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1.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seriously threatened people. In this study, we detected the expression of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM and respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients with COVID-19 and explored the correlation and clinical significance between SARS-CoV-2 antibody and respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA. METHODS: From March 5, 2020 to April 28, 2020, 48 cases with COVID-19 diagnosed in Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected by real-time fluorescence RT-PCR method. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were determined by colloidal gold immunochromatography. The statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test. RESULTS: In all the patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA among 270 upper respiratory tract (nasal or throat swabs) samples, 71 lower respiratory tract (sputum) samples, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies in 123 serum samples were detected during the hospitalization period. The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM within the first week after symptom onset (p < 0.05). The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM during day 8 - 30 after symptom onset (p < 0.01). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lower respiratory tract specimens (64.8%, 46/71) was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract (46.7%, 126/270) (p < 0.05). The positive rate (100%, 4/4) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (59.3%, 32/54) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). The positive rate (72.2%, 57/79) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the upper respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (30.7%, 39/127) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG might be detected within the first week after symptom onset. The application of SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG/IgM) detection is important for the suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA results. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract. Sputum detection is recommended for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Using lower respiratory tract specimens may reduce the false negative PCR tests. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be improved by investigating follow-up specimens over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory System , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion particles composed of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 incorporated onto murine leukemia virus capsids and a modified minimal murine leukemia virus genome encoding firefly luciferase. This assay design is intended for use in laboratories with biocontainment level 2 and therefore circumvents the need for the biocontainment level 3 that would be required for replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus. To validate the pseudovirion assay, we set up comparisons with other available antibody tests including those from Abbott, Euroimmun and Siemens, using archived, known samples. RESULTS: 11 out of 12 SARS-CoV-2-infected patient serum samples showed neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2-spike pseudotyped MLV viruses, with neutralizing titers-50 (NT50) that ranged from 1:25 to 1:1,417. Five historical samples from patients hospitalized for severe influenza infection in 2016 tested negative in the neutralization assay (NT50 < 25). Three serum samples with high neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2/MLV pseudoviruses showed no detectable neutralizing activity (NT50 < 25) against SARS-CoV-1/MLV pseudovirions. We also compared the semiquantitative Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, which measures binding of IgG to recombinantly expressed receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with the neutralization titers obtained in the pseudovirion assay and the results show high concordance between the two tests (R2 = 0.9344). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 spike/MLV pseudovirions provide a practical means of assessing neutralizing activity of antibodies in serum or plasma from infected patients under laboratory conditions consistent with biocontainment level 2. This assay offers promise also in evaluating immunogenicity of spike glycoprotein-based candidate vaccines in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukemia/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(9): 5382-5392, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387965

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection has posed unprecedented threat to global public health. The virus-encoded non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) is a bi-functional enzyme consisting of an exoribonuclease (ExoN) domain and a methyltransferase (MTase) domain and plays a pivotal role in viral replication. Here, we report the structure of SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-ExoN domain bound to its co-factor nsp10 and show that, compared to the SARS-CoV nsp10/nsp14-full-length complex, SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-ExoN retains an integral exoribonuclease fold and preserves an active configuration in the catalytic center. Analysis of the nsp10/nsp14-ExoN interface reveals a footprint in nsp10 extensively overlapping with that observed in the nsp10/nsp16 structure. A marked difference in the co-factor when engaging nsp14 and nsp16 lies in helix-α1', which is further experimentally ascertained to be involved in nsp14-binding but not in nsp16-engagement. Finally, we also show that nsp10/nsp14-ExoN is enzymatically active despite the absence of nsp14-MTase domain. These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 nsp10/nsp14-ExoN functions as an exoribonuclease with both structural and functional integrity.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Binding Sites , Crystallography, X-Ray , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Guanine , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/deficiency , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 647679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285309

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and social responsiveness toward COVID-19 among Chinese medical students. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 889 medical students in three well-known Chinese medical universities. The questionnaire was comprised of three domains which consisted of demographic characteristic collection, seven items for knowledge, and eight items for attitudes and social responsiveness toward COVID-19. Data from different universities were lumped together and were divided into different groups to compare the differences, including (1) students at the clinical learning stage (Group A) or those at the basic-medicine stage (Group B) and (2) students who have graduated and worked (Group C) or those newly enrolled (Group D). Results: Medical students at group B had a weaker knowledge toward COVID-19 than did students at group A, especially in the question of clinical manifestations (p < 0.001). The percentage of totally correct answers of COVID-19 knowledge in group C was higher than that in Group D (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between groups C and D in the attitudes and social responsiveness toward COVID-19. Surprisingly, we found that the idea of newly enrolled medical students could be easily affected by interventions. Conclusions: In light of this information, medical education should pay attention not only to the cultivation of professional knowledge and clinical skills but also to the positive interventions to better the comprehensive qualities including communicative abilities and empathy.

7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(5): 374-380, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218472

ABSTRACT

A surge in the number of international arrivals awaiting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening overwhelmed health-care workers and depleted medical resources in designated hospitals in Beijing, China in March 2020. The People's Government of Beijing Municipality therefore issued a policy which required the mandatory transfer of all asymptomatic passengers arriving from a foreign country to designated quarantine hotels, and the transfer of passengers with fever or respiratory symptoms to designated hospitals. Xiaotangshan Designated Hospital, a severe acute respiratory syndrome hospital in 2003, was rapidly renovated and put into operation with the main tasks of screening and isolating symptomatic international arrivals at Beijing Capital International Airport, providing basic medical care for mild to moderate COVID-19-positive cases, and rapidly referring severe to critical COVID-19-positive cases to higher-level hospitals. During the month-long period of its operation, 2171 passengers were screened and 53 were confirmed as having COVID-19 (six severe to critical). We describe how the use of Xiaotangshan Designated Hospital in this way enabled the efficient grouping and assessment of passengers arriving from a foreign country, the provision of optimal patient care without compromising public safety and the prioritization of critically ill patients requiring life-saving treatment. The designated hospital is a successful example of the World Health Organization's recommendation to renovate existing medical infrastructures to improve the COVID-19 response capacity. The flexible design of Xiaotangshan Designated Hospital means that it can be repurposed and reopened at any time to respond to the changing pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
Airports , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , China/epidemiology , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(9): 5382-5392, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217861

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection has posed unprecedented threat to global public health. The virus-encoded non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) is a bi-functional enzyme consisting of an exoribonuclease (ExoN) domain and a methyltransferase (MTase) domain and plays a pivotal role in viral replication. Here, we report the structure of SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-ExoN domain bound to its co-factor nsp10 and show that, compared to the SARS-CoV nsp10/nsp14-full-length complex, SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-ExoN retains an integral exoribonuclease fold and preserves an active configuration in the catalytic center. Analysis of the nsp10/nsp14-ExoN interface reveals a footprint in nsp10 extensively overlapping with that observed in the nsp10/nsp16 structure. A marked difference in the co-factor when engaging nsp14 and nsp16 lies in helix-α1', which is further experimentally ascertained to be involved in nsp14-binding but not in nsp16-engagement. Finally, we also show that nsp10/nsp14-ExoN is enzymatically active despite the absence of nsp14-MTase domain. These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 nsp10/nsp14-ExoN functions as an exoribonuclease with both structural and functional integrity.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Binding Sites , Crystallography, X-Ray , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Guanine , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/deficiency , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6483, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146866

ABSTRACT

This study compared the differences in the clinical manifestations, treatment courses and clinical turnover between mild and moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical data of the patients with imported COVID-19 admitted to Beijing Xiaotangshan Designated Hospital between March 15 and April 30, 2020, were retrospectively analysed. A total of 53 COVID-19 patients were included, with 21 mild and 32 moderate cases. Compared with the mild group, the moderate group showed significant differences in breathing frequency, lymphocyte count, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and dynamic erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In the moderate group, 87.5% exhibited ground-glass opacities, 14% exhibited consolidative opacities, 53.1% exhibited local lesions and 68.8% exhibited unilateral lesions. The proportion of patients who received antiviral or antibiotic treatment in the moderate group was higher than that in the mild group, and the number of cases that progressed to severe disease in the moderate group was also significantly higher (18.7% vs. 0%, p = 0.035). Compared with patients with mild COVID-19, those with moderate COVID-19 exhibited more noticeable inflammatory reactions, more severe pulmonary imaging manifestations and earlier expression of protective antibodies. The overall turnover of the moderate cases was poorer than that of the mild cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Procalcitonin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society ; : 1-13, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1088318

ABSTRACT

How to meet the daily demand for resident transport while limiting the transmission of infectious diseases is a problem of social responsibility of urban transport systems during major public health emergencies. Considering the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic (COVID-19), a bus timetable system based on the "if early, wait, and if late, leave soon" strategy is proposed. Based on public transport vehicle constraints in this system, the concept of reliability is introduced to evaluate public transport timetable systems, and a model based on an event tree is built to calculate the failure rate of urban bus timetables. Then, the public transport situation in Yixing city is used as an example to perform confirmatory analysis, and the fluctuations in the reliability of the bus timetable during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic are discussed. The research results show that the method proposed in this paper can obtain the overall failure rate of urban bus timetable by traversing the calculation of each round-trip interval and achieve an accurate evaluation of the reliability of bus timetables. During the early, middle, and more recent stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, the failure rate of bus timetables in Yixing city initially decreased and then increased. In the early stage of the outbreak, the failure rate of the Yixing bus timetable was 7.8142. However, the failure rate decreased to 4.3306 and 5.0160 in the middle and late stages of the epidemic, respectively. In other words, the failure rate of the public transport network in the middle and late stages decreased by 44.58% and 35.81%, respectively, compared with that in the early stage. Thus, during major health emergencies, such as the novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak, the reliability of the urban bus timetable system can be improved by at least 35%, and cross-infection at bus stations can be prevented. The research results verify the feasibility and reliability of the implementation of bus timetabling strategies during major health emergencies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

12.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 14: 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030553

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 can affect various organ systems including the skin. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 in infected patients are poorly characterized. Objective: To summarize retrospectively the skin features of COVID-19 infection and to analyze the skin rash incidence rate, clinical onset time, cutaneous manifestations, pathological characteristics and relationship with the novel coronavirus pneumonia severity. Methods: The literature up to Sep 20, 2020, were searched and analyzed. Information on clinical features including skin manifestations, disease severity, stage and onset day, and cutaneous pathological characteristics was extracted. Data were analyzed using descriptive non-parametric statistics. For categorical data, the number and percentage of patients are presented. A Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the associations between rash type, rash onset and severity of COVID-19. All statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS software (version 20) using two-tailed tests. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Twenty-three cases of COVID-19 patients with cutaneous manifestations from seven reports were collected. Inflammatory dermatosis, skin vasculitis and vascular dermatosis were the main lesion types of COVID-19 patients. Microvascular and endothelial cell injury, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, thrombosis, extremely dilated vessels and prominent deposits of C5b-9 were the main dermatologic pathological changes. The onset day analysis showed that out of 19 patients, 63.2% of cutaneous manifestations were within 10 days, 21.1% in 10-20 days and 15.8% were 20 days after the time the patient presented with COVID-19 main symptoms. Spearman rho analysis found no correlation between skin rash type, onset day and COVID-19 severity. Conclusion: COVID-19 induced skin changes are one of the manifestations of immune responses to the novel coronavirus. Clinical and pathological characteristics were identified as dermal inflammatory reactions and/or skin vascular injury. External or systematic use of anti-inflammatories, protection of blood vessels and circulation-improving medicines should be considered in the skin treatments for novel coronavirus pneumonia patients.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 615972, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004690

ABSTRACT

Background: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known to be detrimental in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of its involvement in driving cytokine storm. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of anti-IL-6 signaling (anti-IL6/IL-6R/JAK) agents on COVID-19 based on the current evidence. Methods: Studies were identified through systematic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane library, ongoing clinical trial registries (clinicaltrials.gov), and preprint servers (medRxiv, ChinaXiv) on August 10, 2020, as well as eligibility checks according to predefined selection criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager (version 5.3) and STATA 12.0. Results: Thirty-one studies were included in the pooled analysis of mortality, and 12 studies were identified for the analysis of risk of secondary infections. For mortality analysis, 5630 COVID-19 cases including 2,132 treated patients and 3,498 controls were analyzed. Anti-IL-6 signaling agents plus standard of care (SOC) significantly decreased the mortality rate compared to SOC alone (pooled OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, p = 0.002). For the analysis of secondary infection risk, 1,624 patients with COVID-19 including 639 treated patients and 985 controls were included, showing that anti-IL-6 signaling agents did not increase the rate of secondary infections (pooled OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.70-2.08, p = 0.50). By contrast, for patients with critical COVID-19 disease, anti-IL-6 signaling agents failed to reduce mortality compared to SOC alone (pooled OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.42-1.33, p = 0.33), but they tended to increase the risk of secondary infections (pooled OR = 1.85, 95% CI 0.95-3.61, p = 0.07). A blockade of IL-6 signaling failed to reduce the mechanical ventilation rate, ICU admission rate, or elevate the clinical improvement rate. Conclusion: IL-6 signaling inhibitors reduced the mortality rate without increasing secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 based on current studies. For patients with critical disease, IL-6 signaling inhibitors did not exhibit any benefit.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243347, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961464

ABSTRACT

The current study investigated the clinical manifestations and outcomes of different age groups of patients with overseas imported COVID-19. In total, 53 COVID-19 patients admitted to the designated Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital between March 16 and April 15 of 2020 were included. Based on the percentage of disease aggravation during hospital stay according to CT, the patients were divided into two groups: ≤40 years (group A; n = 41) and >40 years (group B; n = 12). The demographic data, epidemiological history, disease courses, potential complications, clinical symptoms, lab indices, chest CT outcomes, treatment protocols and turnovers of the two groups were compared. According to clinical typing, compared with group A, group B had a significantly greater proportion of the common type of COVID-19 (P<0.05) and greater comorbidity of type 2 diabetes (P<0.001). The two groups presented significantly different lab indices. Group B showed significantly more frequent CT abnormalities, with greater proportions of multiple lesions and bilateral lung involvement (P<0.05). During hospitalization, group B had a greater proportion of disease aggravation according to CT (P<0.01). Compared with group A, group B received a significantly greater proportion of antiviral therapy and presented a significantly greater occurrence of adverse drug reactions (P<0.05). The two groups did not significantly differ in time from admission to clinical symptom improvement or from disease onset to negative outcomes according to nucleic acid testing, the appearance of IgG or the appearance of IgM. They also did not significantly differ in length of stay. Older imported COVID-19 patients, particularly those with type 2 diabetes, showed a broader pulmonary extent and faster development of the disease, more severe pathogenetic conditions and a greater risk of developing a critically severe type. Increased attention should be given to this population in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808493

ABSTRACT

Antibody neutralization is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion particles composed of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 incorporated onto murine leukemia virus capsids and a modified minimal MLV genome encoding firefly luciferase. These pseudovirions provide a practical means of assessing immune responses under laboratory conditions consistent with biocontainment level 2.

20.
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
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