factors of extrapulmonary organ injury in COVID-19 patients. Myocardial and circulatory system injury were the most important risk factors related to poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients. It may help clinicians to identify extrapulmonary organ injury early and initiate appropriate treatment.

20.
Infection ; 49(4): 765-767, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220167

ABSTRACT

With COVID-19 spreading globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 swept many countries and regions worldwide. An effective response to COVID-19 requires newer and more creative tools. In this paper, we discussed the evolution of China's COVID-19 quarantine approach, compared the blanket quarantine in Wuhan and the distant centralized quarantine in rural areas of Shijiazhuang, and analyzed the important issues which authorities will have to pay attention to ensure success from the moment they begin to take close contacts to the single room isolation in a distant quarantine center. The large-scale distant centralized quarantine strategy in Shijiazhuang cut off the transmission of COVID-19 within 1 month. This strategy may inform other countries and regions of a feasible and effective approach to combat the global pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Humans
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