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4.
Journal of Medical Pest Control ; 38(4):390-393, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056264

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the willingness and factors of children's parents for COVID- 19 inoculation,and to provide the basis for the formulation of COVID- 19 inoculation strategy. Methods Easy sampling was used to conduct questionnaire survey on parents of 215 children from a Grade AAA hospital in Wuhan between December 2020 and January 2021. Results One hundred and fifteen valid questionnaires were collected, and 96.74% of parents had heard of COVID- 19 before this survey. WeChat accounts 43.72%(94/215) and Tiktok accounts 28.37%(61/215) were main sources of COVID- 19 and vaccine- related knowledge. 90.23%(194/215) of the parents of children were willing to be inoculated against COVID- 19, and 9.77%(21/215) of children’s parents weren’ t willing to be inoculated against COVID -19 vaccine, mainly because they believed that the interval between the development and use of the vaccine was short,the necessity of time spending in considering(38.10%, 8/21),concerns about adverse effects and safety(47.62%,10/21). Parents of children with a bachelor's degree(OR=0.034,95% CTJO.002-0.582) and a monthly income of 5 000 to 7 999 Yuan(OR=11.459,95%CI-1.708-76.870) were more likely to inoculate COVID- 19 vaccine. Conclusion Parents of children have high willingness to inoculate COVID- 19 vaccines, while they show concerns about adverse reactions and safety of vaccines. The authorities concerned are recommended to strengthen the publicity of inoculation knowledge of COVID- 19 to thereby ease public doubts and ensure safe and effective promotion of vaccines. © 2022, Editorial Department of Medical Pest Control. All rights reserved.

5.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(7):520-526, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055465

ABSTRACT

Objective To effectively express the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in Pichia pastoris and to evaluate its immunogenicity. Methods The gene encoding the RBD protein was synthesized and cloned into the pPICZαA plasmid. After linearization, the plasmid was transferred and integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris. The expressed RBD protein in culture supernatant was analyzed by Western blot and Biolayer interferometry. After screening, a single clone expressing the RBD protein was selected. The high-level expression of RBD protein was achieved by optimizing the fermentation process, including the salt concentration adjusting of the medium and induction condition optimization (pH, temperature and duration) . The immunogenicity of the expressed RBD protein was evaluated in a mouse model. Results A single clone with a high expression level of RBD protein was obtained and named RBD-X33. The expression level of RBD protein in the fermentation supernatant reached up to 240 mg / L after optimization of the induction condition (HBSM medium, pH = 6. 5 ± 0. 3, 22℃ and 120 h) . In the mouse experiment, the recombinant RBD protein was formulated with Alum + CpG dual adjuvant and injected into mice. The binding IgG antibody levels were up to 2. 7 × 106 tested by ELISA and the neutralizing antibody levels were up to 726. 8 tested by live virus neutralizing antibody assay (prototype) . Conclusions The RBD protein could be efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris and induce stronger immune response in animals. This study suggested that the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein expressed in Pichia pastoris could serve as a candidate antigen in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. © 2022 Society of Microbiology and Immunology. All rights reserved.

6.
LANCET ; 399(10342):2191-2199, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935356

ABSTRACT

Background Several passive surveillance systems reported increased risks of myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, especially in young men. We used active surveillance from large health-care databases to quantify and enable the direct comparison of the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, after mRNA-1273 (Moderna) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccinations. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study, examining the primary outcome of myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, identified using the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, occurring 1-7 days post-vaccination, evaluated in COVID-19 mRNA vaccinees aged 18-64 years using health plan claims databases in the USA. Observed (O) incidence rates were compared with expected (E) incidence rates estimated from historical cohorts by each database. We used multivariate Poisson regression to estimate the adjusted incidence rates, specific to each brand of vaccine, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2. We used meta-analyses to pool the adjusted incidence rates and IRRs across databases. Findings A total of 411 myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, events were observed among 15 148 369 people aged 18-64 years who received 16 912 716 doses of BNT162b2 and 10 631 554 doses of mRNA-1273. Among men aged 18-25 years, the pooled incidence rate was highest after the second dose, at 1.71 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.23) per 100 000 person-days for BNT162b2 and 2.17 (1.55 to 3.04) per 100 000 person-days for mRNA-1273. The pooled IRR in the head-to-head comparison of the two mRNA vaccines was 1.43 (95% CI 0.88 to 2.34), with an excess risk of 27.80 per million doses (-21.88 to 77.48) in mRNA-1273 recipients compared with BNT162b2. Interpretation An increased risk of myocarditis or pericarditis was observed after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and was highest in men aged 18-25 years after a second dose of the vaccine. However, the incidence was rare. These results do not indicate a statistically significant risk difference between mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2, but it should not be ruled out that a difference might exist. Our study results, along with the benefit-risk profile, continue to support vaccination using either of the two mRNA vaccines. Copyright (C) 2022 Elsevier Ltd.

7.
FRONTIERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1911031

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 pandemic began in 2020, Urumqi, a remote area in northwest China, experienced two lockdowns, in January and July 2020. Based on ground and satellite observations, this study assessed the impacts of these lockdowns on the air quality in Urumqi and the seasonal differences between them. The results showed that, during the wintertime lockdown, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, CO, and SO2 levels decreased by 38, 40, 45, 27, 8%, respectively, whereas O-3 concentrations increased by 113%. During the summer lockdown, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, CO, and SO2 levels decreased by 39, 24, 59, 2, and 13%, respectively, and the O-3 concentrations increased by 21%. During the lockdowns, the NO2 concentrations decreased by 53% in winter and 13% in summer in the urban areas, whereas they increased by 23% in winter and 9% in summer in the suburbs. Moreover, large seasonal differences were observed between winter and summer SO2, CO, and O-3. The lockdown played a vital role in the rapid decline of primary air pollutant concentrations, along with fewer meteorological impacts on air pollution changes in this area. The increase in O-3 concentrations during the COVID-19 lockdowns reflects the complexity of air quality changes during reductions in air pollutant emissions.

8.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S463-S463, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905041
10.
11.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10:16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855340

ABSTRACT

During the lockdown implemented to curb the spread of COVID-19, human activities have drastically reduced, providing a valuable opportunity to study and compare the impact of meteorological conditions and human activities on air quality. In this study, large-scale weather circulation, local meteorological conditions, and the impact of human activities are comprehensively considered, and changes in the concentration of major air pollutants in the northeast during this period are systematically studied. The large-scale weather circulation patterns that mainly affect the northeast region are divided into nine types by using the T-mode Principal components analysis objective circulation classification method. It is found that the northeast region is located at the edge of weak high pressure (Types 1, 2, and 7) and at the rear of high pressure (Type 4) and has higher concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO;in cyclonic weather systems, low vortices (Types 3 and 5) and under the influence of the updraft (Type 6) in front of the trough, the ozone concentration is higher. The changes in the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, CO, SO2, and O-3 in the three cities, namely Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin, during the lockdown period are compared, and it is found that the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, CO, and SO2 have a tendency to first decrease and then increase, while the changes of O-3 concentration are cyclical and increased significantly during this period. This demonstrates that pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, CO, and SO2 are more susceptible to human activities and local meteorological conditions, and changes in O-3 concentration are more closely related to changes in weather circulation types. Finally, the FLEXPART-WRF model is used to simulate the pollution process of nine circulation types, which confirms that particulate pollution in the northeast is mainly affected by local emissions and local westward sinking airflow.

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13.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - a novel and highly infectious pneumonia - has now spread across China and beyond for over four months. However, its psychological impact on patients is unclear. We aim to examine the prevalence and associated risk factors for psychological morbidities and fatigue in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Amidst the disease outbreak, 41 out of 105 COVID-19 patients in a local designated hospital in China were successfully assessed using a constellation of psychometric questionnaires to determine their psychological morbidities and fatigue. Several potential biopsychosocial risk factors (including pre-existing disabilities, CT severity score of pneumonia, social support, coping strategies) were assessed through multivariable logistic regression analyses to clarify their association with mental health in patients. RESULTS: 43.9% of 41 patients presented with impaired general mental health, 12.2% had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, 26.8% had anxiety and/or depression symptoms, and 53.6% had fatigue. We did not find any association between pneumonia severity and psychological morbidities or fatigue in COVID-19 patients. However, high perceived stigmatization was associated with an increased risk of impaired general mental health and high perceived social support was associated with decreased risk. Besides, negative coping inclination was associated with an increased risk of PTSD symptoms;high perceived social support was associated with a decreased risk of anxiety and/or depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological morbidities and chronic fatigue are common among COVID-19 patients. Negative coping inclination and being stigmatized are primary risk factors while perceived social support is the main protective factor.

14.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741087

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study presented the experience of improving the nucleic acid sample collection and transportation service in response to the epidemic. The main purpose is that through intelligent path planning, combined with the time scheduling of sample points, the process of obtaining results to determine the state of COVID-19 patients could be speeding up. Design/methodology/approach: The research optimized the process, including finding an optimal path to traverse all sample points in the hospital area via intelligent path planning method and standardizing the operation through the time sequence scheduling of each round of support staff to collect and send samples in the hospital area, so as to ensure the shortest time in each round. And the study examines these real-time experiments through retrospective examination. Findings: The real-time experiments' data showed that the proposed path planning and scheduling model could provide a reliable reference for improving the efficiency of hospital logistics. Testing is a very important part of diagnosis and prompt results are essential. It shows the possibility of applying the shortest-path algorithms to optimize sample collection processes in the hospital and presents the case study that gives the expected outcomes of such a process. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in the ion of a very practical and urgent problem into a TSP. Combining the ant colony algorithm with the genetic algorithm (ACAGA), the performance of path planning is improved. Under the intervention and guidance, the efficiency of hospital regional logistics planning was greatly improved, which may be of greater benefit to critical patients who must go through fever clinic during the epidemic. By detailing how to more rapidly obtain results through engineering method, the paper contributes ideas and plans for practitioners to use. The experience and lessons learned from Tongji Hospital are expected to provide guidance for supporting service measures in national public health infrastructure management and valuable reference for the development of hospitals in other countries or regions. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

15.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326825

ABSTRACT

Better methods to interrogate host-pathogen interactions during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are imperative to help understand and prevent this disease. Here we implemented RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) combined with the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) long-reads to measure differential host gene expression, transcript polyadenylation and isoform usage within various epithelial cell lines permissive and non-permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2-infected and mock-infected Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial cells), Calu-3 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells) and A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial cells) were analysed over time (0, 2, 24, 48 hours). Differential polyadenylation was found to occur in both infected Calu-3 and Vero cells during a late time point (48 hpi), with Gene Ontology (GO) terms such as viral transcription and translation shown to be significantly enriched in Calu-3 data. Poly(A) tails showed increased lengths in the majority of the differentially polyadenylated transcripts in Calu-3 and Vero cell lines (up to ~136 nt in mean poly(A) length, padj = 0.029). Of these genes, ribosomal protein genes such as RPS4X and RPS6 also showed downregulation in expression levels, suggesting the importance of ribosomal protein genes during infection. Furthermore, differential transcript usage was identified in Caco-2, Calu-3 and Vero cells, including transcripts of genes such as GSDMB and KPNA2, which have previously been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Overall, these results highlight the potential role of differential polyadenylation and transcript usage in host immune response or viral manipulation of host mechanisms during infection, and therefore, showcase the value of long-read sequencing in identifying less-explored host responses to disease.

16.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652407

ABSTRACT

Graphical With the prevalence of COVID-19, the phenomenon of viruses spreading through aerosols has become a focus of attention. Diners in university dining halls have a high risk of exposure to respiratory droplets from others without the protection of face masks, which greatly increases the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Therefore, the transmission mechanism of respiratory droplets in extremely crowded dining environments should be investigated. In this study, a numerical simulation of coughing at dining tables under two conditions was performed, namely the presence and absence of protective partitions, and the evaporation and condensation of aerosol droplets in the air were examined. By using the numerical method, we analyzed and verified the isolation effect of dining table partitions in the propagation of aerosol droplets. The effect of changes in room temperature on the diffusion of coughed aerosols when partitions were present was analyzed. We demonstrated how respiratory droplets spread through coughing and how these droplets affect others. Finally, we proposed a design for a dining table partition that minimizes the transmission of COVID-19.

17.
European Journal of Operational Research ; 16:16, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599628

ABSTRACT

Despite its efficiency in reducing the impact of pandemics (e.g., the COVID-19), whether to introduce telemedicine as an additional way to serve chronically ill patients remains controversial for hospitals in many countries. This paper builds a stylized model to investigate a hospital's telemedicine strategy and the corresponding impacts on its operations regarding outpatient management of chronic diseases. We implement our analysis from three key concerns of the hospital in the presence of a pandemic: the differences in medical consumption and reimbursement between in-person and telemedicine modalities and the effort cost of infection reduction resulting from the pandemic. We find that in the absence of the pandemic, the hospital prefers to introduce telemedicine when the differences in medical consumption and reimbursement are both small. In the presence of the pandemic, we find that the introduction of telemedicine does not always benefit the hospital and that it is better not to introduce telemedicine in some cases since it may exacerbate the negative influence of the pandemic on the hospital's total costs. Furthermore, we surprisingly find that the hospital may set greater in-person capacity but less telemedicine capacity in response to the outbreak of the pandemic under certain conditions, which contradicts public beliefs. Finally, we show that social welfare can be improved by introducing telemedicine when the effort cost of infection reduction and the difference in reimbursement are both of moderate size. The condition under which social welfare is improved tightens with a greater difference in medical consumption.

18.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):37-38, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571043

ABSTRACT

Introduction: For families with type 1 diabetes (T1D), anxiety from the COVID-19 pandemic may be elevated due to potential for increased vulnerability. Objectives: We aimed to describe the impact of the pandemic on adolescents with T1D and their parents. Methods: In a 2-site (Seattle WA, Houston TX USA) clinical trial of a psychosocial intervention targeting stress/resilience, adolescents 13-18 years old with T1D ≥ 1 year and diabetes distress (PAID-T ≥30) were enrolled with a parent. Using a mixed-methods approach, participants enrolled August 2020-June 2021 completed a survey about the pandemic, including an open-ended question about how COVID impacted T1D management. Survey responses were summarized using frequencies and percentages, and associations between variables were assessed by Chi-squared tests. A1C was extracted from clinical records. Results: Adolescents (n=122) were 56% female, 80% White race, 18% Hispanic, mean A1c = 8.5±2.1%. Parents (n=102) were 79% White, 14% Hispanic, 61% college graduate, 67% reporting annual household income ≥75K USD. 10% of adolescents reported history of COVID-19 infection, 51% had a family member/other important person diagnosed, and 12% had a family member/other important person die from COVID-19 complications. 49% of parents reported loss of job or salary reduction. 29% of adolescents and 33% of parents reported significant struggle to manage T1D during the pandemic (Table 1). Adolescents who reported more difficulty with T1D management were more likely to have A1C ≥ 8%, p<.01. Qualitative themes indicated perceived positive, negative, and neutral effects of the pandemic on: T1D self-care, exercise, food, mental health, telehealth, and motivation. Conclusions: Discussing how the pandemic impacted families' T1D management may be an important focus for clinicians, especially for adolescents with above-target A1C. Strategies to improve resilience for ongoing and future stress may be of value. (Table Presented).

19.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae ; 41(9):3709-3716, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1478500

ABSTRACT

Using air quality monitoring data, surface meteorological observational data, meteorological environment assessment index (EMI-index) products, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data and output of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry (WRF-Chem) from 2015 to 2020 in Shenyang, we analyzed the variation of criteria air pollutants and meteorological elements in Shenyang during the epidemic of COVID-19 and evaluated the response of air quality to emission reduction and meteorological conditions. The results showed that mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in Shenyang during the epidemic of COVID-19 decreased, while O3 concentration slightly increased. PM2.5 and NO2 were more sensitive to anthropogenic emission reduction. PM2.5 concentration decreased by 16.37% due to meteorological conditions and by 22.96% due to the prevention and control measures. Under the background of prevention and control measures, adverse meteorological conditions and sudden enhancement in pollutant emissions caused heavy pollution periods, among which adverse meteorological conditions played a more important role. Meanwhile, the emission reduction measures significantly weakened the peak of pollutant concentration in heavy pollution events. © 2021, Science Press. All right reserved.

20.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 825-829, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417204

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2, has the characteristics of world epidemic, highly infectious and large base of death. In China, transmission route of SARS-COV-2 has been contained so effectively that COVID-19 has been well controlled due to the proactive national prevention and control strategy. However, not only does it bring a huge impact on the existing medical structure model, but also an objective impact on the treatment of patients with chronic diseases such as malignant tumors. Based on the progress reported in the domestic and international literatures and the actual management experience of our team, this paper reflects on the treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) during the epidemic period of COVID-19. We focus on risk stratification for primary GIST and forming treatment strategies accordingly. Major considerations include the impact of delayed operation, the burden of medical resources, the waiting time for elective operation, and the principle of emergency operation. In addition, we focus on the level of evidence for non-surgical approaches with a view to developing a holistic strategy of "priority management principles" to guide clinical treatment in the context of limited resources and different GIST priorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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