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1.
Environ Res ; 226: 115679, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256897

ABSTRACT

Although ambient temperature has been linked to asthma exacerbation, impacts associated with extreme temperature events remain unclear. This study aims to identify the events characteristics that elevate risk of asthma hospital visits, and to assess whether healthy behavior changes due to the COVID-19 prevention and control policy may modify the relationships. Data of asthma hospital visits from all medical facilities in Shenzhen, China during 2016-2020 were assessed in relation to extreme temperature events using a distributed lag model. Stratified analysis was conducted by gender, age and hospital department to identify susceptible populations. Through events defined by various duration days and temperature thresholds, we explored the modification by events intensity, length, occurrence time and healthy behaviors. The cumulative relative risk of asthma during heat waves compared to other days was 1.06 (95%CI: 1.00-1.13) and for cold spells was 1.17 (95%CI: 1.05-1.30), and that of males and school-aged children were generally higher than other sub-groups. There were significant effects of heat waves and cold spells on asthma hospital visits when the mean temperature was above 90th percentile (30 °C) and below 10th percentile (14 °C) respectively, and the relative risks were higher when events lasted longer, became stronger, occurred in daytime and in early summer or winter. During the healthy behaviors maintaining period, the risk of heat waves increased whilst the risk of cold spells reduced. Extreme temperatures may pose considerable impact on asthma and the health effect can be modified by the event characteristics and anti-epidemic healthy behaviors. Strategies of asthma control should consider the heightened threats of the intense and frequent extreme temperature events in the context of climate change.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , Hot Temperature , Temperature , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cold Temperature , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/etiology , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior
2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232452

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of the BA.5 subvariant had moved from prediction to reality. In this study, we compared SARS-CoV-2 aerosol emissions from patients with BA.2 or BA.5 subvariant infection. First, patients with BA.2 subvariant infection had higher upper respiratory viral loads than patients with BA.5 subvariant infection. However, the average breath emission rate (BER) of patients with BA.5 subvariant infection, which represented the concentration of exhaled SARS-CoV-2 aerosols, was nearly 40 times higher than that of patients with BA.2 subvariant. Second, aerosols exhaled by patients with BA.5 subvariant infection exhibited SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection positive rate than patients with BA.1 or BA.2 subvariant infection. Meanwhile, for BA.5 subvariant infection, patients that exhaled infectious SARS-CoV-2 aerosols accounted for 14.8% of all patients. Third, since the onset of COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection signals of throat swabs showed a gradual decline trend, although the decline process was accompanied by fluctuations. Overall, the monitoring of infectious SARS-CoV-2 aerosols may provide the data support for the transmissibility evaluation of the Omicron BA.5 subvariant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28539, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219762

ABSTRACT

The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.2.75 and BA.2.76 subvariants contained 35 and 29 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared with the reference SARS-CoV-2 genome, respectively. Here, we measured the evasion degree of the BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.75, and BA.2.76 subvariants from neutralizing immunity in people previously infected with the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, determined the effect of vaccination on immune evasion, and compared the titers of neutralizing antibodies in serums between acute infection and convalescence. Results showed that the neutralization effect of serums from patients with different vaccination statuses and BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection decreased with the Omicron evolution from BA.1 to BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.75, and BA.2.76. This study also indicated that the existing vaccines could no longer provide effective protection, especially for the emerging BA.2.75 and BA.2.76 subvariants. Therefore, vaccines against emerging epidemic strains should be designed specifically. In the future, we can not only focus on the current strains, but also predict and design new vaccines against potential mutant strains. At the same time, we can combine the virus strains' infection characteristics to develop protective measures for virus colonization areas, such as nasal protection spray. Besides, further studies on the Y248N mutation of BA.2.76 subvariant were also necessary to explore its contribution to the enhanced immune evasion ability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082313

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a profound psychological impact on healthcare workers. However, the role of positive affect in moderating the effect of perceived stress on the psychological states of healthcare workers remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the moderating effect of positive affect on the association between stress and the mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationships between perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale), positive affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), depression (the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale) during the COVID-19 pandemic in 644 Chinese healthcare workers who completed online self-reports. The results revealed a significant negative association between positive affect and psychological problems, including stress, depression, and anxiety. At the total group level, multiple regression analysis showed that positive affect alleviated the influence of perceived stress on depression, but no significant moderating effect was found for anxiety. In the subgroups divided by perceived stress, the moderating effect of positive affect on depression was only significant in healthcare workers with a high level of perceived stress. These results suggested that positive affect played a moderative role in alleviating the effect of stress on depression among healthcare workers, particularly those with a high level of stress, thus emphasizing the importance of positive affect as an intervention strategy for promoting the mental health of healthcare workers in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
5.
Journal of Safety Science and Resilience ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996378

ABSTRACT

To solve the problem of volunteer dispatch during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, a many-to-many two-sided matching volunteer dispatch method based on an improved predator-search algorithm is proposed. First, different evaluation index sets for volunteers and rescue tasks were developed, and weightings were determined using the analytic hierarchy process. Subsequently, the actual and expected values of the different indicators of the two parties were determined, and the triangular fuzzy number was used to calculate the satisfaction of the two parties. Based on this number, we used a linear weighting method to calculate the combined satisfaction and build a many-to-many two-sided matching model according to the demands of both parties. Subsequently, an improved predator-search algorithm was used to solve the model. Finally, taking the recruitment of volunteers for pneumonia epidemic prevention and control in Chun'an County as an example, the method proposed in our study was verified. A comparison and analysis of the results further demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of this method.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 911859, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952334

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics based on the understanding of antiviral immunity are urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the understanding of these immune responses, especially cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, is limited. Here, we conducted a cohort study of COVID-19 patients who were followed and had blood collected to characterize the longitudinal dynamics of their cellular immune responses. Compared with healthy controls, the percentage of activation of SARS-CoV-2 S/N-specific T cells in recovered patients was significantly higher. And the activation percentage of S/N-specific CD8+ T cells in recovered patients was significantly higher than that of CD4+ T cells. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses were strongly biased toward the expression of Th1 cytokines, included the cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL2. Moreover, the secreted IFNγ and IL2 level in severe patients was higher than that in mild patients. Additionally, the number of IFNγ-secreting S-specific T cells in recovered patients were higher than that of N-specific T cells. Overall, the SARS-CoV-2 S/N-specific T-cell responses in recovered patients were strong, and virus-specific immunity was present until 14-16 weeks after symptom onset. Our work provides a basis for understanding the immune responses and pathogenesis of COVID-19. It also has implications for vaccine development and optimization and speeding up the licensing of the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-2 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Heart Lung ; 56: 24-28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoxemic respiratory failure is a serious complication that can occur at any stage after cardiac surgery. Prone positioning (PP) is safe and effective for patients receiving invasive ventilation after hypoxemic respiratory failure; however, few related studies have focused on its use with extubated cardiac surgery patients. Researchers recently reported beneficial effects of PP for hypoxemic patients with COVID-19 and those with moderate ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS). PP may also improve oxygenation in extubated cardiac surgery patients. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of PP in extubated cardiac surgery patients to determine whether PP can improve oxygenation and respiratory status or reduce secondary intubation. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional database between August 2018 and August 2020 and identified 22 cardiac surgery patients who had undergone PP for hypoxemic respiratory failure after extubation. From the medical and nursing records, we extracted the following data recorded before PP, during PP, and after PP for each patient, arterial blood gas analyses, hemodynamic records, laboratory reports, and respiratory function training records. RESULTS: Twenty-two extubated patients underwent 74 PP. Each patient underwent a median of 3.5 (2-5) procedures, and the median duration of each PP was 10 h. PP was implemented on the 4.5th postoperative day (median). All patients were discharged from the hospital, and none died. No complications were observed. PP improved the P/F ratio (182.65 ± 60.17, 301.53 ± 61.31, and 246.76 ± 65.68, before PP, during PP, and after PP, respectively, p < 0.001). Additionally, the respiratory rate, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and PaCO2 also improved, and hemodynamics showed no significant change. CONCLUSION: PP may be effective and safe for treating patients who are extubated following cardiac surgery with hypoxemic respiratory failure. For these patients, PP is associated with oxygenation and respiratory condition improvements and low secondary intubation rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Prone Position , Retrospective Studies , Airway Extubation , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
11.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 847-858, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729047

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of this century, three types of coronavirus have widely transmitted and caused severe diseases and deaths, which strongly indicates that severe infectious diseases caused by coronavirus infection are not accidental events. Coronavirus-infected diseases are mainly manifested by respiratory symptoms, with multiple organ dysfunctions. Precisely investigating the pathological process, characteristics and pathogenesis of coronavirus-infected diseases will be beneficial for us to understand clinical manifestations and provide targeted suggestions on prophylaxis and treatment. This paper briefly reviews the pathological findings of three known coronavirus-infected diseases, and attempts to construct the pathological spectrum of coronavirus-infected diseases, aiming to provide reference and thinking for autopsy, histopathological examination and animal infection model study of coronavirus-infected diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Autopsy , Forensic Pathology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Adv Ther ; 39(2): 910-922, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study, for the first time to our knowledge, evaluated the efficacy of ropeginterferon alfa-2b, a long-acting pegylated interferon (IFN)-alfa, in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated ropeginterferon alfa-2b administered subcutaneously at a single dose of 250 µg for the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19. Primary outcome was to compare the overall negative conversion time from the confirmed, last positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR to the first RT-PCR negative conversion between patients receiving ropeginterferon alfa-2b plus standard of care (SOC) and those receiving SOC alone. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients with mild COVID-19 and 37 patients with moderate disease were included. Of them, 19 patients received SOC plus ropeginterferon alfa-2b and 53 patients received SOC alone. All patients with moderate disease in the ropeginterferon alfa-2b group showed RT-PCR negative conversion within 8 days, while a significant portion of patients in the SOC alone group failed to do so. For patients with moderate disease and age ≤ 65 years old, the ropeginterferon alfa-2b group had statistically significant shorter median RT-PCR conversion time than the SOC alone group (7 vs. 11.5 days, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Ropeginterferon alfa-2b showed the potential for the treatment of moderate COVID-19 patients. A randomized, controlled Phase III study is planned to further assess the effectiveness of ropeginterferon alfa-2b in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Off-Label Use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Recombinant Proteins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Treatment Outcome
14.
Applied Sciences ; 11(22):10674, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1512089

ABSTRACT

Hypoxemia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been recognized as a threat to life. Nonetheless, information regarding the association between pre-dialytic pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2) level, OSA and mortality risks remains mysterious in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Bioclinical characteristics and laboratory features were recorded at baseline. Pre-dialytic SpO2 was detected using a novel microchip LED oximetry, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score greater than 10 indicated OSA. Non-adjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality were analyzed for pre-dialytic SpO2, OSA and potential risk factors. During 2152.8 patient-months of follow-up, SpO2 was associated with incremental risks of all-cause and CV death (HR: 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82–0.98) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80–0.98), respectively). The association between OSA and CV mortality was significant (HR: 3.19 (95% CI: 1.19–9.38). In the multivariate regression analysis, pre-dialytic SpO2 still had an increase in all-cause and CV death risk (HR: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79–0.98), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71–0.96), respectively). Considering the high prevalence of silent hypoxia in the post COVID-19 era, a lower pre-dialytic SpO2 level and severe OSA warn clinicians to assess potential CV risks. In light of clinical accessibility, the microchip LED oximetry could be developed as a wearable device within smartphone technologies and used as a routine screen tool for patient safety in the medical system.

15.
J Integr Med ; 20(1): 34-44, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a serious impact on health all over the world. Cancer patient, whose immunity is often compromised, faces a huge challenge. Currently, some COVID-19 vaccines are being developed and applied on general population; however, whether cancer patients should take COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude, acceptance, and predictors of intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among cancer patients in Eastern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Eastern China from June 17th to September 3rd, 2021. Patients were selected using a convenience sampling method. A self-report questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, attitude towards the vaccine and acceptance of the vaccine; following a review of similar studies previously published in the scientific literature, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: A total of 2158 cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The rate of vaccine hesitancy was 24.05% (519/2158); further, among the participants of vaccine acceptance, 767 had taken COVID-19 vaccine (35.54%), and 872 were willing to get vaccinated (40.01%). A total of 24 variables including demographic characteristics, clinical status of cancer, impact of COVID-19 pandemic on study participants, patients' knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, and attitude towards the vaccine, had significant differences between the "vaccine hesitancy" population and "vaccine acceptance" population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that parameters including alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 1.849; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.375-2.488; P-reference [P-Ref] < 0.001 vs non-drinkers), income impacted by COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.930, 2.037 and 2.688 for mild, moderate, and severe impact, respectively; all P-Ref < 0.01 vs no impact), knowledge of how the vaccine was developed (OR = 1.616; 95% CI: 1.126-2.318; P-Ref = 0.009 vs unknown), believing in the safety of the vaccine (OR = 1.502; 95% CI: 1.024-2.203; P-Ref = 0.038 vs denying the safety of vaccine), willingness to pay for the vaccine (OR = 3.042; 95% CI: 2.376-3.894; P-Ref < 0.001 vs unwilling), and willingness to recommend families and friends to get vaccinated (OR = 2.744; 95% CI: 1.759-4.280; P-Ref < 0.001 vs do not recommend) were contributors to vaccine acceptance. While such as being retired (OR = 0.586; 95% CI: 0.438-0.784; P-Ref < 0.001 vs unemployed), undergoing multiple therapies of cancer (OR = 0.408; 95% CI: 0.221-0.753; P-Ref = 0.004 vs no ongoing treatment), and worrying that the vaccine might deteriorate the prognosis of cancer (OR = 0.393; 95% CI: 0.307-0.504; P-Ref < 0.001 vs might not) were contributors to vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: This study provided preliminary estimates of the rates of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy among cancer patients in Eastern China. The intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was impacted by factors such as patient occupation, alcohol consumption, and some parts of knowledge about and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine. It is recommended to develop individualized vaccination plans that meet the healthcare needs of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Hesitancy
16.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104482, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292657

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a common respiratory disease that can cause human illness and death. Timely and accurate prediction of disease risk is of great importance for public health management and prevention. The influenza data belong to typical spatiotemporal data in that influenza transmission is influenced by regional and temporal interactions. Many existing methods only use the historical time series information for prediction, which ignores the effect of spatial correlations of neighboring regions and temporal correlations of different time periods. Mining spatiotemporal information for risk prediction is a significant and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a new end-to-end spatiotemporal deep neural network structure for influenza risk prediction. The proposed model mainly consists of two parts. The first stage is the spatiotemporal feature extraction stage where two-stream convolutional and recurrent neural networks are constructed to extract the different regions and time granularity information. Then, a dynamically parametric-based fusion method is adopted to integrate the two-stream features and making predictions. In our work, we demonstrate that our method, tested on two influenza-like illness (ILI) datasets (US-HHS and SZ-HIC), achieved the best performance across all evaluation metrics. The results imply that our method has outstanding performance for spatiotemporal feature extraction and enables accurate predictions compared to other well-known influenza forecasting models.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Forecasting , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Neural Networks, Computer
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234743

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still an ongoing global health crisis. Immediately after the inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles, alveolar type II epithelial cells harbor and initiate local innate immunity. These particles can infect circulating macrophages, which then present the coronavirus antigens to T cells. Subsequently, the activation and differentiation of various types of T cells, as well as uncontrollable cytokine release (also known as cytokine storms), result in tissue destruction and amplification of the immune response. Vitamin D enhances the innate immunity required for combating COVID-19 by activating toll-like receptor 2. It also enhances antimicrobial peptide synthesis, such as through the promotion of the expression and secretion of cathelicidin and ß-defensin; promotes autophagy through autophagosome formation; and increases the synthesis of lysosomal degradation enzymes within macrophages. Regarding adaptive immunity, vitamin D enhances CD4+ T cells, suppresses T helper 17 cells, and promotes the production of virus-specific antibodies by activating T cell-dependent B cells. Moreover, vitamin D attenuates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by CD4+ T cells through nuclear factor κB signaling, thereby inhibiting the development of a cytokine storm. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells after its spike proteins are bound to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Vitamin D increases the bioavailability and expression of ACE2, which may be responsible for trapping and inactivating the virus. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) is responsible for tissue destruction, inflammation, and organ failure related to SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D inhibits renin expression and serves as a negative RAS regulator. In conclusion, vitamin D defends the body against SARS-CoV-2 through a novel complex mechanism that operates through interactions between the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the RAS system. Multiple observation studies have shown that serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence gathered thus far, generally meets Hill's causality criteria in a biological system, although experimental verification is not sufficient. We speculated that adequate vitamin D supplementation may be essential for mitigating the progression and severity of COVID-19. Future studies are warranted to determine the dosage and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation among different populations of individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology
19.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967778

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. The hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially compromises their innate immune system. SARS-CoV-2 uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors to enter the affected cell. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia-induced glycosylation of ACE2 and the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 could facilitate the binding of S protein to ACE2, enabling viral entry. Downregulation of ACE2 activity secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with consequent accumulation of angiotensin II and metabolites, eventually leads to poor outcomes. The altered binding of ACE2 with SARS-CoV-2 and the compromised innate immunity of patients with DM increase their susceptibility to COVID-19; COVID-19 induces pancreatic ß-cell injury and poor glycemic control, which further compromises the immune response and aggravates hyperglycemia and COVID-19 progression, forming a vicious cycle. Sequential cleavage of viral S protein by furin and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) triggers viral entry to release the viral genome into the target cell. Hence, TMPRSS2 and furin are possible drug targets. As type 1 DM exhibits a Th1-driven autoimmune process, the relatively lower mortality of COVID-19 in type 1 DM compared to type 2 DM might be attributed to an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 immunity. The anti-inflammatory effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may benefit patients with DM and COVID-19. The potential protective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), including reduction in lactate level, prevention of lowering of cytosolic pH and reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels may justify the provision of SGLT2i to patients with DM and mild or asymptomatic COVID-19. For patients with DM and COVID-19 who require hospitalization, insulin-based treatment is recommended with cessation of metformin and SGLT2i. Further evidence from randomized or case-control clinical trials is necessary to elucidate the effectiveness and pitfalls of different types of medication for DM.

20.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 314-324, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961815

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the largest health crisis ever faced worldwide. It has resulted in great health and economic costs because no effective treatment is currently available. Since infected persons vary in presentation from healthy asymptomatic mild symptoms to those who need intensive care support and eventually succumb to the disease, this illness is considered to depend primarily on individual immunity. Demographic distribution and disease severity in several regions of the world vary; therefore, it is believed that natural inherent immunity provided through dietary sources and traditional medicines could play an important role in infection prevention and disease progression. People can boost their immunity to prevent them from infection after COVID-19 exposure and can reduce their inflammatory reactions to protect their organ deterioration in case suffering from the disease. Some drugs with in-situ immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity are also identified as adjunctive therapy in the COVID-19 era. This review discusses the importance of COVID-19 interactions with immune cells and inflammatory cells; and further emphasizes the possible pathways related with traditional herbs, medications and nutritional products. We believe that such pathophysiological pathway approach treatment is rational and important for future development of new therapeutic agents for prevention or cure of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Medicine, Traditional , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
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