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1.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 5(1): 8-19, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621207

ABSTRACT

Drug development for specific antiviral agents against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still an unmet medical need as the pandemic continues to spread globally. Although huge efforts for drug repurposing and compound screens have been put forth, only a few compounds are in late-stage clinical trials. New approaches and assays are needed to accelerate COVID-19 drug discovery and development. Here, we report a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay that detects the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid protein (NP) produced in infected cells. It uses two specific anti-NP monoclonal antibodies conjugated to donor and acceptor fluorophores that produce a robust ratiometric signal for high throughput screening of large compound collections. Using this assay, we measured a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for remdesivir of 9.3 µM against infection with SARS-CoV-2 USA/WA1/2020 (WA-1). The assay also detected SARS-CoV-2 South African (Beta, ß), Brazilian/Japanese P.1 (Gamma, γ), and Californian (Epsilon, ε) variants of concern (VoC). Therefore, this homogeneous SARS-CoV-2 NP detection assay can be used for accelerating lead compound discovery for drug development and for evaluating drug efficacy against emerging SARS-CoV-2 VoC.

2.
SLAS Discovery ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1586501

ABSTRACT

Effective small molecule therapies to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection are still lacking as the COVID-19 pandemic continues globally. High throughput screening assays are needed for lead discovery and optimization of small molecule SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. In this work, we have applied viral pseudotyping to establish a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 entry assay. Here, the pseudotyped particles (PP) contain SARS-CoV-2 spike in a membrane enveloping both the murine leukemia virus (MLV) gag-pol polyprotein and luciferase reporter RNA. Upon addition of PP to HEK293-ACE2 cells, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds to the ACE2 receptor on the cell surface, resulting in priming by host proteases to trigger endocytosis of these particles, and membrane fusion between the particle envelope and the cell membrane. The internalized luciferase reporter gene is then expressed in cells, resulting in a luminescent readout as a surrogate for spike-mediated entry into cells. This SARS-CoV-2 PP entry assay can be executed in a biosafety level 2 containment lab for high throughput screening. From a collection of 5,158 approved drugs and drug candidates, our screening efforts identified 7 active compounds that inhibited the SARS-CoV-2-S PP entry. Of these seven, six compounds were active against live replicating SARS-CoV-2 virus in a cytopathic effect assay. Our results demonstrated the utility of this assay in the discovery and development of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors as well as the mechanistic study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds. Additionally, particles pseudotyped with spike proteins from SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants were prepared and used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of viral entry inhibitors.

3.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296676

ABSTRACT

The cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as an attractive drug development target. We previously reported that the entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and the cortex actin, which can be targeted by therapeutic agents identified by conventional drug repurposing screens. However, this drug identification strategy requires laborious library screening, which is time-consuming and often limited number of compounds can be screened. As an alternative approach, we developed and trained a graph convolutional network (GCN)-based classification model using information extracted from experimentally identified HSPG and actin inhibitors. This method allowed us to virtually screen 170,000 compounds, resulting in ~2000 potential hits. A hit confirmation assay with the uptake of a fluorescently labeled HSPG cargo further shortlisted 256 active compounds. Among them, 16 compounds had modest to strong inhibitory activities against the entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped particles into Vero E6 cells. These results establish a GCN-based virtual screen workflow for rapid identification of new small molecule inhibitors against validated drug targets.

4.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292816

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emphasized the urgency to develop effective therapeutics. Drug repurposing screening is regarded as one of the most practical and rapid approaches for the discovery of such therapeutics. The 3C like protease (3CL (pro) ), or main protease (M (pro) ) of SARS-CoV-2 is a valid drug target as it is a specific viral enzyme and plays an essential role in viral replication. We performed a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) of 10,755 compounds consisting of approved and investigational drugs, and bioactive compounds using a SARS-CoV-2 3CL (pro) assay. Twenty-three small molecule inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL (pro) have been identified with IC50s ranging from 0.26 to 28.85 μM. Walrycin B (IC (50) = 0.26 µM), Hydroxocobalamin (IC (50) = 3.29 µM), Suramin sodium (IC (50) = 6.5 µM), Z-DEVD-FMK (IC (50) = 6.81 µM), LLL-12 (IC (50) = 9.84 µM), and Z-FA-FMK (IC (50) = 11.39 µM) are the most potent 3CL (pro) inhibitors. The activities of anti-SARS-CoV-2 viral infection was confirmed in 7 of 23 compounds using a SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect assay. The results demonstrated a set of SARS-CoV-2 3CL (pro) inhibitors that may have potential for further clinical evaluation as part of drug combination therapies to treating COVID-19 patients, and as starting points for chemistry optimization for new drug development.

5.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750466

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is undoubtedly the most impactful viral disease of the current century, afflicting millions worldwide. As yet, there is not an approved vaccine, as well as limited options from existing drugs for treating this disease. We hypothesized that combining drugs with independent mechanisms of action could result in synergy against SARS-CoV-2. Using in silico approaches, we prioritized 73 combinations of 32 drugs with potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 and then tested them in vitro . Overall, we identified 16 synergistic and 8 antagonistic combinations, 4 of which were both synergistic and antagonistic in a dose-dependent manner. Among the 16 synergistic cases, combinations of nitazoxanide with three other compounds (remdesivir, amodiaquine and umifenovir) were the most notable, all exhibiting significant synergy against SARS-CoV-2. The combination of nitazoxanide, an FDA-approved drug, and remdesivir, FDA emergency use authorization for the treatment of COVID-19, demonstrate a strong synergistic interaction. Notably, the combination of remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine demonstrated strong antagonism. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of both drug repurposing and preclinical testing of drug combinations for potential therapeutic use against SARS-CoV-2 infections.

6.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 4(5): 1675-1688, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450269

ABSTRACT

The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has been actively generating SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput screening data and disseminates it through the OpenData Portal (https://opendata.ncats.nih.gov/covid19/). Here, we provide a hybrid approach that utilizes NCATS screening data from the SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect reduction assay to build predictive models, using both machine learning and pharmacophore-based modeling. Optimized models were used to perform two iterative rounds of virtual screening to predict small molecules active against SARS-CoV-2. Experimental testing with live virus provided 100 (∼16% of predicted hits) active compounds (efficacy > 30%, IC50 ≤ 15 µM). Systematic clustering analysis of active compounds revealed three promising chemotypes which have not been previously identified as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further investigation resulted in the identification of allosteric binders to host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; these compounds were then shown to inhibit the entry of pseudoparticles bearing spike protein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2, as well as South African B.1.351 and UK B.1.1.7 variants.

7.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 46: 116364, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406212

ABSTRACT

The nucleoside metabolite of remdesivir, GS-441524 displays potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy, and is being evaluated in clinical as an oral antiviral therapeutic for COVID-19. However, this nucleoside has a poor oral bioavailability in non-human primates, which may affect its therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we reported a variety of GS-441524 analogs with modifications on the base or the sugar moiety, as well as some prodrug forms, including five isobutyryl esters, two l-valine esters, and one carbamate. Among the new nucleosides, only the 7-fluoro analog 3c had moderate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, and its phosphoramidate prodrug 7 exhibited reduced activity in Vero E6 cells. As for the prodrugs, the 3'-isobutyryl ester 5a, the 5'-isobutyryl ester 5c, and the tri-isobutyryl ester 5g hydrobromide showed excellent oral bioavailabilities (F = 71.6%, 86.6% and 98.7%, respectively) in mice, which provided good insight into the pharmacokinetic optimization of GS-441524.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine/toxicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Male , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prodrugs/chemical synthesis , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/toxicity , Vero Cells
8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 378(2): 166-172, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to be a global threat since its emergence. Although several COVID-19 vaccines have become available, the prospective timeframe for achieving effective levels of vaccination across global populations remains uncertain. Moreover, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants presents continuing potential challenges for future vaccination planning. Therefore, development of effective antiviral therapies continues to be an urgent unmet need for COVID-19. Successful antiviral regimens for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections have established viral proteases as validated targets for antiviral drug development. In this context, we review protease targets in drug development, currently available antiviral protease inhibitors, and therapeutic development efforts on SARS-CoV-2 main protease and papain-like protease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to be a global threat since its emergence. The development of effective antiviral therapeutics for COVID-19 remains an urgent and long-term need. Because viral proteases are validated drug targets, specific severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 protease inhibitors are critical therapeutics to be developed for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Proteases/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 701836, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394782

ABSTRACT

Background: It is much valuable to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control in the non-pharmacological intervention phase of the pandemic across countries and identify useful experiences that could be generalized worldwide. Methods: In this study, we developed a susceptible-exposure-infectious-asymptomatic-removed (SEIAR) model to fit the daily reported COVID-19 cases in 160 countries. The time-varying reproduction number (R t ) that was estimated through fitting the mathematical model was adopted to quantify the transmissibility. We defined a synthetic index (I AC ) based on the value of R t to reflect the national capability to control COVID-19. Results: The goodness-of-fit tests showed that the SEIAR model fitted the data of the 160 countries well. At the beginning of the epidemic, the values of R t of countries in the European region were generally higher than those in other regions. Among the 160 countries included in the study, all European countries had the ability to control the COVID-19 epidemic. The Western Pacific Region did best in continuous control of the epidemic, with a total of 73.76% of countries that can continuously control the COVID-19 epidemic, while only 43.63% of the countries in the European Region continuously controlled the epidemic, followed by the Region of Americas with 52.53% of countries, the Southeast Asian Region with 48% of countries, the African Region with 46.81% of countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean Region with 40.48% of countries. Conclusion: Large variations in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic existed across countries. The world could benefit from the experience of some countries that demonstrated the highest containment capabilities.

10.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388433

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 pose a global health emergency. The SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein interacts with the human ACE2 receptor to mediate viral entry into host cells. We report the cryo-EM structures of a tightly closed SARS-CoV-2 S trimer with packed fusion peptide and an ACE2-bound S trimer at 2.7- and 3.8-Å resolution, respectively. Accompanying ACE2 binding to the up receptor-binding domain (RBD), the associated ACE2-RBD exhibits continuous swing motions. Notably, the SARS-CoV-2 S trimer appears much more sensitive to the ACE2 receptor than the SARS-CoV S trimer regarding receptor-triggered transformation from the closed prefusion state to the fusion-prone open state, potentially contributing to the superior infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. We defined the RBD T470-T478 loop and Y505 as viral determinants for specific recognition of SARS-CoV-2 RBD by ACE2. Our findings depict the mechanism of ACE2-induced S trimer conformational transitions from the ground prefusion state toward the postfusion state, facilitating development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Ligands , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Peptides/chemistry , Polysaccharides , Principal Component Analysis , Protein Binding , Protein Domains
11.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 12(8): 1267-1274, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358337

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells relies on the spike (S) protein binding to the human ACE2 receptor. In this study, we investigated the structural dynamics of the viral S protein at the fusion peptide (FP) domain and small molecule binding for therapeutics development. Following comparative modeling analysis and docking studies of our previously identified fusion inhibitor chlorcyclizine, we performed a pharmacophore-based virtual screen and identified two novel chemotypes of entry inhibitors targeting the FP. The compounds were evaluated in the pseudoparticle viral entry assay and SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect assay and showed single-digital micromole inhibition against SARS-CoV-2 as well as SARS-CoV-1 and MERS. The characterization of the FP binding site of SARS-CoV-2 S protein provides a promising target for the structure-based development of small molecule entry inhibitors as drug candidates for the treatment of COVID-19.

12.
Cell Rep Methods ; 1(3)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275250

ABSTRACT

Structure prediction for proteins lacking homologous templates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) remains a significant unsolved problem. We developed a protocol, C-I-TASSER, to integrate interresidue contact maps from deep neural-network learning with the cutting-edge I-TASSER fragment assembly simulations. Large-scale benchmark tests showed that C-I-TASSER can fold more than twice the number of non-homologous proteins than the I-TASSER, which does not use contacts. When applied to a folding experiment on 8,266 unsolved Pfam families, C-I-TASSER successfully folded 4,162 domain families, including 504 folds that are not found in the PDB. Furthermore, it created correct folds for 85% of proteins in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, despite the quick mutation rate of the virus and sparse sequence profiles. The results demonstrated the critical importance of coupling whole-genome and metagenome-based evolutionary information with optimal structure assembly simulations for solving the problem of non-homologous protein structure prediction.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26279, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Early determination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia from numerous suspected cases is critical for the early isolation and treatment of patients.The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a rapid screening model to predict early COVID-19 pneumonia from suspected cases using a random forest algorithm in China.A total of 914 initially suspected COVID-19 pneumonia in multiple centers were prospectively included. The computer-assisted embedding method was used to screen the variables. The random forest algorithm was adopted to build a rapid screening model based on the training set. The screening model was evaluated by the confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in the validation.The rapid screening model was set up based on 4 epidemiological features, 3 clinical manifestations, decreased white blood cell count and lymphocytes, and imaging changes on chest X-ray or computed tomography. The area under the ROC curve was 0.956, and the model had a sensitivity of 83.82% and a specificity of 89.57%. The confusion matrix revealed that the prospective screening model had an accuracy of 87.0% for predicting early COVID-19 pneumonia.Here, we developed and validated a rapid screening model that could predict early COVID-19 pneumonia with high sensitivity and specificity. The use of this model to screen for COVID-19 pneumonia have epidemiological and clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(10): 2439-2444, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242920

ABSTRACT

In response to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a panel of assays has been developed and applied to screen collections of approved and investigational drugs for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activity in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. In this review, we applied data-driven approaches to evaluate the ability of each assay to identify potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 leads. Multitarget assays were found to show advantages in terms of accuracy and efficiency over single-target assays, whereas target-specific assays were more suitable for investigating compound mechanisms of action. Moreover, strict filtering with counter screens might be more detrimental than beneficial in identifying true positives. Thus, developing novel HTS assays acting simultaneously against multiple targets in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle will benefit anti-COVID-19 drug discovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development/trends , High-Throughput Screening Assays/trends , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(10): 2367-2376, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237674

ABSTRACT

Effective therapeutics to combat emerging viral infections are an unmet need. Historically, treatments for chronic viral infections with single drugs have not been successful, as exemplified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Combination therapy for these diseases has led to improved clinical outcomes with dramatic reductions in viral load, morbidity, and mortality. Drug combinations can enhance therapeutic efficacy through additive, and ideally synergistic, effects for emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Ebola, Zika, and SARS-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2). Although novel drug development through traditional pipelines remains a priority, in the interim, effective synergistic drug candidates could be rapidly identified by drug-repurposing screens, facilitating accelerated paths to clinical testing and potential emergency use authorizations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination/trends , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans
16.
The FASEB Journal ; 35(S1), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1233926

ABSTRACT

Understanding the SARS-CoV-2 virus? routes of infection, virus?host?protein interactions, and mechanisms of virus-induced cytopathic effects will greatly aid in the discovery and design of new therapeutics to treat COVID-19. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, extensively explored as clinical agents for COVID-19, have multiple cellular effects including alkalizing lysosomes and blocking autophagy as well as exhibiting dose-limiting toxicities in patients. To identify an alternative lysosome-based drug repurposing opportunity we evaluated additional lysosomotropic compounds . We found that six of these compounds blocked the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 2.0 to 13 ?M and selectivity indices (SIs;SI = CC50/EC50) ranging from 1.5- to >10-fold. We demonstrate how the compounds (1) blocked lysosome functioning and autophagy, (2) prevented pseudotyped particle entry, (3) increased lysosomal pH, and (4) that ROC-325 reduced viral titers in the EpiAirway 3D tissue model. Consistent with these findings, the siRNA knockdown of ATP6V0D1 blocked the HCoV-NL63 cytopathic effect in LLC-MK2 cells. Moreover, an analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cell lysate revealed significant dysregulation of autophagy and lysosomal function, suggesting a contribution of the lysosome to the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support targeting the lysosome to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections and inhibitors of lysosomal function could become an important component of drug combination therapies aimed at improving treatment and outcomes for COVID-19.

17.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2132-2140, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217371

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 10 millions of people across the globe, and massive mutations in virus genome have occurred during the rapid spread of this novel coronavirus. Variance in protein sequence might lead to a change in protein structure and interaction, then further affect the viral physiological characteristics, which could bring tremendous influence on the pandemic. In this study, we investigated 20 nonsynonymous mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome in which incidence rates were all ≥ 1% as of September 1st, 2020, and then modeled and analyzed the mutant protein structures. The results showed that four types of mutations caused dramatic changes in protein structures (RMSD ≥ 5.0 Å), which were Q57H and G251V in open-reading frames 3a (ORF3a), S194L, and R203K/G204R in nucleocapsid (N). Next, we found that these mutations also affected the binding affinity of intraviral protein interactions. In addition, the hot spots within these docking mutant complexes were altered, among which the mutation Q57H was involved in both Orf3a-S and Orf3a-Orf8 protein interactions. Besides, these mutations were widely distributed all over the world, and their occurrences fluctuated as time went on. Notably, the incidences of R203K/G204R in N and Q57H in Orf3a were both over 50% in some countries. Overall, our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 mutations could change viral protein structure, binding affinity, and hot spots of the interface, thereby might have impacts on SARS-CoV-2 transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Viral Proteins/metabolism
18.
Heliyon ; 7(4): e06886, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198767

ABSTRACT

RT-LAMP detection of SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to be a valuable diagnostic method for the diagnosis of COVID-191,2, which can rapidly screen carriers of the virus to effectively control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2. Here, we present a combination of dyes for isothermal detection of SARS-CoV-2 as a commercial alternative, with expanded colorimetric spectrum. We compared them with commercial reagents and proved their suitability and sensitivity through clinical RNA samples. In addition, together with commercial single dye indicators, we believe the expanded color spectrum developed here as an indicator of rapid detection will promote the diagnosis of COVID-19.

19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(4): 318-329, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175475

ABSTRACT

With the number of cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) increasing rapidly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that patients with mild or moderate symptoms could be released from quarantine without nucleic acid retesting, and self-isolate in the community. This may pose a potential virus transmission risk. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the duration of viral shedding for individual COVID-19 patients. This retrospective multicentric study enrolled 135 patients as a training cohort and 102 patients as a validation cohort. Significant factors associated with the duration of viral shedding were identified by multivariate Cox modeling in the training cohort and combined to develop a nomogram to predict the probability of viral shedding at 9, 13, 17, and 21 d after admission. The nomogram was validated in the validation cohort and evaluated by concordance index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC), and calibration curve. A higher absolute lymphocyte count (P=0.001) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (P=0.013) were correlated with a shorter duration of viral shedding, while a longer activated partial thromboplastin time (P=0.007) prolonged the viral shedding duration. The C-indices of the nomogram were 0.732 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.685‒0.777) in the training cohort and 0.703 (95% CI: 0.642‒0.764) in the validation cohort. The AUC showed a good discriminative ability (training cohort: 0.879, 0.762, 0.738, and 0.715 for 9, 13, 17, and 21 d; validation cohort: 0.855, 0.758, 0.728, and 0.706 for 9, 13, 17, and 21 d), and calibration curves were consistent between outcomes and predictions in both cohorts. A predictive nomogram for viral shedding duration based on three easily accessible factors was developed to help estimate appropriate self-isolation time for patients with mild or moderate symptoms, and to control virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nomograms , Virus Shedding , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
20.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 38: 116119, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157155

ABSTRACT

In response to the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, we constructed a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) classification model using a set of publicly posted SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped particle (PP) entry assay repurposing screen data to identify novel potent compounds as a starting point for drug development to treat COVID-19 patients. Two different molecular descriptor systems, atom typing descriptors and 3D fingerprints (FPs), were employed to construct the SVM classification models. Both models achieved reasonable performance, with the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) of 0.84 and 0.82, respectively. The consensus prediction outperformed the two individual models with significantly improved AUC-ROC of 0.91, where the compounds with inconsistent classifications were excluded. The consensus model was then used to screen the 173,898 compounds in the NCATS annotated and diverse chemical libraries. Of the 255 compounds selected for experimental confirmation, 116 compounds exhibited inhibitory activities in the SARS-CoV-2 PP entry assay with IC50 values ranged between 0.17 µM and 62.2 µM, representing an enrichment factor of 3.2. These 116 active compounds with diverse and novel structures could potentially serve as starting points for chemistry optimization for COVID-19 drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Support Vector Machine/statistics & numerical data , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Area Under Curve , Databases, Chemical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , ROC Curve , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology
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