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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715781

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become more serious because of the continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC), thus calling for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines with greater efficacy. Adjuvants play important roles in enhancing the immunogenicity of protein-based subunit vaccines. In this study, we compared the effect of three adjuvants, including aluminum, nanoparticle manganese and MF59, on the immunogenicity of three protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidates, including RBD-Fc, RBD and S-trimer. We found that the nanoparticle manganese adjuvant elicited the highest titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a, as well as neutralizing antibodies against infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 and its Delta variant. What is more, the nanoparticle manganese adjuvant effectively reduced the viral load of the authentic SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant in the cell culture supernatants. These results suggest that nanoparticle manganese, known to facilitate cGAS-STING activation, is an optimal adjuvant for protein-based COVID-19 subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309260

ABSTRACT

Upon infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, most people will develop no or mild symptoms. However, a small percentage of the population will become severely ill, and some will succumb to death. The clinical severity of COVID-19 has a close connection to the dysregulation of the patient’s immune functions. We previously developed a simple, nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can determine the humoral immune status in animals. In this study, we applied this new test to analyze the immune function in relation to disease severity in COVID-19 patients. From the testing of 153 COVID-19 patient samples and 142 negative controls, we detected a drastic decrease of humoral immunity in COVID-19 patients who developed moderate to severe symptoms, but not in patients with no or mild symptoms. The new test may be potentially used to monitor the immunity change and predict the clinical risk of patients with COVID-19.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23491, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555314

ABSTRACT

Upon infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, most people will develop no or mild symptoms. However, a small percentage of the population will become severely ill, and some will succumb to death. The clinical severity of COVID-19 has a close connection to the dysregulation of the patient's immune functions. We previously developed a simple, nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can determine the humoral immune status in animals. In this study, we applied this new test to analyze the immune function in relation to disease severity in COVID-19 patients. From the testing of 153 COVID-19 patient samples and 142 negative controls, we detected a drastic decrease of humoral immunity in COVID-19 patients who developed moderate to severe symptoms, but not in patients with no or mild symptoms. The new test may be potentially used to monitor the immunity change and predict the clinical risk of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 740-751, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498507

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify the integrated levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the two well-recognized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry-related genes, and to further identify key factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). Methods: We developed a metric of the potential for tissue infected with SARS-CoV-2 ("TPSI") based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcript levels and compared TPSI levels between tumor and matched normal tissues across 11 tumor types. For further analysis of HNSC, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), functional analysis, and single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were conducted to investigate TPSI-relevant biological processes and their relationship with the immune landscape. TPSI-related factors were identified from clinical and mutational domains, followed by lasso regression to determine their relative effects on TPSI levels. Results: TPSI levels in tumors were generally lower than in the normal tissues. In HNSC, the genes highly associated with TPSI were enriched in viral entry-related processes, and TPSI levels were positively correlated with both eosinophils and T helper 17 (Th17) cell infiltration. Furthermore, the site of onset, human papillomaviruses (HPV) status, and nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) mutations were identified as the most important factors shaping TPSI levels. Conclusions: This study identified the infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 between tumor and normal tissues, and provided evidence for the risk stratification of HNSC.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
6.
Sens Int ; 1: 100010, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186415

ABSTRACT

We herein report a new rapid blood test for virus infection detection and diagnosis. A citrate gold nanoparticle is first coated with a virus lysate to form a gold nanoparticle pseudo pathogen. The gold nanoparticle pseudo virus is then mixed with a blood plasma or serum samples. If the blood sample is from a positive patient, the activated immune molecules in the blood such as antibodies, complement proteins and others will react with the nanoparticle pseudo virus, leading to nanoparticle aggregate formation. The nanoparticle aggregate formation is detected and measured using a particle sizing technique called dynamic light scattering. In this study, we applied this test for Zika virus infection detection. We tested blood plasma samples from 85 Zika positive patients, 40 Dengue positive patients, 10 Chikungunya positive patients, and 78 non-patient control samples collected from both endemic and non-endemic locations. The study shows that the new test has a higher sensitivity compared to some existing commercial tests in the market, while maintaining a similar specificity. Within 7 days from the symptom onset, the new test can detect 43% of the infected patients while a commercial anti-Zika IgM test detects only 26% of the infected patients. Within 14 days from the symptom onset, our new test detects 73% of the infected patients while the same commercial anti-Zika IgM test detects 53% of the infected patients. The test is extremely simple, easy to develop, with test results obtained within minutes. This new test platform may be potentially adapted for the detection and diagnosis of a wide range of viral infectious diseases, for example, the currently ongoing COVID-19.

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