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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 103(18): 1429-1434, 2023 May 16.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324586

ABSTRACT

Objective: To predict the protection probability of different clinical outcomes after reinfection with Omicron variant in symptomatic and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients who infected with prototype strain. Methods: The data used in this study were derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis which systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Europe PMC databases, included published and uploaded studies of dynamic changes of neutralizing antibodies in symptomatic COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 2 October 2022 and extracted the literature information, study design, serological experiment information and antibody results. According to the scatter distribution characteristics of antibody titer data, a generalized additive model based on Gaussian distribution was used to fit the titer value of neutralizing antibody based on logarithmic conversion and the dynamic change pattern of neutralizing antibody in symptomatic and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients infected with prototype strain over time was obtained. In this study, the fitted antibody titers of patients on the 28th, 51st, and 261st day after symptom onset was selected to predict the protection probability. Results: Neutralizing antibodies produced in symptomatic and unvaccinated patients infected with prototype strain could provide protection against Omicron reinfection, and the probability of protection gradually decreased with time. Neutralizing antibody level on day 28 after symptom onset provided protection probability of 30.3% (95%CI: 20.0%-45.5%) against reinfection, 51.5% (95%CI: 33.4%-75.9%) against symptomatic reinfection, and 91.2% (95%CI: 77.1%-97.7%) against severe reinfection caused by Omicron BA.5. The protection probability against Omicron BA.1, BA.4 and BA.5 reinfections decreased significantly 261 days after symptom onset, showing 9.6%-12.9%, 18.4%-23.9% and 63.1%-70.3% against three clinical outcomes, respectively. At the same time point and against the same clinical outcome, the protection probability of BA.1 was the highest, followed by BA.4 and BA.5. Conclusions: Neutralizing antibodies induced in symptomatic and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients previously infected with the prototype strain have limited protection probability against Omicron BA.5 reinfections and symptomatic reinfections. The protection probability against Omicron BA.5 reinfections is 30.3% 28 days after symptom onset and decreases to about 10% after 261 days. However, the protection probability against severe reinfections is considerable, with over 90% 28 days after symptom onset and still exceeding 60% after 261 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Probability , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 3(2):60-66, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2320293

ABSTRACT

Background The continued spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains an international public health emergency, resulting in a significant global disease burden. The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and the long-term prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge remain unclear. We aimed to assess the quality of life (QoL) and sequelae in patients with COVID-19 after discharge from the hospital by conducting multiple follow-up visits to understand the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on patients' health and its possible influencing factors. Methods COVID-19 patients discharged from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between February 15 and April 5, 2020, were followed up at 6, 9, and 12 months after discharge. They completed questionnaires on postdischarge QoL and sequelae under the guidance of medical staff with professional training. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 patients were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A generalized estimating equation model was used to analyze the QoL-related factors. The χ2 test (or Fisher exact test) and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the sequelae and influencing factors. Results A total of 175 patients participated in at least 1 follow-up visit, and 120 completed all 3 follow-up visits. Patients diagnosed with severe and critically ill COVID-19 had worse mental conditions (χ2 = 7.653, P = 0.022) than those with the nonsevere type (not severe or critical) and were more likely to feel fatigued (χ2 = 4.836, P = 0.028). Female patients had a higher risk of sleep disturbance (χ2 = 10.026, P = 0.002) and dyspnea (χ2 = 5.672, P = 0.017) and had more difficulty returning to their original work and life (χ2 = 8.922, P = 0.003) than male patients. Patients with diabetes had a worse appetite (χ2 = 4.669, P = 0.031) and were more prone to sleep disturbance (χ2 = 4.417, P = 0.036) after discharge. The proportion of patients with at least 1 sequela increased from 29.76% (50/168) at 6 months to 51.11% (69/135) at 9 months (χ2 = 14.305, P < 0.001). Compared with the nonsevere type, patients diagnosed with severe and critically ill COVID-19 had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.325 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.215-15.401) for memory decline. Female patients had an OR of 4.632 (95% CI, 1.716-12.501) for joint or muscle pain. Patients with hypertension had an OR of 3.014 (95% CI, 1.193-7.615) for joint or muscle pain. Conclusion One year after discharge, there were still some patients with varying degrees of decline in QoL and sequelae, which occurred in all follow-up visits. Moreover, QoL and sequelae after discharge were related to sex, clinical classification of COVID-19, and underlying diseases. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 3(2):97-100, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2318692

ABSTRACT

Luteolin is a natural flavonoid that has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, apoptosis inhibition, cell autophagy regulation, and anti-tumor activity. It is one of the main ingredients of an expert-recommended herbal formula for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This suggests that luteolin has strong pharmacological effects on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The aims of this study were to identify the molecular targets of luteolin and to infer the possible mechanisms by which it exerts its pharmacological effects. The GSE159787 data set was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus online database, and differentially expressed genes were analyzed. There were 22 upregulated differentially expressed genes enriched in the COVID-19 signaling pathway, suggesting that the upregulation of these genes may be closely related to the occurrence of COVID-19. Molecular docking results showed that luteolin had strong binding efficiency to 20 of these 22 key genes. Six of these genes (CFB, EIF2AK2, OAS1, MAPK11, OAS3, and STAT1) showed strong binding activity. Luteolin can regulate the COVID-19 signaling pathway by combining with these targets, which may have a therapeutic effect on COVID-19. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

4.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 27(2):164-168, 2023.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306549

ABSTRACT

Objective To estimate the protection probability against SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5 infection, symptomatic infection and severe disease outcomes in asymptomatic individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain previously. Methods Our previous study had shown that the dynamic change of neutralizing antibodies in asymptomatic individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain. Based on our previous study, a peer–reviewed predictive model on the basis of logistic model was used to estimate the protection probability of asymptomatic individuals against Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5. We estimate the protection probability against infection, symptomatic infection and severe disease outcomes on 28, 51 and 261 days after confirmation. Results The protection probability against reinfection of Omicron variant strains BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 on 28 days after confirmation were 30% (95% CI: 16%–52%) , 23% (95% CI: 15%–36%) and 8% (95% CI: 4%–16%) respectively, while decreased to 9% (95% CI: 3%–21%) , 6% (95% CI: 3%–12%) and 2% (95% CI: 1%–4%) on 261 days after confirmation. The protection probability against symptomatic infection of Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 were 51% (95% CI: 28%–80%) , 42% (95% CI: 26%–67%) and 16% (95% CI: 7% – 40%) respectively on 28 days after confirmation, while decreased to 16% (95% CI: 7%–35%) , 12% (95% CI: 7% – 22%) and 3% (95% CI: 1% – 8%) on 261 days after confirmation. The protection probability against severe disease of Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 were 91% (95% CI: 72%–98%) , 88% (95% CI: 70%–97%) and 66% (95% CI: 35%–90%) respectively on 28 days after confirmation, while decreased to 60% (95% CI: 35%–86%) , 51% (95% CI: 32%–75%) and 22% (95% CI: 10%–50%) on 261 days after confirmation. Conclusions Neutralizing antibodies induced in asymptomatic individuals infected with prototype strain could provide higher protection against Omicron strain BA.5 than Omicron strains BA.1 and BA.2. Among the three clinical outcomes, the protective probability against severe disease outcome was better, followed by symptomatic infection, and the protective probability against infection was poor. © 2023, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

5.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2305597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

6.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 27(2):164-168, 2023.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2288861

ABSTRACT

Objective To estimate the protection probability against SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5 infection, symptomatic infection and severe disease outcomes in asymptomatic individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain previously. Methods Our previous study had shown that the dynamic change of neutralizing antibodies in asymptomatic individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain. Based on our previous study, a peer-reviewed predictive model on the basis of logistic model was used to estimate the protection probability of asymptomatic individuals against Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5. We estimate the protection probability against infection, symptomatic infection and severe disease outcomes on 28, 51 and 261 days after confirmation. Results The protection probability against reinfection of Omicron variant strains BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 on 28 days after confirmation were 30% (95% CI: 16%-52%) , 23% (95% CI: 15%-36%) and 8% (95% CI: 4%-16%) respectively, while decreased to 9% (95% CI: 3%-21%) , 6% (95% CI: 3%-12%) and 2% (95% CI: 1%-4%) on 261 days after confirmation. The protection probability against symptomatic infection of Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 were 51% (95% CI: 28%-80%) , 42% (95% CI: 26%-67%) and 16% (95% CI: 7% - 40%) respectively on 28 days after confirmation, while decreased to 16% (95% CI: 7%-35%) , 12% (95% CI: 7% - 22%) and 3% (95% CI: 1% - 8%) on 261 days after confirmation. The protection probability against severe disease of Omicron strains BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 were 91% (95% CI: 72%-98%) , 88% (95% CI: 70%-97%) and 66% (95% CI: 35%-90%) respectively on 28 days after confirmation, while decreased to 60% (95% CI: 35%-86%) , 51% (95% CI: 32%-75%) and 22% (95% CI: 10%-50%) on 261 days after confirmation. Conclusions Neutralizing antibodies induced in asymptomatic individuals infected with prototype strain could provide higher protection against Omicron strain BA.5 than Omicron strains BA.1 and BA.2. Among the three clinical outcomes, the protective probability against severe disease outcome was better, followed by symptomatic infection, and the protective probability against infection was poor.Copyright © 2023, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

7.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2286480

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

8.
47th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2022 ; 2022-May:9012-9016, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891401

ABSTRACT

Traditional face-to-face subjective listening test has become a challenge due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed a remote assessment system with Tencent Meeting, a video conferencing application, to address this issue. This paper presents our work on evaluating the reliability of the remote assessment system. Two speech reception threshold (SRT) experiments were conducted to study the effects of noise suppression and maxima selection number on cochlear implant (CI) hearing. Both experiments were conducted locally and remotely, the correlations between the respective results were analyzed. Results showed that remote tests replicated the differences among testing conditions observed in local tests, but the absolute SRT values for individual conditions varied significantly between the two modes. The variations could be attributed to multiple reasons, such as online data transmission issues, audio playback devices, environmental conditions, and the training of participants. In conclusion, the relative variation of SRTs for CIs can be measured reliably, but the absolute SRT values should be carefully compared and explained according to objective and subjective experimental conditions. © 2022 IEEE

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e276-e288, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are recommended for COVID-19 prevention. However, the effectiveness of NPIs in preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains poorly quantified. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative design case-control study enrolling cases (testing positive for SARS-CoV-2) and controls (testing negative) with molecular SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test results reported to California Department of Public Health between 24 February-12 November, 2021. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of case status among participants who reported contact with an individual known or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 ("high-risk exposure") ≤14 days before testing. RESULTS: 751 of 1448 cases (52%) and 255 of 1443 controls (18%) reported high-risk exposures ≤14 days before testing. Adjusted odds of case status were 3.02-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.75-5.22) higher when high-risk exposures occurred with household members (vs. other contacts), 2.10-fold (1.05-4.21) higher when exposures occurred indoors (vs. outdoors only), and 2.15-fold (1.27-3.67) higher when exposures lasted ≥3 hours (vs. shorter durations) among unvaccinated and partially-vaccinated individuals; excess risk associated with such exposures was mitigated among fully-vaccinated individuals. Cases were less likely than controls to report mask usage during high-risk exposures (aOR = 0.50 [0.29-0.85]). The adjusted odds of case status was lower for fully-vaccinated (aOR = 0.25 [0.15-0.43]) participants compared to unvaccinated participants. Benefits of mask usage were greatest among unvaccinated and partially-vaccinated participants, and in interactions involving non-household contacts or interactions occurring without physical contact. CONCLUSIONS: NPIs reduced the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection following high-risk exposure. Vaccine effectiveness was substantial for partially and fully vaccinated persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 31(1):69-76, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1661512

ABSTRACT

As of May 2021, 6 new vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been conditionally approved and urgently used in China, including products of 4 new inactivated vaccines, 1 new adenovirus vaccine and 1 new recombinant vaccine. All the six vaccine products have been under different stages of clinical trials in global scale, and the results of the clinical trials have demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and the efficacy against COVID-19. Focusing on the above products, this paper deeply summarizes the characteristics of different new vaccine products and the clinical trial results as the key evidence supporting the approval of the products. In addition, facing the current severe situation of COVID-19, the status and challenges regarding the research and development of new vaccines and therapeutics are analyzed. © 2022, Chinese Journal of New Drugs Co. Ltd. All right reserved.

12.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1143641

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon α-2b (rIFNα-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNα-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Methods: A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNα-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2±4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0±5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8±3.9), (13.5±5.1) and (11.2±4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusions: The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNα-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

13.
J Intern Med ; 289(4): 559-573, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 relies on transfer of anti-viral antibody from donors to recipients via plasma transfusion. The relationship between clinical characteristics and antibody response to COVID-19 is not well defined. We investigated predictors of convalescent antibody production and quantified recipient antibody response in a convalescent plasma therapy clinical trial. METHODS: Multivariable analysis of clinical and serological parameters in 103 confirmed COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors 28 days or more following symptom resolution was performed. Mixed-effects regression models with piecewise linear trends were used to characterize serial antibody responses in 10 convalescent plasma recipients with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Donor antibody titres ranged from 0 to 1 : 3892 (anti-receptor binding domain (RBD)) and 0 to 1 : 3289 (anti-spike). Higher anti-RBD and anti-spike titres were associated with increased age, hospitalization for COVID-19, fever and absence of myalgia (all P < 0.05). Fatigue was significantly associated with anti-RBD (P = 0.03). In pairwise comparison amongst ABO blood types, AB donors had higher anti-RBD and anti-spike than O donors (P < 0.05). No toxicity was associated with plasma transfusion. Non-ECMO recipient anti-RBD antibody titre increased on average 31% per day during the first three days post-transfusion (P = 0.01) and anti-spike antibody titre by 40.3% (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Advanced age, fever, absence of myalgia, fatigue, blood type and hospitalization were associated with higher convalescent antibody titre to COVID-19. Despite variability in donor titre, 80% of convalescent plasma recipients showed significant increase in antibody levels post-transfusion. A more complete understanding of the dose-response effect of plasma transfusion amongst COVID-19-infected patients is needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States , COVID-19 Serotherapy
14.
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters ; 12(10):1207-1214, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1072852

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is extremely infectious and the human population globally is generally susceptible to it. Its spread poses a serious threat to public health. Analyzing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can more fully demonstrate its characteristics and evolution, and provide effective scientific strategies for preventing and controlling the epidemic. In this study, nucleic acid detection was performed on 228 suspected COVID-19 cases in Ningbo City from January 2020 to August 2020. The RNA of the virus was extracted by the nano magnetic bead method and was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Patients whose test results were positive were considered as research subjects. Clinical data of the patients were collected through a medical record system and the epidemiology and characteristics of COVID-19 were analyzed. Among the 228 suspected cases, 108 patients had a positive nucleic acid test result. The 108 confirmed patients were selected as research subjects, including 9 patients with mild symptoms, 85 patients with common symptoms, and 14 patients with severe symptoms. The age range of the patients was 17-82 years. Overall, 35 patients (32.40%) had complications. The median incubation period for patients was 7.5 days. Seventy patients (64.81%) had a contact history with a diseased individual. In terms of the clinical symptoms of the patients, the following symptoms were identified: fever in 92, cough in 62, fatigue in 34, sputum expectoration in 32, dry cough in 22, sore throat in 19, diarrhea in 8, headache in 8, shortness of breath in 7, nasal congestion in 5, and muscle ache in 5 cases. The results of chest CT imaging showed that 96 patients (88.89%) exhibited bilateral or unilateral pneumonia lesions of varying degrees, manifested as bilateral or unilateral lung patches, cloudy floccules, patches with an increased density shadow. The CT images of 12 patients (11.11%) showed no obvious abnormalities, while 24 cases (22.22%) had absolute white blood cell count of <4x10(9)/L, while 1 case had one of >10x10(9)/L. The absolute neutrophil count in 10 patients (9.26%) increased (>6.3x10(9/)L). The absolute lymphocyte count in 49 patients (45.37%) decreased (<1.1x10(9)/L). The hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet levels of the vast majority of patients were normal, while a few were low or high. Fifty-eight patients (53.70%) had elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L);14 (12.96%) had elevated D-dimer (>256 mu g/L);14 (12.96%) had high levels of alanine aminotransferase (>40 U/L);9 (8.33%) had increased aspartate aminotransferase (>40 U/L);while 32 (29.6%) had increased lactate dehydrogenase (>250 U/L). COVID-19 in Ningbo is mainly transmitted in clusters, and elderly patients are more likely to develop severe symptoms. There is no significant difference in clinical characteristics between patients with severe conditions and those with mild and common ones.

15.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 71(12):3232-3236, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041905

ABSTRACT

Translation of in vitro antiviral activity to the in vivo setting is crucial to identify potentially effective dosing regimens of hydroxychloroquine. In vitro 50%/90% maximal effective concentration values for hydroxychloroquine should be compared to the in vivo free extracellular tissue concentration, which is similar to the free plasma hydroxychloroquine concentration.

16.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(0): E004, 2020 Feb 05.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-252

ABSTRACT

A recent epidemic of pneumonia cases in Wuhan China was caused by a novel coronavirus with strong infectivity, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The article provides the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) methods in the principle of 4S (simple, safe, satisfy, save) for patients with pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus, shows how to establish a ventilative and convectional PR environment to prevent the spread of virus through droplets, how to guide the patients to carry out PR, how to carry out respiratory muscle training, effective cough, expectoration, sneeze, general exercise, digestive function rehabilitation and psychological rehabilitation, and how to clean and disinfect the PR environment.

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