Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Filter
1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify studies systematically that describe the incidence and outcome of COVID-19-related pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: We searched ScienceDirect, PubMed, CNKI, and MEDLINE (OVID) from December 31, 2019 to November 20, 2021 for all eligible studies. Random-model was used to reported the incidence, allcause case fatality rate (CFR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021242179). RESULTS: In all, thirty-one cohort studies were included in this study. A total of 3,441 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated and 442 cases of CAPA were reported (30 studies). The pooled incidence rate of CAPA was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11-0.17, I2=0.0%). Twenty-eight studies reported 287 deceased patients and 269 surviving patients. The pooled CFR of CAPA was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.47-0.56, I2=3.9%). Interestingly, patients with COVID19 would develop CAPA at 7.28 days after mechanical ventilation (range, 5.48-9.08 days). No significant publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU might develop CAPA and have high all-cause CFR. We recommend conducting prospective screening for CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19, especially for those who receive mechanical ventilation over 7 days.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 566609, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699160

ABSTRACT

Object: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of α-Lipoic acid (ALA) for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A randomized, single-blind, group sequential, active-controlled trial was performed at JinYinTan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Between February 2020 and March 2020, 17 patients with critically ill COVID-19 were enrolled in our study. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either ALA (1200 mg/d, intravenous infusion) once daily plus standard care or standard care plus equal volume saline infusion (placebo) for 7 days. All patients were monitored within the 7 days therapy and followed up to day 30 after therapy. The primary outcome of this study was the Sequential Organ Failure Estimate (SOFA) score, and the secondary outcome was the all-cause mortality within 30 days. Result: Nine patients were randomized to placebo group and 8 patients were randomized to ALA group. SOFA score was similar at baseline, increased from 4.3 to 6.0 in the placebo group and increased from 3.8 to 4.0 in the ALA group (P = 0.36) after 7 days. The 30-day all-cause mortality tended to be lower in the ALA group (3/8, 37.5%) compared to that in the placebo group (7/9, 77.8%, P = 0.09). Conclusion: In our study, ALA use is associated with lower SOFA score increase and lower 30-day all-cause mortality as compared with the placebo group. Although the mortality rate was two-folds higher in placebo group than in ALA group, only borderline statistical difference was evidenced due to the limited patient number. Future studies with larger patient cohort are warranted to validate the role of ALA in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49534.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324114

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of corticosteroid therapy on outcomes of patients with Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is highly controversial. We aimed to compare the risk of death between COVID-19-related ARDS patients with corticosteroid treatment and those without. Methods In this single-centre retrospective observational study, patients with ARDS caused by COVID-19 between 24 December 2019 and 24 February 2020 were enrolled. The primary outcome was 60-day in-hospital death. The exposure was prescribed systemic corticosteroids or not. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 60-day in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 382 patients including 226 (59.2%) patients who received systemic corticosteroids and 156 (40.8%) patients with standard treatment were analyzed. The maximum dose of corticosteroids was 80.0 (IQR 40.0–80.0) mg equivalent methylprednisolone per day, and duration of corticosteroid treatment was 7.0 (4.0–12.0) days in total. In Cox regression analysis using corticosteroid treatment as a time-varying variable, corticosteroid treatment was associated with a significant reduction in risk of in-hospital death within 60 days (HR, 0.48;95% CI, 0.25, 0.93;p  = 0.0285). The association remained significantly after adjusting for age, sex, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at hospital admission, propensity score of corticosteroid treatment, and comorbidities (HR: 0.51;CI: 0.27, 0.99;p  = 0.0471). Corticosteroids were not associated with delayed viral RNA clearance in our cohort. Conclusion In this clinical practice setting, low-to-moderate dose corticosteroid treatment was associated with reduced risk of death in COVID-19 patients who developed ARDS.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323874

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the clinical characteristics and manifestations of older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: : In this retrospective study, 566 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled and the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, complications and outcome data were collected and analyzed. Results: : Among the 566 patients (median age, 61.5 years) with COVID-19, 267 (47.2%) patients were male and 307 (54.2%) were elderly. Compared with younger patients, older patients had more underlying comorbidities and laboratory abnormalities. A higher rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury and heart failure was observed in the older group as compared with younger and middle-aged groups, particularly those oldest-old patients (>75 years) had more multi-organ damage. Older patients with COVID-19 were more likely to suffer from acute cardiac injury in cases with preexistenting cardiovascular diseases, while there was no difference among the three groups when patients had no history of cardiovascular diseases. Older patients present more severe with the mortality of 18.6%, which was higher than that in younger and middle-aged patients ( P <0.05). Multivariable analysis showed that age, lymphopenia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury, heart failure and skeletal muscle injury were associated with death in older patients, while glucocorticoids may be harmful. Conclusions: : Older patients, especially the oldest-old patients were more likely to exhibit significant systemic inflammation, pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ damage and a higher mortality. Advanced age, lymphopenia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury, heart failure and skeletal muscle injury were independent predictors of death in older patients with COVID-19 and glucocorticoids should be carefully administered in older patients.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320695

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2020 COVID-19 pandemic became an emergent public sanitary incident. The epidemiology data and the impact on prognosis of secondary infection in severe and critical COVID-19 patients in China remained largely unclear. Methods: . We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs from January 18 th 2020 to April 26 th 2020 at two hospitals in Wuhan, China and one hospital in Guangzhou, China. We measured the frequency of bacteria and fungi cultured from respiratory tract, blood and other body fluid specimens. The risk factors for and impact of secondary infection on clinical outcomes were also assessed. Results: . Secondary infections were very common (86.6%) when patients were admitted to ICU for >72 hours. The majority of infections were respiratory, with the most common organisms being Klebsiella pneumoniae (24.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (21.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.9%), Candida albicans (6.8%), and Pseudomonas spp. (4.8%). Furthermore, the proportions of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were high. We also found that age ≥60 years and mechanical ventilation ≥13days independently increased the likelihood of secondary infection. Finally, patients with positive cultures had reduced ventilator free days in 28 days and patients with CRE and/or MDR bacteria positivity showed lower 28 day survival rate. Conclusions: . In a retrospective cohort of severe and critical COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs in China, the prevalence of secondary infection was high, especially with CRE and MDR bacteria, resulting in poor clinical outcomes.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320694

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the clinical correlates, prognosis and determinants of AKI in patients with Covid-19 remain largely unclear, we perform a retrospective study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of AKI in severe and critically ill patients with Covid-19. Methods: : We reviewed medical records of all adult patients (>18 years) with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 23 rd 2020 and April 6 th 2020 at Wuhan JinYinTan Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The clinical data, including patient demographics, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, treatment [including respiratory supports, use of medications and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)] and clinical outcomes, were extracted from the electronic records, and we access the incidence of AKI and the use of CRRT, risk factors for AKI, the outcomes of renal diseases, and the impact of AKI on the clinical outcomes. Results: : Among 210 subjects, 131 were males (62.4%). The median age was 64 years (IQR: 56-71). Of 92 (43.8%) patients who developed AKI during hospitalization, 13 (14.1%), 15 (16.3%) and 64 (69.6%) patients were classified as stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively. 54 cases (58.7%) received CRRT. Age, sepsis, Nephrotoxic drug, IMV and elevated baseline Scr were associated with AKI occurrence. The renal recover during hospitalization among 16 AKI patients (17.4%), who had a significantly shorter time from admission to AKI diagnosis, lower incidence of right heart failure and higher P/F ratio. Of 210 patients, 93 patients deceased within 28 days of ICU admission. AKI stage 3, critical disease, greater age and minimum P/F <150mmHg independently associated with it. Conclusions: : Among patients with Covid-19, the incidence of AKI was high. age , sepsis, nephrotoxic drug, IMV and baseline Scr were strongly associated with the development of AKI. Time from admission to AKI diagnosis, right heart failure and P/F ratio were independently associated with the potential of renal recovery. Finally, AKI KIDGO stage 3 independently predicted the risk of death within 28 days of ICU admission.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315355

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, not only was there a lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers but a dearth in training in respect of its donning and doffing. This study compared two training methods for donning and doffing PPE in order to teach health care workers how to do so more effectively and quickly. Method A total of 48 health care workers were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. Group A watched a 10-minute demonstration (demo) video repeated four times, while Group B watched the same demo video twice followed by a 10-minute live demo twice. The learning time of both groups was the same, and an examination was performed immediately after the completion of training. The examination scores of Group A and Group B were recorded according to the checklist (Appendix 1). The time taken for the participants to don and doff PPE, their satisfaction with the training, and the confidence to don and doff PPE were analyzed. Results The average score of Group B was better than that of Group A, with a mean (SD) of 94.92 (1.72) vs. 86.63 (6.34), respectively (P < 0.001). The average time spent by Group B to do the examination was shorter than that of Group A, with a mean (SD) of 17.67 (1.01) vs. 21.75 (1.82), respectively (P < 0.001). The satisfaction and confidence of Group B were higher than those of group A (P < 0.001). Conclusions Compared with repeated video-watching learning, the video-watching plus a live demonstration teaching method is more suitable for health care workers to learn how to put on and remove personal protective equipment.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308267

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) might develop COVID-19-related pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA). We aimed to identify studies systematically that describe the incidence and risks factors of CAPA, and to assess its outcome. Methods: Two authors independently searched ScienceDirect, PubMed, CNKI, MEDLINE (OVID), and MedRXIV from December 31, 2019 to Feb 27, 2021. We included observational cohort studies that investigated patients with CAPA admitted to an ICU. We assessed the quality of all included studies using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale). The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021242179). Results: Twenty-nine cohort studies with 2095 patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU and 264 patients who developed to CAPA were included (Pooled incidence: 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11–0.17). The overall mortality and case fatality rate of CAPA were 0.07 (0.05–0.09) and 0.51 (0.44–0.58), respectively. Patients with COVID‑19 would develop CAPA at 7.28 days after mechanical ventilation (range, 5.48–9.08). Compared with patients without CAPA, those with CAPA had a significantly lower median body mass index (27.32 vs . 28.97 kg/m 2 , P = 0.034), higher median creatinine level (127.94 vs . 88.23 µmol/L, P = 014), and were more likely to receive corticosteroids therapy (41.0% vs. 38.0%, risk ratio [RR] = 1.98, 95% CI=1.08–3.63) and renal replacement therapy (42.0% vs . 28.2%, RR = 1.61, 95% CI=1.04–2.50) during admission. Remarkably, patients with CAPA were associated significantly with a 1.66‑fold higher mortality (RR = 1.66, 95% CI=1.31–2.12) without significant heterogeneity and publication bias. Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU might develop CAPA and have higher all‑cause mortality. We recommend conducting prospective screening for CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19, especially for those who receive mechanical ventilation over 7 days.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738532, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686470

ABSTRACT

Background: The benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin administration are controversial for critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the effects of immunoglobulin administration for critically ill COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) with propensity score was used to account for baseline confounders. Cluster analysis was used to perform phenotype analysis. Results: Between January 1 and February 29, 2020, 754 patients with complete data from 19 hospitals were enrolled. Death at 28 days occurred for 408 (54.1%) patients. There were 392 (52.0%) patients who received intravenous immunoglobulin, at 11 (interquartile range (IQR) 8, 16) days after illness onset; 30% of these patients received intravenous immunoglobulin prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. By unadjusted analysis, no difference was observed for 28-day mortality between the immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin groups. Similar results were found by propensity score matching (n = 506) and by IPTW analysis (n = 731). Also, IPTW analysis did not reveal any significant difference between hyperinflammation and hypoinflammation phenotypes. Conclusion: No significant association was observed for use of intravenous immunoglobulin and decreased mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. Phenotype analysis did not show any survival benefit for patients who received immunoglobulin therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Aged , China , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27529, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is recommended to use visual laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in a Corona Virus Disease 2019 patient to keep the operator farther from the patient. How the position of the operator affects the distance in this setting is not ascertained. This manikin study compares the distances between the operator and the model and the intubation conditions when the operator is in sitting position and standing position, respectively.Thirty one anesthesiologists with minimum 3-years' work experiences participated in the study. The participant's posture was photographed when he performed tracheal intubation using UE visual laryngoscope in standing and sitting position, respectively. The shortest distance between the model's upper central incisor and operator's face screen (UF), the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen, the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor were measured. The success rate of intubation, the duration of intubation procedure, the first-attempt success rate, the Cormack-Lehane grade, and operator comfort score were also recorded.When the operator performed the procedure in sitting position, the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen distance was significantly longer (9.5 [0.0-17.2] vs 24.3 [10.3-33.0], P ≤ .001) and the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor angle was significantly larger (45.2 [16.3-75.5] vs 17.7 [0.0-38.9], P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in UF distance when the operator changed the position. Cormack-Lehane grade was significantly improved when it was assessed using visual laryngoscope. Cormack-Lehane grade was not significantly different when the operator assessed it in sitting and standing position, respectively. No significant differences were found in the success rate, duration for intubation, first-attempt success rate, and operator comfort score.The operator is kept farther from the patient when he performs intubation procedure in sitting position. Meanwhile, it does not make the procedure more difficult or uncomfortable for the operator, though all the participants prefer to standing position.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopes , Sitting Position , Standing Position , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Male , Manikins , Patient Positioning
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 761601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566654

ABSTRACT

Persons with mental disorders (PwMDs) are a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination, but empirical data on PwMDs' vaccine uptake and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines are lacking. This study examined the uptake, acceptance, and hesitancy associated with COVID-19 vaccines among Chinese PwMDs during China's nationwide vaccine rollout. In total, 906 adult PwMDs were consecutively recruited from a large psychiatric hospital in Wuhan, China, and administered a self-report questionnaire, which comprised standardized questions regarding sociodemographics, COVID-19 vaccination status, attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines, and psychopathology. Vaccine-recipients were additionally asked to report adverse events that occurred following vaccination. PwMDs had a much lower rate of vaccination than Wuhan residents (10.8 vs. 40.0%). The rates of vaccine acceptance and hesitancy were 58.1 and 31.1%, respectively. Factors associated with vaccine uptake included having other mental disorders [odds ratio (OR) = 3.63], believing that ≥50% of vaccine-recipients would be immune to COVID-19 (OR = 3.27), being not worried about the side effects (OR = 2.59), and being an outpatient (OR = 2.24). Factors associated with vaccine acceptance included perceiving a good preventive effect of vaccines (OR = 12.92), believing that vaccines are safe (OR = 4.08), believing that ≥50% of vaccine-recipients would be immune to COVID-19 (OR = 2.20), and good insight into the mental illness (OR = 1.71). Adverse events occurred in 21.4% of vaccine-recipients and exacerbated pre-existing psychiatric symptoms in 2.0% of vaccine-recipients. Nevertheless, 95.2% of vaccine-recipients rated adverse events as acceptable. Compared to the 58.1% vaccine acceptance rate and the 40.0% vaccination rate in the general population, the 10.8% vaccine coverage rate suggested a large unmet need for COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese PwMDs. Strategies to increase vaccination coverage among PwMDs may include provision of reliable sources of information on vaccines, health education to foster positive attitudes toward vaccines, a practical guideline to facilitate clinical decision-making for vaccination, and the involvement of psychiatrists in vaccine consultation and post-vaccination follow-up services.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720512, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456303

ABSTRACT

Ensuring the well-being of persons with disabilities (PWDs) is a priority in the public sector during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To contain this unprecedented public crisis in China, a set of nationwide anti-epidemic discourse systems centered on war metaphors has guided the epidemic's prevention and control. While the public is immersed in the joy brought by the stage victory, most ignore the situation of the disadvantaged PWDs. Accordingly, this study adopts and presents a qualitative research method to explore the impact of war metaphors on PWDs. The results showed that while there was some formal and informal support for PWDs during this period, they were increasingly marginalized. Owing to the lack of a disability lens and institutional exclusion, PWDs were placed on the margins of the epidemic prevention and control system like outsiders. Affected by pragmatism under war metaphors, PWDs are regarded as non-contributory or inefficient persons; therefore, they are not prioritized and are thus placed into a state of being voiceless and invisible. This research can provide inspiration for improving public services for PWDs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , China/epidemiology , Humans , Metaphor , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 716086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450817

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rapidly evolving therapy for acute lung and/or heart failure. However, the information on the application of ECMO in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited, such as the initiation time. Especially in the period and regions of ECMO instrument shortage, not all the listed patients could be treated with ECMO in time. This study aimed to investigate and clarify the timing of ECMO initiation related to the outcomes of severe patients with COVID-19. The results show that ECMO should be initiated within 24 h after the criteria are met. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter cohort study, we enrolled all ECMO patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the three hospitals between December 29, 2019 and April 5, 2020. Data on the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, clinical course, treatments, complications, and outcomes were collected. The primary outcomes were successful ECMO weaning rate and 60-day mortality after ECMO. Successful weaning from ECMO means that the condition of patients improved with adequate oxygenation and gas exchange, as shown by the vital signs, blood gases, and chest X-ray, and the patient was weaned from ECMO for at least 48 h. Results: A total of 31 patients were included in the analysis. The 60-day mortality rate after ECMO was 71%, and the ECMO weaning rate was 26%. Patients were divided into a delayed ECMO group [3 (interquartile range (IQR), 2-5) days] and an early ECMO group [0.5 (IQR, 0-1) days] based on the time between meeting the ECMO criteria and ECMO initiation. In this study, 14 and 17 patients were included in the early and delayed treatment groups, respectively. Early initiation of ECMO was associated with decreased 60-day mortality after ECMO (50 vs. 88%, P = 0.044) and an increased ECMO weaning rate (50 vs. 6%, P = 0.011). Conclusions: In ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19, delayed initiation of ECMO is a risk factor associated with a poorer outcome. Trial Registration: Clinical trial submission: March 19, 2020. Registry name: A medical records-based study for the clinical application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: https://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=51267,identifier:~ChiCTR2000030947.

14.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(9): 2850-2858, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415197

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection severely threatens global health and economic development. No effective antiviral drug is currently available to treat COVID-19 and any other human coronavirus infections. We report herein that a macrolide antibiotic, carrimycin, potently inhibited the cytopathic effects (CPE) and reduced the levels of viral protein and RNA in multiple cell types infected by human coronavirus 229E, OC43, and SARS-CoV-2. Time-of-addition and pseudotype virus infection studies indicated that carrimycin inhibited one or multiple post-entry replication events of human coronavirus infection. In support of this notion, metabolic labelling studies showed that carrimycin significantly inhibited the synthesis of viral RNA. Our studies thus strongly suggest that carrimycin is an antiviral agent against a broad-spectrum of human coronaviruses and its therapeutic efficacy to COVID-19 is currently under clinical investigation.

15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 8557-8570, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2020 COVID-19 pandemic became an emergent public sanitary incident. The epidemiology data and the impact on prognosis of secondary infection in severe and critical COVID-19 patients in China remained largely unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs from January 18th 2020 to April 26th 2020 at two hospitals in Wuhan, China and one hospital in Guangzhou, China. We measured the frequency of bacteria and fungi cultured from respiratory tract, blood and other body fluid specimens. The risk factors for and impact of secondary infection on clinical outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: Secondary infections were very common (86.6%) when patients were admitted to ICU for >72 hours. The majority of infections were respiratory, with the most common organisms being Klebsiella pneumoniae (24.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (21.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.9%), Candida albicans (6.8%), and Pseudomonas spp. (4.8%). Furthermore, the proportions of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were high. We also found that age ≥60 years and mechanical ventilation ≥13 days independently increased the likelihood of secondary infection. Finally, patients with positive cultures had reduced ventilator free days in 28 days and patients with CRE and/or MDR bacteria positivity showed lower 28-day survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective cohort of severe and critical COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs in China, the prevalence of secondary infection was high, especially with CRE and MDR bacteria, resulting in poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(13): 1054, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 2 million deaths worldwide. Viral sepsis has been proposed as a description for severe COVID-19, and numerous therapies have been on trials based upon this hypothesis. However, whether the clinical characteristics of severe COVID-19 are similar to those of bacterial sepsis has not been elucidated. METHODS: We retrospectively compared the clinical data of non-surviving COVID-19 patients who were admitted to a 30-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan Infectious Diseases Hospital (Wuhan, China) from 22 January 2020, to 28 February 2020, with those of non-surviving patients with bacterial sepsis who were admitted to the ICU in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China) from 3 July 2018, to 30 June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 53 COVID-19 patients and 26 septic patients were included in the analysis. The mean ages were 65.6 [standard deviation (SD): 11.1] and 70.4 (SD: 14.3) years in the COVID-19 cohort and sepsis cohort, respectively. The proportion of participants with hypertension was higher in non-survivors with COVID-19 than in non-survivors with sepsis (41.5% vs. 15.4%, P=0.020). The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of non-survivors with COVID-19 was lower than that of non-survivors with sepsis at ICU admission {4.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 3.0-6.0] vs. 7.5 [IQR: 5.8-11.0], P<0.001}. The clinical parameters at ICU admission assessed with principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that COVID-19 patients were distinct from bacterial septic patients. Compared with non-survivors with sepsis, non-survivors with COVID-19 had a higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, total protein, globulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer; a lower eosinophil count, procalcitonin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, myohemoglobin, albumin/globulin ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and international normalization ratio (INR) at ICU admission. In addition, the levels of total protein, globulin, LDH, D-dimer, and IL-6 were significantly different between the two groups during the ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with critical COVID-19 have a phenotype distinct from that of patients with bacterial sepsis. Therefore, caution should be used when applying the previous experience of bacterial sepsis to patients with severe COVID-19.

17.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284079

ABSTRACT

Many microorganisms have mechanisms that protect cells against attack from viruses. The fermentation components of Streptomyces sp. 1647 exhibit potent anti-influenza A virus (IAV) activity. This strain was isolated from soil in southern China in the 1970s, but the chemical nature of its antiviral substance(s) has remained unknown until now. We used an integrated multi-omics strategy to identify the antiviral agents from this streptomycete. The antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell (antiSMASH) analysis of its genome sequence revealed 38 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, and the target BGCs possibly responsible for the production of antiviral components were narrowed down to three BGCs by bioactivity-guided comparative transcriptomics analysis. Through bioinformatics analysis and genetic manipulation of the regulators and a biosynthetic gene, cluster 36 was identified as the BGC responsible for the biosynthesis of the antiviral compounds. Bioactivity-based molecular networking analysis of mass spectrometric data from different recombinant strains illustrated that the antiviral compounds were a class of structural analogues. Finally, 18 pseudo-tetrapeptides with an internal ureido linkage, omicsynins A1-A6, B1-B6, and C1-C6, were identified and/or isolated from fermentation broth. Among them, 11 compounds (omicsynins A1, A2, A6, B1-B3, B5, B6, C1, C2, and C6) are new compounds. Omicsynins B1-B4 exhibited potent antiviral activity against IAV with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of approximately 1 µmol∙L-1 and a selectivity index (SI) ranging from 100 to 300. Omicsynins B1-B4 also showed significant antiviral activity against human coronavirus HCoV-229E. By integrating multi-omics data, we discovered a number of novel antiviral pseudo-tetrapeptides produced by Streptomyces sp. 1647, indicating that the secondary metabolites of microorganisms are a valuable source of novel antivirals.

20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(4): 4794-4810, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084990

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated coagulation dysfunction is gaining attention. In particular, dynamic changes in the D-dimer level may be related to disease progression. Here, we explored whether elevated D-dimer level was related to multiple organ failure and a higher risk of death. This study included 158 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China between January 20, 2020 and February 26, 2020. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. The relationship between D-dimer elevation and organ dysfunction was analyzed, as were dynamic changes in inflammation and lipid metabolism. Approximately 63.9% of patients with COVID-19 had an elevated D-dimer level on ICU admission. The 14 day ICU mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with a high D-dimer level than in those with a normal D-dimer level. Patients with a D-dimer level of 10-40µg/mL had similar organ function on ICU admission to those with a D-dimer level of 1.5-10µg/mL. However, patients with higher levels of D-dimer developed organ injuries within 7 days. Furthermore, significant differences in inflammation and lipid metabolism markers were observed between the two groups. In conclusion, the D-dimer level is closely related to COVID-19 severity and might influence the likelihood of rapid onset of organ injury after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Inflammation/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL