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1.
Transport Policy ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1051965

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a disruptive impact on transportation. To prevent a return to more widespread personal automobile use due to social distancing requirements, public transport should regain its critical role in carrying a large number of passengers. To this end, three Chinese cities, Hangzhou, Ningbo, and Xiamen, implemented fare-free policies to lure passengers back to public transport. To capture the effect of these policies implementation on the daily subway passenger flow, a synthetic control method is used to construct a counterfactual outcome of interest for these three cities. The results show that the peak-hours free-ride policy in Hangzhou had no significant effect on subway ridership, the “more rides, more discounts” and off-peak-hours free-ride policies in Ningbo increased subway ridership by about 24% in the first month, and a rest day free-ride policy in Xiamen increased subway ridership by 2.3 times over five rest days. Nevertheless, the role of the fare-free policies in helping subway ridership rebound to the historical levels is limited, whether it is during or after policy implementation. Findings of the current study can inform the local authorities and transport operators that the multi-pronged approaches should be implemented in tandem with the fare-free policies for increasing subway attraction during the recovery phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-215236

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2, which is mediated by the viral spike protein and host ACE2 receptor, is an essential target for the development of vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and drugs. Using a mammalian cell expression system, we generated a recombinant fluorescent protein (Gamillus)-fused SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer (STG) to probe the viral entry process. In ACE2-expressing cells, we found that the STG probe has excellent performance in the live-cell visualization of receptor binding, cellular uptake, and intracellular trafficking of SARS-CoV-2 under virus-free conditions. The new system allows quantitative analyses of the inhibition potentials and detailed influence of COVID-19-convalescent human plasmas, neutralizing antibodies and compounds, providing a versatile tool for high-throughput screening and phenotypic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors. This approach may also be adapted to develop a viral entry visualization system for other viruses.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20067231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread globally. The laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has relied on nucleic acid tests. However, there are many limitations of nucleic acid tests, including low throughput and high rates of false negatives. More sensitive and accurate tests to effectively identify infected patients are needed. METHODSThis study has developed fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIA) to determine IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum. The assay performance has been evaluated at 10 hospitals. Clinical specificity was evaluated by measuring 972 hospitalized patients with diseases other than COVID-19, and 586 donors of a normal population. Clinical sensitivity was assessed on 503 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and 52 suspected cases. RESULTSThe assays demonstrated satisfied assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 4.45%. Inactivation of specimen does not affect assay measurement. SARS-CoV-2 IgM shows clinical specificity of 97.33% and 99.49% for hospitalized patients and normal population respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgG shows clinical specificity of 97.43% and 99.15% for the hospitalized patients and the normal population respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG show clinical sensitivity of 85.88% and 96.62% respectively for confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection with RT-PCR, of 73.08% and 86.54% respectively for suspected cases. CONCLUSIONSwe have developed fully automated immunoassays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in human serum. The assays demonstrated high clinical specificity and sensitivity, and add great value to nucleic acid testing in fighting against the global pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-026948

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disaster for human society. A convenient and reliable in vitro neutralization assay is very important for the development of neutralizing antibodies, vaccines and other inhibitors. In this study, G protein-deficient vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVdG) bearing full-length and truncated spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated. The virus packaging efficiency of VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 (S with C-terminal 18 amino acid truncation) is much higher than VSV-SARS-CoV-2-S. A neutralization assay for antibody screening and serum neutralizing titer quantification was established based on VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) overexpressed BHK21 cell (BHK21-hACE2). The experimental results can be obtained by automatically counting EGFP positive cell number at 12 hours after infection, making the assay convenient and high-throughput. The serum neutralizing titer of COVID-19 convalescent patients measured by VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus assay has a good correlation with live SARS-CoV-2 assay. Seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2-S were obtained. This efficient and reliable pseudovirus assay model could facilitate the development of new drugs and vaccines.

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20041707

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTimely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the prerequisite for treatment and preventive quarantine. The serology characteristics and complement diagnosis value of antibody test to RNA test needs to be demonstrated. MethodA patient cohort study was conducted at the first affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University, China. Serial plasma of COVID-19 patients and were collected and total antibody (Ab), IgM and IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 were detected. The antibody dynamics during the infection were described. ResultsThe seroconversion rate for Ab, IgM and IgG in COVID-19 patients was 98.8% (79/80), 93.8% (75/80) and 93.8% (75/80), respectively. The first detectible serology marker is total antibody and followed by IgM and IgG, with a median seroconversion time of 15, 18 and 20 day post exposure (d.p.e) or 9, 10 and 12 days post onset, separately. The antibody levels increased rapidly since 6 d.p.o and accompanied with the decline of viral load. For patients in the early stage of illness (0-7d.p.o),Ab showed the highest sensitivity (64.1%) compared to the IgM and IgG (33.3% for both, p<0.001). The sensitivities of Ab, IgM and IgG detection increased to 100%, 96.7% and 93.3% two weeks later, respectively. ConclusionsTypical acute antibody response is induced during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The serology testing provides important complementation to RNA test for pathogenic specific diagnosis and helpful information to evaluate the adapted immunity status of patient. It should be strongly recommended to apply well-validated antibody tests in the clinical management and public health practice to improve the control of COVID-19 infection. Take-Home MessageAntibody responses are induced after SARS-CoV-2 infection and complement diagnosis value of antibody test to RNA test was observed. Antibody tests are critical tools in clinical management and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20030189

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus. The antibody response in infected patient remains largely unknown, and the clinical values of antibody testing have not been fully demonstrated. MethodsA total of 173 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Their serial plasma samples (n = 535) collected during the hospitalization period were tested for total antibodies (Ab), IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 using immunoassays. The dynamics of antibodies with the progress and severity of disease was analyzed. ResultsAmong 173 patients, the seroconversion rate for Ab, IgM and IgG was 93.1% (161/173), 82.7% (143/173) and 64.7% (112/173), respectively. Twelve patients who had not seroconverted were those only blood samples at the early stage of illness were collected. The seroconversion sequentially appeared for Ab, IgM and then IgG, with a median time of 11, 12 and 14 days, respectively. The presence of antibodies was < 40% among patients in the first 7 days of illness, and then rapidly increased to 100.0%, 94.3% and 79.8% for Ab, IgM and IgG respectively since day 15 after onset. In contrast, the positive rate of RNA decreased from 66.7% (58/87) in samples collected before day 7 to 45.5% (25/55) during days 15 to 39. Combining RNA and antibody detections significantly improved the sensitivity of pathogenic diagnosis for COVID-19 patients (p < 0.001), even in early phase of 1-week since onset (p = 0.007). Moreover, a higher titer of Ab was independently associated with a worse clinical classification (p = 0.006). ConclusionsThe antibody detection offers vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings provide strong empirical support for the routine application of serological testing in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.

8.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): E001-E001, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific), WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-1228

ABSTRACT

During a short period of time, the outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, named Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP), was first reported in China, spreading to 24 countries and regions rapidly. The number of confirmed cases and deaths continued to rise. World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the outbreaks of the novel coronavirus have constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Efficient infection control can prevent the virus from further spreading, which makes the epidemic situation under control. Due to the specialty of oral healthcare settings, the risk of cross infection is severe among patients and oral healthcare practitioners. It's more urgent to implement strict and efficient infection control protocols. This paper, based on existing guidelines and published researches pertinent to dental infection-control principles and practices, mainly discusses epidemiological characteristics of NCP and the features of nosocomial infection in oral healthcare settings, and furthermore provides recommendations on patient's evaluation, and infection control protocols in department of stomatology under current circumstance..

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