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1.
Journal of Food Biochemistry ; 8812517(56), 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2316664

ABSTRACT

Fructus Aurantii (FA) is the dry and immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. and its rutaceous cultivars. FA has been widely used to treat digestive system diseases since ancient China, and it promotes gastrointestinal (GI) motility in functional dyspepsia (FD), but its potential therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the effects of FA ethanol extracts in an iodoacetamide (IA)-induced FD rat model. Firstly, key FA therapy targets for FD were gathered using systematic pharmacology. Combined with systemic pharmacological analyses, plasma metabolomics based on UPLC-QTOF-MS were conducted. Then, MetaboAnalyst was used to jointly analyze systemic pharmacology targets and metabolomic metabolites to select key metabolic pathways. Finally, the key path is verified by experiments. FA exerted distinct therapeutic effects in anti-inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal motility in our IA-induced FD rat model. When compared with the model group, FA down-regulated the inflammatory factors interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor-a. At the same time, FA up-regulated tight junction proteins in the intestinal epithelial barrier. Through the integrated analysis of metabolomics and systemic pharmacology, we conducted experimental verification on Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway. When compared with the model group, FA down-regulatedphospho-mitogen activated protein kinase, phospho-extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2, myosin light chain kinase, and phospho-myosin regulatory light chain protein levels. Thus, FA ameliorated FD by regulating the Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway. Our integrated strategy identified underlying FA mechanisms toward FD treatment and provided a foundation for FA development as a clinical agent for FD.

2.
Cell Rep ; 42(5): 112443, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306918

ABSTRACT

Omicron subvariants continuingly challenge current vaccination strategies. Here, we demonstrate nearly complete escape of the XBB.1.5, CH.1.1, and CA.3.1 variants from neutralizing antibodies stimulated by three doses of mRNA vaccine or by BA.4/5 wave infection, but neutralization is rescued by a BA.5-containing bivalent booster. CH.1.1 and CA.3.1 show strong immune escape from monoclonal antibody S309. Additionally, XBB.1.5, CH.1.1, and CA.3.1 spike proteins exhibit increased fusogenicity and enhanced processing compared with BA.2. Homology modeling reveals the key roles of G252V and F486P in the neutralization resistance of XBB.1.5, with F486P also enhancing receptor binding. Further, K444T/M and L452R in CH.1.1 and CA.3.1 likely drive escape from class II neutralizing antibodies, whereas R346T and G339H mutations could confer the strong neutralization resistance of these two subvariants to S309-like antibodies. Overall, our results support the need for administration of the bivalent mRNA vaccine and continued surveillance of Omicron subvariants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , Mutation/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Combined , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Financ Res Lett ; 54: 103711, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278119

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic increased people's propensity for precautionary savings in response to economic recession (e.g., Mody et al., 2012; Gropp and McShane, 2021; Levine et al., 2021). However, as the relevant vaccine roll-out continues, it mitigates people's concerns and boosts the macroeconomy, which leads to significant declines in household precautionary saving motives. Consistent with this expectation, using U.S. county-level vaccination, deposit, economic, and demographic data, we show that there is a significant negative relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and household savings. We attribute this negative relationship to an economic recovery channel because our findings also suggest that the vaccination has a strong negative impact on the unemployment rate and results in increases in consumer spending. Overall, our study adds to an emerging strand of literature on how COVID-19 vaccination affects households' financial behaviors.

4.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28680, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256895

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has developed a variety of approaches to counteract host innate antiviral immunity to facilitate its infection, replication and pathogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms that it employs are still not been fully understood. Here, we found that SARS-CoV-2 NSP8 inhibited the production of type I and III interferons (IFNs) by acting on RIG-I/MDA5 and the signaling molecules TRIF and STING. Overexpression of NSP8 downregulated the expression of type I and III IFNs stimulated by poly (I:C) transfection and infection with SeV and SARS-CoV-2. In addition, NSP8 impaired IFN expression triggered by overexpression of the signaling molecules RIG-I, MDA5, and MAVS, instead of TBK1 and IRF3-5D, an active form of IRF3. From a mechanistic view, NSP8 interacts with RIG-I and MDA5, and thereby prevents the assembly of the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signalosome, resulting in the impaired phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. NSP8 also suppressed the TRIF- and STING- induced IFN expression by directly interacting with them. Moreover, ectopic expression of NSP8 promoted virus replications. Taken together, SARS-CoV-2 NSP8 suppresses type I and III IFN responses by disturbing the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS complex formation and targeting TRIF and STING signaling transduction. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254619

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Primary health care institutions (PHCI) play an important role in reducing health inequities and achieving universal health coverage. However, despite the increasing inputs of healthcare resources in China, the proportion of patient visits in PHCI keeps declining. In 2020, the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic further exerted a severe stress on the operation of PHCI due to administrative orders. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency change in PHCI and provide policy recommendations for the transformation of PHCI in the post-pandemic era. (2) Methods: Data envelope analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist index model were applied to estimate the technical efficiency of PHCI in Shenzhen, China, from 2016 to 2020. The Tobit regression model was then used to analyze the influencing factors of efficiency of PHCI. (3) Results: The results of our analysis reflect considerable low levels of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency of PHCI in Shenzhen, China, in 2017 and 2020. Compared to years before the epidemic, the productivity of PHCI decreased by 24.6% in 2020, which reached the nadir, during the COVID-19 pandemic along with the considerable reduction of technological efficiency, despite the significant inputs of health personnel and volume of health services. The growth of technical efficiency of PHCI is significantly affected by the revenue from operation, percentage of doctors and nurses in health technicians, ratio of doctors and nurses, service population, proportion of children in the service population, and numbers of PHCI within one kilometer. (4) Conclusion: The technical efficiency significantly declines along with the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen, China, with the deterioration of underlying technical efficiency change and technological efficiency change, regardless of the immense inputs of health resources. Transformation of PHCI such as adopting tele-health technologies to maximize primary care delivery is needed to optimize utilization of health resource inputs. This study brings insights to improve the performances of PHCI in China in response to the current epidemiologic transition and future epidemic outbreaks more effectively, and to promote the national strategy of Healthy China 2030.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Efficiency, Organizational , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Efficiency , Policy , China , Primary Health Care
6.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28455, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269397

ABSTRACT

Traditional observational studies have suggested a potential association between trans fatty acids (TFAs), which are considered to be health-damaging fatty acids, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether there is a causal relationship between them is currently unclear. We aimed to investigate the causal link between genetically determined TFAs and COVID-19. We performed univariate and multivariate Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using summary statistics from the European Pedigree TFAs (n = 8013), COVID-19 susceptibility (n = 159 840), COVID-19 hospitalization (n = 44 986), and COVID-19 severity (n = 18 152) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary MR analysis, and several other methods were used as supplements. In univariate MR analysis, higher levels of circulating trans, cis-18:2 TFAs were positively associated with a higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (p < 0.0033; odds ratio [OR] = 1.637; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.116-2.401) and COVID-19 severity (p < 0.0033; OR = 2.575; 95% CI: 1.412-4.698). Furthermore, in multivariate MR analysis, trans, cis-18:2 had an independent and significant causal association with a higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (p = 0.00044; OR = 1.862; 95% CI = 1.316-2.636) and COVID-19 severity (p = 0.0016; OR = 2.268; 95% CI = 1.361-3.779) after the five TFAs were adjusted for each other. Together, our findings provide evidence that trans, cis-18:2 TFAs have an independent and robust causal effect on COVID-19 hospitalization and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trans Fatty Acids , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Dietary Supplements , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
7.
International journal of environmental research and public health ; 20(5), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2254615

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Primary health care institutions (PHCI) play an important role in reducing health inequities and achieving universal health coverage. However, despite the increasing inputs of healthcare resources in China, the proportion of patient visits in PHCI keeps declining. In 2020, the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic further exerted a severe stress on the operation of PHCI due to administrative orders. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency change in PHCI and provide policy recommendations for the transformation of PHCI in the post-pandemic era. (2) Methods: Data envelope analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist index model were applied to estimate the technical efficiency of PHCI in Shenzhen, China, from 2016 to 2020. The Tobit regression model was then used to analyze the influencing factors of efficiency of PHCI. (3) Results: The results of our analysis reflect considerable low levels of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency of PHCI in Shenzhen, China, in 2017 and 2020. Compared to years before the epidemic, the productivity of PHCI decreased by 24.6% in 2020, which reached the nadir, during the COVID-19 pandemic along with the considerable reduction of technological efficiency, despite the significant inputs of health personnel and volume of health services. The growth of technical efficiency of PHCI is significantly affected by the revenue from operation, percentage of doctors and nurses in health technicians, ratio of doctors and nurses, service population, proportion of children in the service population, and numbers of PHCI within one kilometer. (4) Conclusion: The technical efficiency significantly declines along with the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen, China, with the deterioration of underlying technical efficiency change and technological efficiency change, regardless of the immense inputs of health resources. Transformation of PHCI such as adopting tele-health technologies to maximize primary care delivery is needed to optimize utilization of health resource inputs. This study brings insights to improve the performances of PHCI in China in response to the current epidemiologic transition and future epidemic outbreaks more effectively, and to promote the national strategy of Healthy China 2030.

8.
Remote Sensing of Environment ; 290:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2287103

ABSTRACT

Multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool for measuring large-scale land subsidence. However, the measurement points generated by InSAR are too many to be manually analyzed, and automatic subsidence detection and classification methods are still lacking. In this study, we developed an oriented R-CNN deep learning network to automatically detect and classify subsidence bowls using InSAR measurements and multi-source ancillary data. We used 541 Sentinel-1 images acquired during 2015–2021 to map land subsidence of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area by resolving persistent and distributed scatterers. Multi-source data related to land subsidence, including geological and lithological, land cover, topographic, and climatic data, were incorporated into deep learning, allowing the local subsidence to be classified into seven categories. The results showed that the oriented R-CNN achieved an average precision (AP) of 0.847 for subsidence detection and a mean AP (mAP) of 0.798 for subsidence classification, which outperformed the other three state-of-the-art methods (Rotated RetinaNet, R3Det, and ReDet). An independent effect analysis showed that incorporating all datasets improved the AP by 11.2% for detection and the mAP by 73.9% for classification, respectively, compared with using InSAR measurements only. Combining InSAR measurements with globally available land cover and digital elevation model data improved the AP for subsidence detection to 0.822, suggesting that our methods can be potentially transferred to other regions, which was further validated this using a new dataset in Shanghai. These results improve the understanding of deltaic subsidence and facilitate geohazard assessment and management for sustainable environments. • Land subsidence of the GBA from 2015 to 2021 was measured by PS/DS detection. • The oriented R-CNN was applied to automatically identify local subsidence. • Incorporating multi-source data improved the performance of subsidence detection. • COVID-19 lockdown ceased groundwater extraction and decelerated subsidence. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Remote Sensing of Environment is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

9.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246789

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Secukinumab, the first interleukin 17A inhibitor, is widely used to treat immune diseases, including plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Recently, many studies have reported adverse events associated with secukinumab, including gastrointestinal disorders, infections and infestations, and hypersensitive and nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, outcomes and time to onset of the four main toxicities of secukinumab using post-marketing data. METHODS: Our study utilized data from the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database from 2015 to 2021, using disproportionality analysis. Toxicities were defined based on the standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities queries. Two disproportionality methods were used to detect potential signals: information component (IC) and reporting odds ratio (ROR). The signals were defined as ROR025 > 1 and IC025 > 0. RESULTS: A total of 73 945 398 records were included in this study, of which 300 665 records were related to secukinumab. Diarrhoea (N = 3538), nasopharyngitis (N = 3458), pruritus (N = 4277) and rash (N = 3270) were the most common adverse events. Inflammatory bowel disease (IC025 /ROR025 = 3.25/9.69), genital candidiasis (IC025 /ROR025 = 3.46/11.54), dermatitis psoriasiform (IC025 /ROR025 = 1.94/4.04) and anosmia (IC025 /ROR025 = 1.62/3.17) had the highest IC025 values of all toxicities. The time to onset of the four toxicities was mainly concentrated in the first month. Some patients simultaneously presented with two or more toxicities. CONCLUSION: This pharmacovigilance study systematically explored the four main toxicities of secukinumab and provided new safety signals based on past safety information. Some high-risk signals need to be given attention.

10.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28561, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229432

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a poor inducer of innate antiviral immunity, and the underlying mechanism still needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 inhibited the production of type I and III interferons (IFNs) by targeting the RIG-I/MDA5, Toll-like receptor (TLR3)-TRIF, and cGAS-STING signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 suppressed the expression of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes induced by poly (I:C) transfection and infection with Sendai virus or SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles. NSP7 impaired type I and III IFN production activated by components of the cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathway, including RIG-I, MDA5, and MAVS, but not TBK1, IKKε, and IRF3-5D, an active form of IRF3. In addition, NSP7 also suppressed TRIF- and STING-induced IFN responses. Mechanistically, NSP7 associated with RIG-I and MDA5 prevented the formation of the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signalosome and interacted with TRIF and STING to inhibit TRIF-TBK1 and STING-TBK1 complex formation, thus reducing the subsequent IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation that are essential for IFN induction. In addition, ectopic expression of NSP7 impeded innate immune activation and facilitated virus replication. Taken together, SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 dampens type I and III IFN responses via disruption of the signal transduction of the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS, TLR3-TRIF, and cGAS-STING signaling pathways, thus providing novel insights into the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and innate antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Interferons , Immunity, Innate , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics
11.
Pathogens ; 12(2)2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225487

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been a pandemic threat to human health and the worldwide economy, but efficient treatments are still lacking. Type I and III interferons are essential for controlling viral infection, indicating that antiviral innate immune signaling is critical for defense against viral infection. Phase separation, one of the basic molecular processes, governs multiple cellular activities, such as cancer progression, microbial infection, and signaling transduction. Notably, recent studies suggest that phase separation regulates antiviral signaling such as the RLR and cGAS-STING pathways. Moreover, proper phase separation of viral proteins is essential for viral replication and pathogenesis. These observations indicate that phase separation is a critical checkpoint for virus and host interaction. In this study, we summarize the recent advances concerning the regulation of antiviral innate immune signaling and SARS-CoV-2 infection by phase separation. Our review highlights the emerging notion that phase separation is the robust modulator of innate antiviral signaling and viral infection.

12.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 30: 465-476, 2022 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211202

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the effectiveness of currently approved mRNA vaccines. To achieve wider coverage of VOCs, we first constructed a cohort of mRNAs harboring a furin cleavage mutation in the spike (S) protein of predominant VOCs, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2). The mutation abolished the cleavage between the S1 and S2 subunits. Systematic evaluation in vaccinated mice discovered that individual VOC mRNAs elicited strong neutralizing activity in a VOC-specific manner. In particular, the neutralizing antibodies (nAb) produced by immunization with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs showed potent cross-reactivity with other VOCs. However, neither mRNA elicited strong neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Hence, we further developed an Omicron-specific mRNA vaccine that restored protection against the original Omicron variant and some sublineages. Finally, to broaden the protection spectrum of the new Omicron mRNA vaccine, we engineered an mRNA-based chimeric immunogen by introducing the receptor-binding domain of Delta variant into the entire S antigen of Omicron. The resultant chimeric mRNA induced potent and broadly nAbs against Omicron and Delta, which paves the way to developing new vaccine candidates to target emerging variants in the future.

13.
Int J Mol Med ; 51(3)2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217153

ABSTRACT

Besides causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS­coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) also harms the digestive system. Given the appearance of numerous cases of SARS­CoV­2, it has been demonstrated that SARS­CoV­2 is able to harm target organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas, and either worsen the condition of patients with basic digestive illnesses or make their prognosis poor. According to several previously published studies, angiotensin­converting enzyme II (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease II (TMPRSS2) are expressed either singly or in combination in the digestive system and in other regions of the human body. In order to change the viral conformation, create a fusion hole and release viral RNA into the host cell for replication and transcription, SARS­CoV­2 is capable of binding to these two proteins through the spike protein on its surface. As a result, the body experiences an immune reaction and an inflammatory reaction, which may lead to nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and even gastrointestinal bleeding, elevated levels of liver enzymes, acute liver injury, pancreatitis and other serious lesions. In order to provide possible strategies for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of digestive system diseases during the COVID­19 pandemic, the molecular structure of SARS­CoV­2 and the mechanism via which SARS­CoV­2 enters the human body through ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were discussed in the present review, and the clinical manifestations of SARS­CoV­2 infection in the digestive system were also summarized. Finally, the expression characteristics of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the main target organs of the digestive system were described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Diseases , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Digestive System Diseases/virology
14.
mBio ; 14(1): e0317622, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193471

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread and strong immune evasion of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants has raised serious concerns for the global COVID-19 pandemic. These new variants exhibit generally reduced fusogenicity and increased endosomal entry pathway utilization compared to the ancestral D614G variant, the underlying mechanisms of which remain elusive. Here, we show that the C-terminal S1 mutations of the BA.1.1 subvariant, H655Y and T547K, critically govern the low fusogenicity of Omicron. Notably, H655Y also dictates the enhanced endosome entry pathway utilization. Mechanistically, T547K and H655Y likely stabilize the spike trimer conformation as suggested by increased molecular interactions in structural modeling and enhanced S1 shedding of their reversion mutants K547T and Y655H in viral producer cells. Importantly, the H655Y mutation also determines the low fusogenicity and enhanced dependence on the endosomal entry pathway of other Omicron subvariants, including BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4/5, and BA.2.75. Together, these results uncover mechanisms governing Omicron subvariant entry and provide insights into altered Omicron tissue tropism and pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Omicron has been shown to predominantly use the endosomal entry pathway, resulting in reduced lung tropism and reduced disease severity; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In addition, whether the most recent Omicron subvariants, including BA.5 and BA.2.75, use the same pathway as their ancestor for entry is currently not known. In this study, we show that T547K and H655Y mutations in the C terminus of the S1 subunit critically determine the enhanced dependence on the endosomal entry pathway as well as the reduced cell-cell fusion activity of Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, and other subvariants. Further experiments and molecular modeling suggest that H655Y and K547T stabilize the spike trimer conformation, likely contributing to the decreased fusogenicity and endosomal entry. Our work uncovers novel mechanisms underlying the distinct entry pathway of Omicron subvariants and advances our understanding of their biological characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Endosomes
15.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 154, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The physiological effects of prone ventilation in ARDS patients have been discussed for a long time but have not been fully elucidated. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has emerged as a tool for bedside monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, allowing the opportunity to obtain data. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prone positioning (PP) on ventilation-perfusion matching by contrast-enhanced EIT in patients with ARDS. DESIGN: Monocenter prospective physiologic study. SETTING: University medical ICU. PATIENTS: Ten mechanically ventilated ARDS patients who underwent PP. INTERVENTIONS: We performed EIT evaluation at the initiation of PP, 3 h after PP initiation and the end of PP during the first PP session. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was analyzed based on EIT images and compared to the clinical variables regarding respiratory and hemodynamic status. Prolonged prone ventilation improved oxygenation in the ARDS patients. Based on EIT measurements, the distribution of ventilation was homogenized and dorsal lung ventilation was significantly improved by PP administration, while the effect of PP on lung perfusion was relatively mild, with increased dorsal lung perfusion observed. The ventilation-perfusion matched region was found to increase and correlate with the increased PaO2/FiO2 by PP, which was attributed mainly to reduced shunt in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged prone ventilation increased dorsal ventilation and perfusion, which resulted in improved ventilation-perfusion matching and oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04725227. Registered on 25 January 2021.


Subject(s)
Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Electric Impedance , Humans , Perfusion , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Cell Host Microbe ; 31(1): 9-17.e3, 2023 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122385

ABSTRACT

The continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several new Omicron subvariants, including BQ.1, BQ.1.1, BA.4.6, BF.7, and BA.2.75.2. Here, we examine the neutralization resistance of these subvariants against sera from 3-dose vaccinated healthcare workers, hospitalized BA.1-wave patients, and BA.4/5-wave patients. We found enhanced neutralization resistance in all new subvariants, especially in the BQ.1 and BQ.1.1 subvariants driven by N460K and K444T mutations, as well as the BA.2.75.2 subvariant driven largely by its F486S mutation. All Omicron subvariants maintained their weakened infectivity in Calu-3 cells, with the F486S mutation driving further diminished titer for the BA.2.75.2 subvariant. Molecular modeling revealed the mechanisms of antibody-mediated immune evasion by R346T, K444T, F486S, and D1199N mutations. Altogether, these findings shed light on the evolution of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1518-1526.e4, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117599

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged BA.2.75 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant contains 9 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared to the ancestral BA.2 variant. Here, we examine the neutralizing antibody escape of BA.2.75 in mRNA-vaccinated and BA.1-infected individuals, as well as the molecular basis underlying functional changes in S. Notably, BA.2.75 exhibits enhanced neutralization resistance over BA.2 but less than the BA.4/5 variant. The G446S and N460K mutations of BA.2.75 are primarily responsible for its enhanced resistance to neutralizing antibodies. The R493Q mutation, a reversion to the prototype sequence, reduces BA.2.75 neutralization resistance. The impact of these mutations is consistent with their locations in common neutralizing antibody epitopes. Further, BA.2.75 shows enhanced cell-cell fusion over BA.2, driven largely by the N460K mutation, which enhances S processing. Structural modeling reveals enhanced receptor contacts introduced by N460K, suggesting a mechanism of potentiated receptor utilization and syncytia formation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Envelope Proteins
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17955, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087312

ABSTRACT

Progress has been made in COVID-19 vaccine development, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). Patients with AIIRD (n = 101) were included in this study. All patients received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Serum anti-S1/RBD protein IgG was detected 2-16 weeks after the second vaccination. Seropositivity was defined as IgG ≥ 1.00 bound antibody unit S/CO. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was assessed by seropositivity rate and the levels of serum IgG antibody against anti-S1/RBD protein, compared with the general population (n = 46). There was no difference by statistical significance in the seropositivity rate between patients with AIIRD (82.2%) and SLE (86.1%) and the control group (93.5%), p > 0.05. The level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies in patients with AIIRD (median [IQR], 8.8 [2.2-17.3]) and SLE (median [IQR], 9.6 [2.4-20.4]) was comparable to that in the control group (median [IQR], 7.2 [3.1-14.2]), p > 0.05. Patients treated with glucocorticoids(GCs) (median dose, [IQR]: 2.5 mg/day [IQR 2.5-5.0]) or hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) or GCs + HCQ without other immunomodulatory medications, had an appropriate immunogenic response(88.1%) with high levels of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG(median [IQR], 12.1 [6.5-20.4]). Neither of patients treated with rituximab had positive serum antibodies, which was statistically significant, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Compared with the control group, methotrexate(MTX) and iguratimod(IGU) was significantly reduced the level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies. Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine had appropriate immunogenicity in patients with AIIRD. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was severely impaired by rituximab, and also suppressed by MTX and IGU, while low doses of GC and HCQ had negligible effect.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatic Fever , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
19.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 14(9): 1072-1081, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tailgut cysts are defined as congenital cysts that develop in the rectosacral space from the residue of the primitive tail. As a congenital disease, caudal cysts are very rare, and their canceration is even rarer, which makes the disease prone to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We describe a case of caudal cyst with adenocarcinogenesis and summarize in detail the characteristics of cases with analytical value reported since 1990. CASE SUMMARY: A 35-year-old woman found a mass in her lower abdomen 2 mo ago. She was asymptomatic at that time and was not treated because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Two weeks ago, the patient developed abdominal distension and right waist discomfort and came to our hospital. Except for the high level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, the medical history and laboratory tests were not remarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, slightly lobulated cystic-solid mass with a straight diameter of approximately 10 cm × 9 cm in the presacral space, slightly high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and moderate signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging. The mass was completely removed by laparoscopic surgery. Histopathological examination showed that the lesion was an intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma, and the multidisciplinary team decided to implement postoperative chemotherapy. The patient recovered well, the tumor marker levels returned to normal, and tumor-free survival has been achieved thus far. CONCLUSION: The case and literature summary can help clinicians and researchers develop appropriate examination and therapeutic methods for diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease.

20.
Cell host & microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046473

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged BA.2.75 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant contains 9 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared to the ancestral BA.2 variant. Here we examine the neutralizing antibody escape of BA.2.75 in mRNA-vaccinated and BA.1-infected individuals, as well as the molecular basis underlying functional changes in S. Notably, BA.2.75 exhibits enhanced neutralization resistance over BA.2, but less than the BA.4/5 variant. The G446S and N460K mutations of BA.2.75 are primarily responsible for its enhanced resistance to neutralizing antibodies. The R493Q mutation, a reversion to the prototype sequence, also reduces BA.2.75 neutralization resistance. The impact of these mutations is consistent with their locations in common neutralizing antibody epitopes. Further, BA.2.75 shows enhanced cell-cell fusion over BA.2, driven largely by the N460K mutation, which enhances S processing. Structural modeling reveals enhanced receptor contacts introduced by N460K, suggesting a mechanism of potentiated receptor utilization and syncytia formation. Newly emerged Omicron subvariants reignite concerns over escape from existing immunity. Qu and colleagues compare the immunity resistance and fusogenicity of BA.2.75 with prior variants. BA.2.75 exhibits stronger neutralization resistance than BA.2 but weaker than BA.4/5, as well as enhanced fusogenicity, which are largely driven by G446S and N460K, respectively.

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