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2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022:6337082, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2020520

ABSTRACT

In this work, an improved Apriori algorithm is proposed. The main goal is to improve the processing efficiency of the algorithm, and the idea and process of the Apriori algorithm are optimized. The proposed method is compared with the classical association rule algorithm to verify its effectiveness. Traditional Chinese medicine plays a certain role in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. In order to deeply mine the association rules between Chinese herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, this improved Apriori algorithm is applied from the retrieved published scientific literature and the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 published all over China. Based on the representation of traditional Chinese medicine data in binary form, the potential core traditional Chinese medicine combinations in the treatment of COVID-19 are identified. The results of association rules of Chinese herbal medicine data obtained from the real database provide an important reference for the analysis of COVID-19 combined treatment of Chinese herbal medicine.

3.
6th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Applications, ICBEA 2022 ; : 116-119, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020427

ABSTRACT

A global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 was caused around the world. The virus is highly contagious and rapidly spreads. Early detection of the virus is crucial to prevent its spread and control outbreaks. Owing to the drawbacks of waiting time and high cost involved in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, low-cost and accurate detection setups with the possibility of being realized as portable systems are desirable. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using a small spectrometer in conjunction with optical biosensors as a measurement system. According to the experimental results related to different concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 ranging from 106 to 102 copies/mL, the surface-mounted device (SMD) size spectrometer and benchtop fiber-optic spectrometer showed good agreement, demonstrating the possibility of using tiny spectrometers to detect the virus at different concentrations using optical biosensors. © 2022 ACM.

5.
Infection and Drug Resistance ; 15:5111-5120, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009773

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We evaluated the differences between patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infections and Fever outpatients, so that prevention and control measures can be taken in time. Patients and Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 65 patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Sixty-nine age-and sex-matched Fever outpatients were enrolled during the same period of time. We also reanalyzed data from 81 SARS-CoV-2 Wild-Type-infected patients. We compared the clinical characteristics and initial indexes of routine tests among the 3 groups. Results: A total of 93.8% of the patients with Omicron infections had clinical symptoms, and the major symptoms were cough, fever and pharyngalgia. Pharyngalgia was a specific manifestation in Omicron group compared to Wild-Type group. The white blood cell of the Omicron group was lower than that of the Fever group [5.0 (3.6–6.1) vs 10.1 (7.6–12.9) ×109/L, P < 0.001]. The neutrophil count in Omicron group was lower than that in Fever and Wild-Type group [2.6 (1.8–3.9) vs 8.1 (5.9–10.9), P < 0.001;2.6 (1.8–3.9) vs 3.4 (2.5–4.7) ×109/L, P < 0.001]. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were lower in Omicron group than in the Fever group. The top 5 major symptoms were fever, cough, pharyngalgia, headache and expectoration. Conclusion: There are differences between the patients with Omicron infections and Fever outpatients, both in clinical manifestations and initial routine hematology indicators. We hope to provide some clues for early identification combined with a history of living in the epidemic area.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008324

ABSTRACT

Reliable and contactless measurements of vital signs, such as respiration and heart rate, are still unmet needs in clinical and home settings. Mm-wave radar and video-based technologies are promising, but currently, the signal processing-based vital sign extraction methods are prone to body motion disruptions or illumination variations in the surrounding environment. Here we propose an image segmentation-based method to extract vital signs from the recorded video and mm-wave radar signals. The proposed method analyses time–frequency spectrograms obtained from Short-Time Fourier Transform rather than individual time-domain signals. This leads to much-improved robustness and accuracy of the heart rate and respiration rate extraction over existing methods. The experiments were conducted under pre- and post-exercise conditions and were repeated on multiple individuals. The results are evaluated by using four metrics against the gold standard contact-based measurements. Significant improvements were observed in terms of precision, accuracy, and stability. The performance was reflected by achieving an averaged Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of 93.8% on multiple subjects. We believe that the proposed estimation method will help address the needs for the increasingly popular remote cardiovascular sensing and diagnosing posed by Covid-19.

7.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003523

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a rapid increase in the use of telemedicine in health care. However, several elements of pediatric primary care visits including, vaccinations, screening tests and lab draws require direct patient contact. This often necessitates an in-person follow-up visit being scheduled after a completed telemedicine visit. This study investigated the in-person follow-up rate after telemedicine visits at East Carolina University (ECU) general pediatrics clinic. We also sought to find what, if any, patient and visit characteristics correlated with the non-completion of required vaccinations, screenings, or lab tests. Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at ECU. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who completed telemedicine visits in our clinic between April 1st and May 31st, 2020. Encounters that required a follow-up in-person visit were determined by manual chart review. Completion of required in-person follow-up was tracked through August 31st, 2020. Data analysis was completed in Stata 16.1 SE (College Station, TX: StataCorp, LP), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 500 eligible encounters, 16% did not attend a recommended in-person follow-up. Among those who completed in-person follow-up, 19% did so more than seven days after their completed telemedicine visit. Comparisons between patient characteristics, visit types, and reason for the in-person follow-up were performed between patients who attended at least one in-person follow-up and those who did not. Results are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant difference in the reasons for the follow up visit among patients who did and did not attend, though the majority of non-attendance was for lab draws (29%) and examinations (21%). The main factor associated with lack of follow-up was patient age, which had a statistically significant difference in both bivariate and multivariable analysis. Infants had a higher follow-up rate when compared to children aged 1-5 (HR: 0.67;95% CI: 0.53, 0.84;p=0.001). For health insurance coverage, encounter type, and reason for in-person follow-up, we found differences in the bivariate analysis that did not persist after multivariable adjustments. Conclusion: Not all recommended in-person follow-ups were completed after pediatric primary care telemedicine visits. Understanding which patients face challenges in receiving all components of well and sick care while utilizing telemedicine is necessary for ensuring the health and well-being of children. While there were some statistically significant differences between patient populations who completed an in-person follow-up after having a telemedicine visit, those differences alone are likely unable to predict which patients are most at risk for non-completion. As telemedicine may continue playing an important role in the postpandemic future, future work needs to be done to identify the barriers that exist for at-risk patients.

8.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(8):e0273016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002316

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak brought online learning to the forefront of education. Scholars have conducted many studies on online learning during the pandemic, but only a few have performed quantitative comparative analyses of students' online learning behavior before and after the outbreak. We collected review data from China's massive open online course platform called icourse.163 and performed social network analysis on 15 courses to explore courses' interaction characteristics before, during, and after the COVID-19 pan-demic. Specifically, we focused on the following aspects: (1) variations in the scale of online learning amid COVID-19;(2a) the characteristics of online learning interaction during the pandemic;(2b) the characteristics of online learning interaction after the pandemic;and (3) differences in the interaction characteristics of social science courses and natural science courses. Results revealed that only a small number of courses witnessed an uptick in online interaction, suggesting that the pandemic's role in promoting the scale of courses was not significant. During the pandemic, online learning interaction became more frequent among course network members whose interaction scale increased. After the pandemic, although the scale of interaction declined, online learning interaction became more effective. The scale and level of interaction in Electrodynamics (a natural science course) and Economics (a social science course) both rose during the pan-demic. However, long after the pandemic, the Economics course sustained online interaction whereas interaction in the Electrodynamics course steadily declined. This discrepancy could be due to the unique characteristics of natural science courses and social science courses.

9.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000903

ABSTRACT

The global emergency caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic can only be solved with effective and widespread preventive and therapeutic strategies, and both are still insufficient. Here, we describe an ultrathin two-dimensional CuInP(2)S(6) (CIPS) nanosheet as a new agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection. CIPS exhibits an extremely high and selective binding capacity (dissociation constant (K(D)) < 1 pM) for the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern, including Delta and Omicron, inhibiting virus entry and infection in angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-bearing cells, human airway epithelial organoids and human ACE2-transgenic mice. On association with CIPS, the virus is quickly phagocytosed and eliminated by macrophages, suggesting that CIPS could be successfully used to capture and facilitate virus elimination by the host. Thus, we propose CIPS as a promising nanodrug for future safe and effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy, and as a decontamination agent and surface-coating material to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.

10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(8): 819-825, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974959

ABSTRACT

Based on natural infection or vaccination, the protective barrier for population has been preliminarily established. However, with constant appearances of SARS-CoV-2 variants, breakthrough infection events cannot be completely avoided, and thus the diagnostic strategy is still the key to discovering epidemic sources and blocking the transmission chain. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis technologies based on nucleic acid, antigen and antibody detections have developed and extended in diversity. Under the background of work resumption and epidemic-prevention normalization during the later COVID-19 era, it is necessary for us to choose appropriate detection methods to satisfy the need of epidemic prevention and control in various scenarios. We summarized the principles and applicable characteristics of existing SARS-CoV-2 detection technologies in this paper, aimed to provide guidance for clinical and public health personnel to make targeted decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
16th CCF Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, ChineseCSCW 2021 ; 1492 CCIS:458-470, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971643

ABSTRACT

By intervening in people’s behavior, governments in several nations have established a variety of strategies to slow down the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, it has a different impact on everyone. Data from the Steam platform online games between January 2018 and February 2021 was used for this project’s analysis. Through the difference-in-difference model in Synthetic Control Methods to quantify and analyze, crucial positive effect on Steam’s online players during COVID-19 and the increase of the number of online players and the released games of the platform in 2020 had been found. The machine learning prediction model was created using the daily totals of the online gaming players of the most popular games on the site. The Ridge regression, whose R squared reached 0.805, had been demonstrated by the experimental results that it got the best performance. Simultaneously, this work found the features of the COVID-19 pandemic and the features of the human mobility, which helps to build a great majority of the predictive models. © 2022, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13311 LNCS:70-80, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1941425

ABSTRACT

Our lives are still not back to normal because of the novel coronavirus epidemic, and people around the world are looking for ways to compensate for the limited experience. The global buzz around Metaverse can also be seen as a concern to upgrade the experience, and the trend toward virtual world interaction is unstoppable, in the future, the boundary between virtual world and real world will be a direction of further exploration in the field of interaction design. If the meta-universe can be developed into a future society, it should not be viewed as a mere technical question. Whether this future is worthy of human pursuit requires us to think more. So based on the future doomed to borderline ambiguous social forms, the establishment of a new order first needs to clarify the virtual world and the real world and the relationship between the difference. This paper critically interprets the concept of meta-cosmic society, and discusses the thinking of the boundary definition in the future context, it is hoped that this discussion will provide a valuable perspective for interaction design to be integrated into the new experience pattern in the future. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(7): 706-711, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911763

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been a major public health issue all over the world, placing a significant burden on available healthcare resources. The most common types of COVID-19 are the mild and common forms. Although the proportion of the severe-critical types is smaller, the rate of death is significantly higher and the medical resources required tend to be greater. Thus, a variety of scores based on other disease and COVID-19 were used to assess the risk of poor prognosis on the COVID-19, including the common scores for community-acquired pneumonia, sepsis and viral pneumonia. Unfortunately, the above scores often lacked an adequate description of the applicable population or were at high risk of bias with unknown applicability. Therefore, the article summarized the existing scores, aiming to provide a reference for clinical prognostic risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Chinese Journal of Intelligent Science and Technology ; 2(2):126-134, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912172

ABSTRACT

Community plays an important role in epidemic prevention and control in the society. Based on the practical experience of community prevention and control of the novel corona virus pneumonia, a community patrolling and investigation scheduling problem in epidemic situations was presented, which estimated a risk value for each high-risk household based on epidemic-related information, and then scheduled the community staffs to patrol and investigate the high-risk households as efficiently as possible. To solve this problem, a hybrid intelligent optimization scheduling algorithm was proposed, which explored the solution space based on the search strategy of the water wave optimization (WWO) met heuristic and improved solution accuracies using two local search strategies. Whenever an exceptional case was detected during the patrolling and investigation, the solution was dynamically adapted to the changed situation. Computational results on the real-world cases of community patrolling and investigation in Zhejiang Province, China demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. © 2020 Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.. All Rights Reserved.

15.
China and Eurasia: Rethinking Cooperation and Contradictions in the Era of Changing World Order ; : 24-36, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893126

ABSTRACT

Under COVID-19, establishing an interdependent community around the globe has become more and more crucial. The idea of “building a community with a shared future for mankind” was proposed by President Xi Jinping in response to the negative consequences of the Western-oriented globalization and with consideration for China’s major importance and responsibility, and more importantly, a dual international vision has been developing. The new international vision comprises two possibilities. First is the “Absorbing” scenario, which follows that China is the primary beneficiary of economic globalization and will become increasingly advanced and culturally diverse. Even though China has achieved overall and unprecedented development, people know that China’s development has benefited from international society, thus China is willing to make contributions to the global governance. The other possibility is the “Sharing” scenario. China will allow the world to share the outcome of reform and opening up through the Belt and Road Initiative. By promoting this initiative, China will commit to share and achieve win-win development with the whole world. It will especially benefit the economy and cultural communication of Eurasia and promote cooperation between China and countries that pursue global peace and development. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Yuntian Zheng.

16.
ACS Environmental Au ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1890111

ABSTRACT

Daily emission estimates are essential for tracking the dynamic changes in emission sources. In this work, we estimate daily emissions of coal-fired power plants in China during 2017-2020 by combining information from the unit-based China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED) and real-time measurements from continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS). We develop a step-by-step method to screen outliers and impute missing values for data from CEMS. Then, plant-level daily profiles of flue gas volume and emissions obtained from CEMS are coupled with annual emissions from CPED to derive daily emissions. Reasonable agreement is found between emission variations and available statistics (i.e., monthly power generation and daily coal consumption). Daily power emissions are in the range of 6267-12,994, 0.4-1.3, 6.5-12.0, and 2.5-6.8 Gg for CO2, PM2.5, NOx, and SO2, respectively, with high emissions in winter and summer caused by heating and cooling demand. Our estimates can capture sudden decreases (e.g., those associated with COVID-19 lockdowns and short-term emission controls) or increases (e.g., those related to a drought) in daily power emissions during typical socioeconomic events. We also find that weekly patterns from CEMS exhibit no obvious weekend effect compared to those in previous studies. The daily power emissions will help to improve chemical transport modeling and facilitate policy formulation. © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

17.
16th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, ISKE 2021 ; : 458-463, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846124

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, and non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) continue to be strengthened, the impact of COVID-19 on the film industry has not yet been clearly quantified. In this study, the Difference-in-Difference model is used to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the box office. Results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has a significant negative effect on the daily global box office. Additionally, based on a research dataset containing information on movies and COVID-19, ten machine learning methods were used to build a prediction model of the cumulative global box office. The experimental results showed that Extremely Randomized Trees had the best predictive performance, and it was found that COVID-19 features helped improve the predictive performance of several models. © 2021 IEEE.

18.
16th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, ISKE 2021 ; : 697-702, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846121

ABSTRACT

The greatest threat to global health is the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) currently. COVID-19 was declared as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. For this highly contagious disease, the way of human-to-human transmission has forced us to implement large-scale COVID-19 testing worldwide. On February 21, 2021, 120 million people have already undergone COVID-19 testing. The large scale of COVID-19 testing has driven innovation in strategies, technologies, and concepts for managing public health testing. It is an unprecedented global testing program. In this study, we describe the role of COVID-19 testing while establishing a comprehensive and validated research dataset that includes data from 189 countries and 893 regions between August 8, 2019, and March 3, 2021. Through our analysis, we observed that the more COVID-19 testings provided, the more confirmed cases were detected. The availability of large-scale COVID-19 testing is indispensable to fully control the outbreak, as it is the main way to cut off the source of COVID-19 transmission. Then we used this dataset to predict the COVID-19 detection capabilities of each country by Machine Learning, Ensemble Learning, and Broad Learning System. Experimental results show that Broad Learning System significantly outperformed the Machine Learning. The R2 of predicted the ability of the COVID-19 testing can reach 0.999921. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334871

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the efficacy and effectiveness of the two FDA-approved mRNA vaccines. Here, we explored various strategies to develop novel mRNAs vaccines to achieve safer and wider coverage of VOCs. Firstly, we constructed a cohort of mRNAs that feature a furin cleavage mutation in the spike (S) protein of predominant VOCs, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2). Not present in the mRNA vaccines currently in use, the mutation abolished the cleavage between the S1 and S2 subunits, potentially enhancing the safety profile of the immunogen. Secondly, we systematically evaluated the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) in vaccinated mice, and discovered that individual VOC mRNAs elicited strong neutralizing activity in a VOC-specific manner. Thirdly, the IgG produced in mice immunized with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs showed potent cross-reactivity with other VOCs, which was further corroborated by challenging vaccinated mice with the live virus of VOCs. However, neither WA-Furin nor Beta-Furin mRNA elicited strong neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Hence, we further developed an Omicron-specific mRNA vaccine that restored protection against the original and the sublineages of Omicron variant. Finally, to broaden the protection spectrum of the new Omicron mRNA vaccine, we tested the concept of bivalent immunogen. Instead of just fusing two RBDs head-to-tail, we for the first time constructed an mRNA-based chimeric immunogen by introducing the RBD of Delta variant into the entire S antigen of Omicron. The resultant chimeric mRNA was capable of inducing potent and broadly acting nAb against Omicron (both BA.1 and BA.2) and Delta, which paves the way to develop new vaccine candidate to target emerging variants in the future.

20.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; 37(8):1037-1041, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818309

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 is not clear, which is one of the reasons that only Remdesivir has been approved by FDA for treating COVID-19. Although some new vaccines have been a- vailable, the quick mutations of SARS-CoV-2 affect the effectiveness of vaccines, calling for further assessment of the persistence and safety of vaccines. Therefore, drug treatment and prevention are still effective ways to deal with the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2. The article briefly summarizes the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 entry based on the existing literature. This virus enters the cell through two main ways, that is, spike protein mediating membrane fusion with plasma membrane or endosome membrane. According to the targets, the article summarizes the reported inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, aiming to provide a reference for following research and clinical application of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.

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