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1.
ACM Web Conference 2023 - Proceedings of the World Wide Web Conference, WWW 2023 ; : 3592-3602, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244490

ABSTRACT

We study the behavior of an economic platform (e.g., Amazon, Uber Eats, Instacart) under shocks, such as COVID-19 lockdowns, and the effect of different regulation considerations. To this end, we develop a multi-agent simulation environment of a platform economy in a multi-period setting where shocks may occur and disrupt the economy. Buyers and sellers are heterogeneous and modeled as economically-motivated agents, choosing whether or not to pay fees to access the platform. We use deep reinforcement learning to model the fee-setting and matching behavior of the platform, and consider two major types of regulation frameworks: (1) taxation policies and (2) platform fee restrictions. We offer a number of simulated experiments that cover different market settings and shed light on regulatory tradeoffs. Our results show that while many interventions are ineffective with a sophisticated platform actor, we identify a particular kind of regulation - fixing fees to the optimal, no-shock fees while still allowing a platform to choose how to match buyers and sellers - as holding promise for promoting the efficiency and resilience of the economic system. © 2023 ACM.

2.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 15(7), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306552

ABSTRACT

Innovation is the main driving force of the sustainable development of enterprises. Economic policy uncertainty has increased dramatically in recent years due to events such as COVID-19, which will alter the business environment of enterprises and ultimately affect their innovation behavior. How economic policy uncertainty will affect corporate innovation has become a crucial topic, but empirical studies have not reached consistent conclusions, and few have noted the heterogeneity of different firms' perceptions of uncertainty. This study used a textual analysis approach to create firm-level economic policy uncertainty indicators from the texts of annual reports of Chinese A-share listed firms. Based on the effectiveness of our measure of economic policy uncertainty, we further examined its impact on firm innovation. We find that our uncertainty measure has negative effects on enterprise innovation activity, and this negative impact is more significant among non-state-owned enterprises, and firms with higher financial constraints and lower government subsidies. We extend the measurement of economic policy uncertainty from the micro level and provide some suggestions for policymakers at the macro level. In the period of increasing uncertainty in the external environment, the government should try to maintain the stability and transparency of economic policies, and provide more targeted policy support to enterprises, such as by broadening their financing channels and providing innovation subsidies. © 2023 by the authors.

3.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) ; 135:610-618, 2024.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2258952

ABSTRACT

Ecological studies suggested a link between air pollution and severe COVID-19 outcomes, while studies accounting for individual-level characteristics are limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the impact of short-term ambient air pollution exposure on disease severity among a cohort of 569 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to designated hospitals in Zhejiang province, China, from January 17 to March 3, 2020, and elucidate the possible biological processes involved using transcriptomics. Compared with mild cases, severe cases had higher proportion of medical conditions as well as unfavorable results in most of the laboratory tests, and manifested higher air pollution exposure levels. Higher exposure to air pollutants was associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 with odds ratio (OR) of 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 3.53), 2.35 (95% CI: 1.20, 4.61), 2.87 (95% CI: 1.68, 4.91), and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.69) for PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO, respectively. OR for NO2 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjusting for other pollutants. Transcriptional analysis showed 884 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in virus clearance related biological processes between patients with high and low NO2 exposure levels, indicating that compromised immune response might be a potential underlying mechanistic pathway. These findings highlight the impact of short-term air pollution exposure, particularly for NO2, on COVID-19 severity, and emphasize the significance in mitigating the COVID-19 burden of commitments to improve air quality. © 2022

4.
Infectious Medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2246699

ABSTRACT

Background: Global evidence on the transmission of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be synthesized. Methods: A search of 4 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases) as of January 24, 2021 was performed. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Studies which reported the transmission rate among close contacts with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases were included, and transmission activities occurred were considered. The transmission rates were pooled by zero-inflated beta distribution. The risk ratios (RRs) were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Of 4923 records retrieved and reviewed, 15 studies including 3917 close contacts with asymptomatic indexes were eligible. The pooled transmission rates were 1.79 per 100 person-days (or 1.79%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41%–3.16%) by asymptomatic index, which is significantly lower than by presymptomatic (5.02%, 95% CI 2.37%–7.66%;p<0.001), and by symptomatic (5.27%, 95% CI 2.40%–8.15%;p<0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the household transmission rate of asymptomatic index was (4.22%, 95% CI 0.91%–7.52%), four times significantly higher than non-household transmission (1.03%, 95% CI 0.73%–1.33%;p=0.03), and the asymptomatic transmission rate in China (1.82%, 95% CI 0.11%–3.53%) was lower than in other countries (2.22%, 95% CI 0.67%–3.77%;p=0.01). Conclusions: People with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection are at risk of transmitting the virus to their close contacts, particularly in household settings. The transmission potential of asymptomatic infection is lower than symptomatic and presymptomatic infections. This meta-analysis provides evidence for predicting the epidemic trend and promulgating vaccination and other control measures. Registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021269446;https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=269446. © 2022 The Author(s)

5.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:51, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126345

ABSTRACT

Background: In US, only 12% of ESRD patients utilize PD as his/her RRT modality. Part of the reason is lack of effective education tool. Kaiser Permanente Northern California is an integrated health care system providing health care to 4.6 million members in greater San Francisco Bay area. We piloted a proof-of-concept study to test if utilizing virtual reality can improve patient dialysis modality education. Method(s): Nephrologists, PD nurses and technology-centered team from KPNC met regularly in 2019 to find out the gaps in dialysis modality educations. After several meetings and reviewing the current educational material, we decided to produce a 360 immersive video with 3 separate segments using a GoPro Camera. Google cardboard is used as the VR tool. We then tested on 9 patients during their patient education section. Result(s): Three segments showing nursing home visit, patient performing PD at home and patient sleeping during PD were produced. They can be assessed on YouTube: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=BayBNoZbNbA. We tested this VR tool for 9 patients. This number was limited due to in person trainings being curtailed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most patients felt that the first-person nature of the video (without VR) helped because the content was so helpful. However, there were some challenges: some patient became confused due to too much movement needed, not able to focus. Overall, patients appreciated the content but felt the 360 VR was not needed. They hoped if the video could be steadied, they would have a better experience. Table one listed the demographics and feedbacks. Conclusion(s): VR is a viable option for better patient education if it can be improved with better ease of use. Further studies with improved technology and larger numbers of patients are warranted to improve patient dialysis modality education. (Table Presented).

6.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:466, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126267

ABSTRACT

Background: ESRD patients with tracheostomy require long-term mechanical ventilation in addition to need for maintenance dialysis. Due to regulations in California, majority of such patients have prolonged acute hospital stays due to lack of availability of a lower level of care facility, capable of providing ventilation care and hemodialysis. Need for these services increased during the COVID 19 pandemic. Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) is an integrated health care system providing health care for 4.6 million members. Partnering with a large dialysis organization (LDO) and a local Subacute Care facility (SAC), a program has been developed to provide home hemodialysis for patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation using Low Dialysate Volume Approach (LDVA) machines. Method(s): The program was initiated in Q4 2017. A set of clinical criteria for admission was developed between the LDO, SAC and KPNC. Weekly meetings with physicians, dialysis nurses, and SAC staffs were conducted to review the potential candidates currently hospitalized in one of twenty-one KPNC hospitals. Dialysis has been performed by a HD nurse four times a week (M-T-Th-F) for 3-3.5 hours for each dialysis treatment. Each treatment was conducted using a LDVA machine with standard LDVA prescriptions using a Watson calculator to achieve a weekly Kt/V above 2.1. Result(s): Since the inception of the program, 45 patients have been admitted to the program, 24 female and 21 male patients. The mean age is 65 (+/-13) on the date of admission. The average length of stay per patient at an acute hospital prior to admission was 125 days, and after the admission, the total days in the SAC is 7,498 days, an average of 167 days per person. Total acute hospital re-admission days after admission to the program is 1,071 days, an average of 25 days per patient (range: 0 to 115 days). Nine patients are currently residing in the SAC. Conclusion(s): It is feasible to provide hemodialysis care for patients requiring long term mechanical ventilation at the appropriate level of care. This approach reduces the patient length of stay (LOS) in acute hospitals and burden to critically stretched healthcare system. Further discussion with local regulatory agencies is needed to develop additional models of care to effectively deliver dialysis to patients requiring facility-based long-term care.

7.
23rd ACM Conference on Information Technology Education, SIGITE 2022 ; : 78-85, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079049

ABSTRACT

The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic fundamentally changed humans' lifestyle, especially in the education sector. Educators and learners have to shift from traditional face-to-face learning to online or e-learning. Several novel online learning technologies were promoted during pandemic, and the corresponding advantages and disadvantages were analyzed and pointed out by existing research. However, there is limited research which compare students' learning behaviors or performance among pre, during and post pandemic periods. In this paper, we performed a quantitative analysis and comparison to reveal the patterns on students' learning behaviors or performance during different pandemic periods in information technology educations. More specifically, students' behaviors on assignment submissions and their final grades were extracted and analyzed for the purpose of quantitative comparison. Our experimental results discover significant impacts on students' learning by the COVID-19 pandemic in information technology educations, which may further benefit different stakeholders in the educational community in their future development. © 2022 Owner/Author.

8.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(4):463-490, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066828

ABSTRACT

Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (CLR) is the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Pharmacological studies show that CLR can be used to treat cervical cancer, lung cancer, lupus nephritis, and other conditions. In this paper, we review botany, traditional application, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and pharmacokinetics of CLR. The literature from 1981 to date was entirely collected from online databases, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, China Academic Journals full-text database (CNKI), Wiley, Springer, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The data were also obtained from ancient books, theses and dissertations, and Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. There are a total of 275 compounds that have been isolated from CLR, including phenolic compounds, volatile oils, and others. The therapeutic effect of turmeric has been expanded from breaking blood and activating qi in the traditional sense to antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antibacterial, hypolipidemic effects, and other benefits. However, the active ingredients and mechanisms of action related to relieving disease remain ill defined, which requires more in-depth research and verification at a clinical level.

9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2061512

ABSTRACT

Ecological studies suggested a link between air pollution and severe COVID-19 outcomes, while studies accounting for individual-level characteristics are limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the impact of short-term ambient air pollution exposure on disease severity among a cohort of 569 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to designated hospitals in Zhejiang province, China, from January 17 to March 3, 2020, and elucidate the possible biological processes involved using transcriptomics. Compared with mild cases, severe cases had higher proportion of medical conditions as well as unfavorable results in most of the laboratory tests, and manifested higher air pollution exposure levels. Higher exposure to air pollutants was associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 with odds ratio (OR) of 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 3.53), 2.35 (95% CI: 1.20, 4.61), 2.87 (95% CI: 1.68, 4.91), and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.69) for PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO, respectively. OR for NO2 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjusting for other pollutants. Transcriptional analysis showed 884 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in virus clearance related biological processes between patients with high and low NO2 exposure levels, indicating that compromised immune response might be a potential underlying mechanistic pathway. These findings highlight the impact of short-term air pollution exposure, particularly for NO2, on COVID-19 severity, and emphasize the significance in mitigating the COVID-19 burden of commitments to improve air quality.

10.
25th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2022 ; 13433 LNCS:313-323, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059727

ABSTRACT

Class distribution plays an important role in learning deep classifiers. When the proportion of each class in the test set differs from the training set, the performance of classification nets usually degrades. Such a label distribution shift problem is common in medical diagnosis since the prevalence of disease vary over location and time. In this paper, we propose the first method to tackle label shift for medical image classification, which effectively adapt the model learned from a single training label distribution to arbitrary unknown test label distribution. Our approach innovates distribution calibration to learn multiple representative classifiers, which are capable of handling different one-dominating-class distributions. When given a test image, the diverse classifiers are dynamically aggregated via the consistency-driven test-time adaptation, to deal with the unknown test label distribution. We validate our method on two important medical image classification tasks including liver fibrosis staging and COVID-19 severity prediction. Our experiments clearly show the decreased model performance under label shift. With our method, model performance significantly improves on all the test datasets with different label shifts for both medical image diagnosis tasks. Code is available at https://github.com/med-air/TTADC. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
2022 International Conference on Blockchain Technology and Information Security, ICBCTIS 2022 ; : 246-254, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a worldwide surge in demand for masks, protective clothing, and other epidemic prevention materials. The lack of epidemic prevention materials has put the lives of frontline health care workers at serious risk. However, epidemic prevention materials are not being distributed fairly and efficiently. This, coupled with the occasional scramble for scarce materials, makes epidemic prevention materials scarcer. The traditional centralized donation model makes it difficult to obtain the demand for materials in a timely manner, and the existing blockchain-based donation systems have not improved the efficiency of material donation. Moreover, most of the donation systems do not consider privacy and security issues. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based material donation platform designed and implemented through the Ethereum platform. We solve the difficulty of demand acquisition and improve the transparency of the donation process through blockchain;reduce the possibility of a second disaster and improve the efficiency of material distribution through smart contracts;and protect the privacy and security of the donation process through zero-knowledge proof. We validate the security and efficiency of the proposed epidemic donation platform. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
Psychology Research and Behavior Management ; 15:1809-1821, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1975995

ABSTRACT

Background: Medical workers have been increasingly involved in emergent public health events, which can lead to severe stress. However, no standardized, officially recognized, unified tool exists for mental distress measurement in medical workers who experienced the public health events. Purpose: In the present study, we propose the Global Health Events-Mental Stress Scale (GHE-MSS), as a revised version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revision (IES-R), for assessment of medical workers' acute mental stress responses within one month and their chronic mental stress responses within six months after major health events. Patients and methods: The IES-R was slightly modified, developed, and its reliability and validity were tested using the Delphi survey, primary survey with 115 participants, formal survey with 300 participants, and clinical evaluation with 566 participants. Results: Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a promising validity of the scale. The values of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the Spearman-Brown coefficient, and the retested Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale applied for the clinical evaluation were 0.88, 0.87, and 0.98, respectively, which confirmed a good internal consistency and stability. The results of the goodness-of-fit test indicated a good adaptation of the model. A correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlation between the GHE-MSS and the PCL-C, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.68 (P < 0.01). Conclusion: GHE-MSS can be applied with a promising reliability and validity for the assessment of the acute mental stress response of medical workers experiencing public health events. This method can also be used for the screening of mental stress-associated disorders.

13.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):1183-1184, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857906

ABSTRACT

Background: Renal dysfunction has been reported in patients infected with the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A spectrum of histopathologic changes has been identified in the kidneys, especially native kidneys. However, there are limited data for transplant kidneys. Multiple studies have shown no evidence of direct viral infection of renal cells by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and ultrastructural examination. The association of morphologic changes with this infection and the underlying mechanism remain undefined currently. This study is aimed to report important pathologic findings in renal transplants after recipients were diagnosis with COVID-19. Design: Design: Medical records and pathology data were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed from renal transplant patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during 11/2020-5/2021 in our institution. All renal biopsies were processed for light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy according to a standard protocol. Results: Results: Six for-cause renal transplant biopsies were identified post COVID-19 and 2-29 months post transplant in four patients, including a 12 year-old (yo) multiracial male (M), a 25 yo white M, a 62 yo white female with the second transplant kidney and a 33 yo white M. All patients survived COVID-19 without intubation. Patient 1's biopsy 13 days post COVID-19 showed de novo immune complex deposition, 1B acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and the biopsy 65 days post COVID-19 revealed much weaker immune complex deposition and much less tubulointerstitial inflammation. Patient 2's biopsy 55 days post COVID-19 demonstrated de novo immune complex deposition and no acute rejection. Patient 3's biopsy 49 days post COVID-19 showed acute tubular injury (ATI) and the biopsy 134 days post COVID-19 revealed FSGS. Patient 4 had 1B chronic active TCMR, chronic active antibody mediated rejection (ABMR), ATI and FSGS 182 days post COVID-19. No collapsing glomerulopathy or endothelialitis was identified in these biopsies. Conclusions: Six renal transplant biopsies 13-182 days post COVID-19 in 4 recipients revealed de novo immune complex deposition (2/4), de novo DSAs (1/4), ATI (2/4), 1B acute TCMR (1/4), 1B chronic active TCMR and chronic active ABMR (1/4) and FSGS (2/4). More data are needed to further investigate the potential association of histopathologic findings in renal transplants with COVID-19.

15.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(1):585-595, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1699165

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study mainly to explore the effect of comprehensive treatment in Hangzhou (China) on cognitive function of attention network in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were initially diagnosed as the pre-treatment group were collected as the pre-treatment group in Hangzhou (China), and the patients who were reexamined within more than half a year after treatment were the post-treatment group. All patients received behavioral tests of attention network cognitive function. The processing efficiency of three sub-networks (executive control network, alertness system and orientation network) of cognitive function of patients' attention network was compared horizontally. Results: After treatment, the score and ratio of processing efficiency of executive control network in the group after treatment were significantly lower than those in the group before treatment, while the scores and score ratios of alertness system and oriented network processing efficiency did not change significantly. Conclusion: After treatment, the processing efficiency of the alert system and orientation network of NPC patients did not change significantly in Hangzhou (China), but the processing efficiency of the executive control network was improved. Conclusion: We determined that the pneumococcal vaccine, which is mainly administered in family medicine centers, has a positive effect on the course of COVID-19, and adult immunization should be given importance in every period. © 2022 A. CARBONE Editore. All rights reserved.

16.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1676980

ABSTRACT

Introduction The objective of this analysis was to connect the findings of the IOMSC survey on the development of OEM expertise with the ICOH goals for training in occupational health. Materials and Methods The findings of the international survey on the development of OEM expertise were considered in the context of the goals of ICOH. The needs and opportunities identified in the survey were also considered in the context of the vision and goals and the International Occupational Medicine Society Collaborative (IOMSC). Results The survey identified opportunities for the development of expertise in OEM which align with the goals of ICOH Scientific Committee on Education and Training in Occupational Health. The IOMSC is positioned to support the international development of OEM expertise by sharing information on competencies, best practices in medical curriculum content and examples of specialty certification pathways from different countries. Conclusions The development of expertise in OEM internationally can be amplified by increased collaboration between organisations and growth in international partnerships. The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted the value of developing OEM expertise for the advancement of occupational health.

17.
Environmental Research Letters ; 17(2):13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1656006

ABSTRACT

A second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections emerged in Beijing in summer 2020, which provided an opportunity to explore the response of air pollution to reduced human activity. Proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) coupled with positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment were applied to evaluate the pollution pattern and capture the detailed dynamic emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the representative period, with the occurrence of O-3 pollution episodes and the Beijing resurgence of COVID-19. The level of anthropogenic VOC was lower than during the same period in previous years due to the pandemic and emission reduction measures. More than two thirds of the days during the observation period were identified as high-O-3 days and VOCs exhibited higher mixing ratios and faster consumption rates in the daytime on high-O-3 days. The identified VOC emission sources and the corresponding contributions during the whole observation period included: vehicle + fuel (12.41 +/- 9.43%), industrial process (9.40 +/- 8.65%), solvent usage (19.58 +/- 13.46%), biogenic (6.03 +/- 5.40%), background + long-lived (5.62 +/- 11.37%), and two groups of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) factors (primary emission and secondary formation, 26.14 +/- 15.20% and 20.84 +/- 14.0%, respectively). Refined dynamic source apportionment results show that the 'stay at home' tendency led to decreased emission (-34.47 +/- 1.90%) and a weakened morning peak of vehicle + fuel during the Beijing resurgence. However, a growing emission of primary OVOCs (+51.10 +/- 8.28%) with similar diurnal variation was observed in the new outbreak and afterwards, which might be related to the enhanced usage of products intended to clean and disinfect. The present study illustrated that more stringent VOC reduction measures towards pandemic products should be carried out to achieve the balanced emission abatement of NO (x) and VOC when adhering to regular epidemic prevention and control measures.

18.
Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology ; 26(4):231-234, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1614071

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 currently is a major pandemic disease in the world. It is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the β-coronavirus genus that has 79% homology with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and can lead to acute respiratory infection. While COVID-19 patients typically present with respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, some patients also report symptoms of digestive system. Studies have identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool specimens of infected patients, and the viral receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is found to be expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, hepatic cells and pancreatic cells, suggesting that fecal-mouth route is a potential route for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This article reviewed the digestive manifestations and pathogenesis of patients with COVID-19.

19.
30th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, CIKM 2021 ; : 4383-4392, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1528566

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has largely influenced the world and our normal daily lives. To combat this pandemic efficiently, governments usually need to coordinate essential resources across multiple regions and adjust intervention polices at the right time, which all call for accurate and robust forecasting of future epidemic trends. However, designing such a forecasting system is non-trivial, since we need to handle all kinds of locations at different administrative levels, which include pretty different epidemic-evolving patterns. Moreover, there are dynamic and volatile correlations of pandemic conditions among these locations, which further enlarge the difficulty in forecasting. With these challenges in mind, we develop a novel spatialoral forecasting framework. First, to accommodate all kinds of locations at different administrative levels, we propose a unified hierarchical view, which mimics the aggregation procedure of pandemic statistics. Then, this view motivates us to facilitate joint learning across administrative levels and inspires us to design the cross-level consistency loss as an extra regularization to stabilize model training. Besides, to capture those dynamic and volatile spatial correlations, we design a customized spatial module with adaptive edge gates, which can both reinforce effective messages and disable irrelevant ones. We put this framework into production to help the battle against COVID-19 in the United States. A comprehensive online evaluation across three months demonstrates that our projections are the most competitive ones among all results produced by dozens of international group and even surpass the official ensemble in many cases. We also visualize our unique edge gates to understand the evolvement of spatial correlations and present intuitive case studies. Besides, we open source our implementation at https://github.com/dolphin-zs/HierST to facilitate future research towards better epidemic modeling. © 2021 ACM.

20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6378-6385, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020 has become the world's largest public health event, causing global attention and concern. Despite national efforts to control this emerging infectious disease, it still cannot be contained. China, which reported the disease early, was able to control the outbreak quickly, but there is the problem of imported infections abroad. This review aims to summarize SARS-CoV-2 detected on the outer packaging of imported cold chain food and lead to the transmission of novel coronavirus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed information on SARS-COV-2 detected on the outer packaging of imported cold chain food and relevant literature.  We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and CNKI. search terms were "2019 nCoV", "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "cold-chain", "item surface", "spread", "people". RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 survives on the surface of cold-chain food for a long period of time and these active viruses can be transmitted to humans. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that while strictly preventing and controlling the importation of infected patients, we should strengthen the management of imported cold-chain food and its workers to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to humans on the surface of cold-chain food objects.


Subject(s)
Food Packaging , Food Preservation , Refrigeration , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , China , Humans , Surface Properties
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