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Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao ; 39(3):414, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2298981


Biosafety is an essential part of the national security system, which is related to people's lives and health, the country's longterm stability, and sustainable development, which is the bottom line that must be guaranteed. The international biosafety situation is grim and complex, while domestic biosafety faces challenges. Therefore, biosafety capacity building has become an international hot spot, among which scientific and technological innovation, talent training, and infrastructure platform construction are the top priorities. Although China has achieved strategic results in the rapid identification of pathogens, research, and development of specific vaccines and medicine in fighting against COVID-19 by relying on scientific research, it has shown the urgency for scientific and technological innovation in biosafety. Therefore,China has developed a strategic plan on "promoting the modernization of the national security system and capabilities, resolutely safeguarding national security and social stability" included in the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Hence, it is suggested to promote biosafety capacity building further to improve China's biosecurity system, protect people's health, ensure national security, and maintain long-term peace and stability by improving the layout of scientific and technological frontiers, promoting the construction of biosafety discipline, training of more special talents, and infrastructure platform construction.

PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(3): e1011021, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293829


Although some methods for estimating the instantaneous reproductive number during epidemics have been developed, the existing frameworks usually require information on the distribution of the serial interval and/or additional contact tracing data. However, in the case of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases with an unknown natural history or undetermined characteristics, the serial interval and/or contact tracing data are often not available, resulting in inaccurate estimates for this quantity. In the present study, a new framework was specifically designed for joint estimates of the instantaneous reproductive number and serial interval. Concretely, a likelihood function for the two quantities was first introduced. Then, the instantaneous reproductive number and the serial interval were modeled parametrically as a function of time using the interpolation method and a known traditional distribution, respectively. Using the Bayesian information criterion and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we ultimately obtained their estimates and distribution. The simulation study revealed that our estimates of the two quantities were consistent with the ground truth. Seven data sets of historical epidemics were considered and further verified the robust performance of our method. Therefore, to some extent, even if we know only the daily incidence, our method can accurately estimate the instantaneous reproductive number and serial interval to provide crucial information for policymakers to design appropriate prevention and control interventions during epidemics.

Epidemics , Bayes Theorem , Disease Outbreaks , Computer Simulation , Likelihood Functions
J Int Bus Stud ; : 1-15, 2023 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255884


What can MNEs learn from the COVID-19 pandemic? IB scholars have provided ample insights into this question with many focusing on risk management. Complementing these insights, we argue that MNEs should also consider the long-lasting effect that COVID-19, inter alia, had on the institutional logic underlying globalization. The U.S. and its allies have redefined their logic from pursuing cost-reduction to building partnerships based on shared value, aiming to substitute China's role in the world economy. The geopolitical pressure for decoupling from China is the source of 'new' vulnerability of globalization. Such pressure is counteracted by economic rationality, creating unsettled priority between the globalization and deglobalization logics at the macro-level institutional space. Combining both risk-management and institutional logic perspectives, we develop a more comprehensive framework on how MNEs should respond to these challenges. This paper contributes to the debate regarding the impact of COVID-19 on globalization, suggesting that neither globalization nor deglobalization logics will prevail in the short run, and IB will likely be more fractured in the long run, based on not only geographic but also ideological and value propinquity. In strategic sectors, the balance will shift toward bifurcation while in others the balance will shift toward the globalization logic.

Que peuvent apprendre les entreprises multinationales (Multinational Enterprises ­ MNEs) de la pandémie de COVID-19 ? A cette question, les chercheurs en affaires internationales (International Business ­ IB) ont fourni de nombreux renseignements dont beaucoup se concentrent sur la gestion des risques. En complément de ces renseignements, nous argumentons que les MNEs devraient également tenir compte de l'effet durable que la COVID-19 a eu, entre autres, sur les logiques institutionnelles sous-tendant la globalisation. Les États-Unis et leurs alliés ont redéfini leur logique, passant de la recherche de la réduction des coûts à la construction de partenariats fondés sur la valeur partagée, et ce dans le but de substituer le rôle de la Chine dans l'économie mondiale. La pression géopolitique en faveur de la dissociation de la Chine constitue la source de la "nouvelle" vulnérabilité de la globalisation. Une telle pression est contrecarrée par la rationalité économique, impliquant une priorité instable entre les logiques de globalisation et de dé-globalisation dans l'espace institutionnel au niveau macro. En combinant les perspectives de la gestion des risques et de la logique institutionnelle, nous développons un cadre théorique plus complet sur la façon dont les MNEs devraient répondre à ces défis. Cet article contribue au débat sur l'impact de la COVID-19 sur la globalisation en suggérant que ni la logique de globalisation ni celle de dé-globalisation ne prévaudront à court terme, et que l'IB sera probablement plus fracturé à long terme en fonction de la proximité géographique, idéologique et de valeurs. Dans les secteurs stratégiques, l'équilibre penchera vers la bifurcation tandis que dans d'autres, il penchera vers la logique de globalisation.

¿Qué pueden aprender las empresas multinacionales de la pandemia? Los académicos de negocios internacionales han dado numerosos aportes sobre esta pregunta, muchas de ellas enfocadas en la gestión de riesgos. Complementando estos aportes, sostenemos que las empresas multinacionales deben también considerar el efecto duradero que COVID, entre otras cosas, tuvo en las lógicas institucionales que subyacen la globalización. Los Estados Unidos y sus aliados han redefinido su lógica de perseguir reducción de costos a la construcción de valor basado en valor compartido, con el objetivo de substituir el papel de China en la economía mundial. La presión geopolítica para desacoplarse de China es la fuente de la "nueva" vulnerabilidad de la globalización. Esta presión es contrarrestada con la racionalidad económica, creando prioridades inestables entre las lógicas de globalización y desglobalización a nivel macro del espacio institucional. Combinando las perspectivas tanto gestión de riesgos como la lógica institucional, desarrollamos un marco más completo sobre las multinacionales deben responder a estos retos. Este manuscrito contribuye al debate sobre el impacto del COVID-19 en la globalización, indicando que ni la lógica de globalización o de desglobalización van a prevalecer en el corto plazo, y los negocios internacionales estén más fracturados en el largo plazo, en función no solo en la proximidad geográfica, sino también ideológica y de valores. En sectores estratégicos la balanza se inclinará hacia la bifurcación mientras que en los otros la balanza se inclinará a la lógica de globalización.

O que MNEs podem aprender com a pandemia do COVID-19? Acadêmicos de IB forneceram amplos insights sobre essa questão, muitos deles focados no gerenciamento de riscos. Complementando esses insights, argumentamos que MNEs também devem considerar o efeito duradouro que o COVID-19 teve, entre outros, nas lógicas institucionais subjacentes à globalização. Os EUA e seus aliados redefiniram sua lógica de buscar a redução de custos para construir parcerias baseadas no valor compartilhado, visando substituir o papel da China na economia mundial. A pressão geopolítica para a separação da China é a fonte da "nova" vulnerabilidade da globalização. Tal pressão é contrabalançada pela racionalidade econômica, criando uma prioridade instável entre as lógicas da globalização e da desglobalização no espaço institucional de nível macro. Combinando as perspectivas de gerenciamento de risco e lógica institucional, desenvolvemos um modelo mais abrangente sobre como MNEs devem responder a esses desafios. Este artigo contribui para o debate sobre o impacto do COVID-19 na globalização, sugerindo que nem a lógica da globalização nem a da desglobalização prevalecerão no curto prazo, e IB provavelmente será mais fendido no longo prazo, com base não apenas na proximidade geográfica, mas também na ideológica e de valor. Em setores estratégicos o equilíbrio se deslocará para a bifurcação enquanto em outros o equilíbrio se deslocará para a lógica da globalização..

Small ; 19(20): e2208167, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241393


Fluorescence-based PCR and other amplification methods have been used for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, however, it requires costly fluorescence detectors and probes limiting deploying large-scale screening. Here, a cut-price colorimetric method for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by iron manganese silicate nanozyme (IMSN) is established. IMSN catalyzes the oxidation of chromogenic substrates by its peroxidase (POD)-like activity, which is effectively inhibited by pyrophosphate ions (PPi). Due to the large number of PPi generated by amplification processes, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected by a colorimetric readout visible to the naked eye, with the detection limit of 240 copies mL-1 . This conceptually new method has been successfully applied to correctly distinguish positive and negative oropharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19. Colorimetric assay provides a low-cost and instrumental-free solution for nucleic acid detection, which holds great potential for facilitating virus surveillance.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2124787


Objective A quantitative synthesis of online psychotherapies' effectiveness in managing COVID-19 related distress is lacking. This study aimed to estimate online psychological interventions' effectiveness and associated factors on COVID-19 related psychological distress. Methods Multi-databases including PubMed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Cochrane were searched repeatedly till the end of June 2022. Hand-picking was also utilized for relevant papers. Depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of sleep were evaluated as outcomes. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane tool. Data analyses were conducted through Review Manager (version 5.4.1). Results A total of 13 studies involving 1,897 participants were included for meta-analysis. Results showed that online psychotherapy significantly reduced the levels of depression [standard mean difference, SMD = −0.45, 95% CI (−0.69, −0.20)], anxiety [SMD = −0.67, 95% CI (−0.99, −0.36)], and stress [SMD = −0.73, 95% CI (−1.11, −0.34)], but not quality of sleep [SMD = −0.53, 95% CI (−1.23, 0.17)]. In addition, guided therapies were more effective than self-help ones on reducing levels of anxiety (χ2 = 5.58, p = 0.02, and I2 = 82.1%), and ≤ 2 weeks' daily interventions were more effective on treating depression than 2-month weekly interventions (χ2 = 7.97, p = 0.005, I2 = 87.5%). Conclusion Online psychological interventions effectively reduced COVID-19 related depression, anxiety, and stress levels, and the effectiveness was influenced by settings like guidance and duration and frequency. Systematic review registration, identifier: INPLASY202270081.

PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010660, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993526


Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, which is featured by its ability to replicate in acid vacuoles resembling the lysosomal network. One key virulence determinant of C. burnetii is the Dot/Icm system that transfers more than 150 effector proteins into host cells. These effectors function to construct the lysosome-like compartment permissive for bacterial replication, but the functions of most of these effectors remain elusive. In this study, we used an affinity tag purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach to generate a C. burnetii-human protein-protein interaction (PPI) map involving 53 C. burnetii effectors and 3480 host proteins. This PPI map revealed that the C. burnetii effector CBU0425 (designated CirB) interacts with most subunits of the 20S core proteasome. We found that ectopically expressed CirB inhibits hydrolytic activity of the proteasome. In addition, overexpression of CirB in C. burnetii caused dramatic inhibition of proteasome activity in host cells, while knocking down CirB expression alleviated such inhibitory effects. Moreover, we showed that a region of CirB that spans residues 91-120 binds to the proteasome subunit PSMB5 (beta 5). Finally, PSMB5 knockdown promotes C. burnetii virulence, highlighting the importance of proteasome activity modulation during the course of C. burnetii infection.

Coxiella burnetii , Q Fever , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Q Fever/metabolism , Vacuoles/metabolism
Nano Today ; 41: 101308, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446977


A once-in-a-century global public health crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic has damaged human health and world economy greatly. To help combat the virus, we report a self-resetting molecular probe capable of repeatedly detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, developed by orchestrating a fuel dissipative system via DNA nanotechnology. A set of simulation toolkits was utilized to design the probe, permitting highly consistent signal amplitudes across cyclic detections. Uniquely, full width at half maximum regulated by dissipative kinetics exhibits a fingerprint signal suitable for high confidential identifications of single-nucleotide variants. Further examination on multiple human-infectious RNA viruses, including ZIKV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV, demonstrates the generic detection capability and superior orthogonality of the probe. It also correctly classified all the clinical samples from 55 COVID-19 patients and 55 controls. Greatly enhancing the screening capability for COVID-19 and other infectious diseases, this probe could help with disease control and build a broader global public health agenda.

Front Psychiatry ; 12: 694051, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369728


Objective: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out in Hubei Province and spread rapidly to the whole country, causing huge public health problems. College students are a special group, and there is no survey on insomnia among college students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and related factors of insomnia in college students during the period of COVID-19. Method: A total of 1,086 college students conducted a cross-sectional study through the questionnaire star platform. The survey time was from February 15 to February 22, 2020. The collected information included demographic informatics and mental health scale, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to assess sleep quality, Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) to assess general psychological symptoms, Chinese perceived stress scale (CPSS) to assess stress. We used logistic regression to analyze the correlation between related factors and insomnia symptoms. Results: The prevalence of insomnia, general psychological symptoms and stress were 16.67, 5.8, and 40.70%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender (OR = 1.55, p = 0.044, 95% CI = 1.00-2.41), general psychological symptoms (OR = 1.49, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 1.40-1.60) and living in an isolation unit (OR = 2.21, p = 0.014, 95% CI = 1.17-4.16) were risk factors for insomnia of college students. Conclusion: Our results show that the insomnia is very common among college students during the outbreak of covid-19, and the related factors include gender, general psychological symptoms and isolation environment. It is necessary to intervene the insomnia of college students and warrants attention for mental well-being of college students.

J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035695


Virus-specific T cells play essential roles in protection against multiple virus infections, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. While SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been identified in COVID-19 patients, their role in the protection of SARS-CoV-2-infected mice is not established. Here, using mice sensitized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 by transduction with an adenovirus expressing the human receptor (Ad5-hACE2), we identified SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Virus-specific T cells were polyfunctional and were able to lyse target cells in vivo. Further, type I interferon pathway was proved to be critical for generating optimal antiviral T cell responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. T cell vaccination alone partially protected SARS-CoV-2-infected mice from severe disease. In addition, the results demonstrated cross-reactive T cell responses between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but not MERS-CoV, in mice. Understanding the role of the T cell response will guide immunopathogenesis studies of COVID-19 and vaccine design and validation.

COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
Cell ; 182(5): 1271-1283.e16, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666099


There is an urgent need for vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Among all approaches, a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine has emerged as a rapid and versatile platform to quickly respond to this challenge. Here, we developed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 as a vaccine candidate (called ARCoV). Intramuscular immunization of ARCoV mRNA-LNP elicited robust neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 as well as a Th1-biased cellular response in mice and non-human primates. Two doses of ARCoV immunization in mice conferred complete protection against the challenge of a SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strain. Additionally, ARCoV is manufactured as a liquid formulation and can be stored at room temperature for at least 1 week. ARCoV is currently being evaluated in phase 1 clinical trials.

RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intramuscular , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics