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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 580147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211807

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is widely spread and remains a global pandemic. Limited evidence on the systematic evaluation of the impact of treatment regimens on antibody responses exists. Our study aimed to analyze the role of antibody response on prognosis and determine factors influencing the IgG antibodies' seroconversion. A total of 1,111 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms admitted to Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan were retrospectively analyzed. A serologic SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibody test was performed on all the patients 21 days after the onset of symptoms. Patient clinical characteristics were compared. In the study, 42 patients progressed to critical illness, with 6 mortalities reported while 1,069 patients reported mild to moderate disease. Advanced age (P = 0.028), gasping (P < 0.001), dyspnea (P = 0.024), and IgG negativity (P = 0.006) were associated with progression to critical illness. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with IgG antibody was 6.45% (95% CI 1.12-22.84%) and 36.36% (95% CI 12.36-68.38%) in patients with no IgG antibody (P = 0.003). Symptomatic patients were more likely to develop IgG antibody responses than asymptomatic patients. Using univariable analysis, fever (P < 0.001), gasping (P = 0.048), cancer (P < 0.001), cephalosporin (P = 0.015), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (P = 0.021) were associated with IgG response. In the multivariable analysis, fever, cancer, cephalosporins, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine correlated independently with IgG response. We determined that the absence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgG in the convalescent stage had a specific predictive role in critical illness progression. Importantly, risk factors affecting seropositivity were identified, and the effect of antimalarial drugs on antibody response was determined.

2.
Virulence ; 11(1): 1569-1581, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919321

ABSTRACT

A pandemic designated as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. Up to date, there is no efficient biomarker for the timely prediction of the disease progression in patients. To analyze the inflammatory profiles of COVID-19 patients and demonstrate their implications for the illness progression of COVID-19. Retrospective analysis of 3,265 confirmed COVID-19 cases hospitalized between 10 January 2020, and 26 March 2020 in three medical centers in Wuhan, China. Patients were diagnosed as COVID-19 and hospitalized in Leishenshan Hospital, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and The Seventh Hospital of Wuhan, China. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the possible risk factors for disease progression. Moreover, cutoff values, the sensitivity and specificity of inflammatory parameters for disease progression were determined by MedCalc Version 19.2.0. Age (95%CI, 1.017 to 1.048; P < 0.001), serum amyloid A protein (SAA) (95%CI, 1.216 to 1.396; P < 0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (95%CI, 1.006 to 1.045; P < 0.001) were likely the risk factors for the disease progression. The Area under the curve (AUC) of SAA for the progression of COVID-19 was 0.923, with the best predictive cutoff value of SAA of 12.4 mg/L, with a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 97.67%. SAA-containing parameters are novel promising ones for predicting disease progression in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Larynx/virology , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis
3.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1431

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now become a global pandemic This necessitated the rapid construction of field hospitals and negative pres

4.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1177

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been widely spread and caused tens of thousands of deaths, mainly in patients with severe COVID-19 br

5.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1043

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic carriers were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without developing symptoms, which might be a

6.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-783

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has attracted the attention of the whole world Our study aims to describe illness evolution and mortality risk profiles fo

7.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-515

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) induced pneumonia (NCP) in the central city of Wuhan in China poses a threat to the public health Thi

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100510, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758754

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic carriers were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without developing symptoms, which might be a potential source of infection outbreak. Here, we aim to clarify the epidemiologic and influencing factors of asymptomatic carriers in the general population. Methods: In our hospital, all hospital staff have received throat swab RT-PCR test, plasma COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibodies test and chest CT examination. We analyzed the correlation between infection rates and gender, age, job position, work place and COVID-19 knowledge training of the staff. After that, all asymptomatic staff were re-examined weekly for 3 weeks. Findings: A total of 3764 hospital staff were included in this single-center cross-sectional study. Among them, 126 hospital staff had abnormal findings, and the proportion of asymptomatic infection accounted for 0.76% (28/3674). There were 26 staff with IgM+, 73 with IgG+, and 40 with ground glass shadow of chest CT. Of all staff with abnormal findings, the older they are, the more likely they are to be the staff with abnormal results, regardless of their gender. Of 3674 hospital staff, the positive rate of labor staff is obviously higher than that of health care workers (HCWs) and administrative staff (P<0.05). In the course of participating in the treatment of COVID-19, there was no statistically significant difference in positive rates between high-risk departments and low-risk departments (P>0.05). The positive rate of HCWs who participated in the COVID-19 knowledge training was lower than those did not participate in early training (P <0.01). Importantly, it was found that there was no statistical difference between the titers of IgM antibody of asymptomatic infections and confirmed patients with COVID-19 in recovery period (P>0.05). During 3 weeks follow-up, all asymptomatic patients did not present the development of clinical symptoms or radiographic abnormalities after active intervention in isolation point. Interpretation: To ensure the safety of resumption of work, institutions should conduct COVID-19 prevention training for staff and screening for asymptomatic patients, and take quarantine measures as soon as possible in areas with high density of population. Funding: The Key Project for Anti-2019 novel Coronavirus Pneumonia from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China; Wuhan Emergency Technology Project of COVID-19 epidemic, China.

9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1345, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-698288

ABSTRACT

Abnormal coagulation parameters and potential benefits of anticoagulant therapy in general population with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) have been reported. However, limited data are available on cancer patients. Coagulation indexes and inflammation parameters in 57 cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with different severity were retrospectively analyzed. We found that D-dimer levels were increased in 33 patients (57.9%, median: 790 ng/mL). Compared with ordinary type patients, severe and critical ill patients had decreased MPV values (P = 0.006), prolonged PT (median: 13.3 vs. 11.5 vs. 11.4 s, P < 0.001), significant higher D-dimer levels (median: 2,400 vs. 940 vs. 280 ng/mL, P < 0.001), higher PCT levels (median: 0.17 vs. 0.055 vs. 0.045 ng/mL, P = 0.002), higher IL-6 (median: 20.6 vs. 2.3 vs. 3.0 pg/mL, P = 0.040), and decreased PaO2 (median: 68 vs. 84 vs. 96 mm Hg, P < 0.001). Importantly, three patients, one severe and two critical ill type, with increased D-dimer survived after anticoagulant therapy with continuous heparin infusion. Increased D-dimer levels positively correlated with increased PCT levels (r = 0.456, P = 0.002) and IL-6 levels (r = 0.501, P = 0.045). A negative correlation between D-dimer levels and PaO2 levels (r = -0.654, P = 0.021) were also existed. Cancer patients with COVID-19 showed prominent hypercoagulability associated with severe inflammation, anticoagulation therapy might be useful to improve the prognosis and should be immediately used after the onset of hypercoagulability.

10.
Indoor Built Environ. ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-692787

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) necessitated the rapid construction of field hospitals as the main strategies to control the detrimental effects of the outbreak. Little is known about the extent of the environmental contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an urgently field hospital. A total of 66 surface samples were randomly collected from a general isolation ward and an ICU (intensive care unit) at a rapidly built field hospital (Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital) in Wuhan, China, from 12 March to 17 March 2020. The samples were used for SARS-CoV-2 detection and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) monitoring. Among these samples, 3.03% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The nurses' hands and nurse station in the ICU were weakly positive (CT value = 38.79; CT value = 37.56) and the ATP value of these two sites was higher than the mean value of all samples (ATP = 817; ATP = 577). The environmental cleaning and disinfection normalization bundle measures in Leishenshan hospital included air disinfection, object surface cleaning and disinfection, instrument equipment surface disinfection and hand hygiene, etc. These have been tested and were shown to be reliable and useful. Our experience can provide a useful reference in the fight against the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide and has the ability to damage multiple organs. However, information on serum SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid(RNAemia) in patients affected by COVID-19 is limited. METHODS: Patients who admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, were tested SARS-COV-2 RNA in serum from January 28, 2020, to February 9, 2020. Demographic data, laboratory findings, radiological, comorbidities and outcomes data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: 85 patients were included in the analysis. The viral load of throat swabs was significantly higher than serum samples. The highest detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum samples was between 11 to 15 days after the symptom onset. Analysis to compare with and without RNAemia provided evidence that CT and some laboratory biomarkers(total protein, BUN, LDH, hypersensitive troponin I and D-dimer) were abnormal, and that the extent of these abnormalities was generally higher in RNAemia than in non-RNAemia. Organ damages(respiratory failure, cardiac damage, renal damage and coagulopathy) were more common in RNAemia than non-RNAemia. Patients with vs without RNAemia had shorter durations from serum testing SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The mortality rate was higher among patients with vs without RNAemia. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence to support that SARS-CoV-2 may have an important role in multiple organ damage, such as respiratory failure, cardiac damage, renal damage and coagulopathy. We did not find strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 plays a role in damage of liver and the central nervous system. And our evidence suggests that RNAemia has a significant association with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.

14.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647106

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a threat to global health. The mortality rate of severely ill patients in the early stage is 32.5%. The exacerbation of the condition and death of patients are closely associated with inflammatory cytokine storms, which are caused by excessive activation of the immune and complement systems as well as the coinfection of other pathogens. However, the immunological characteristics and the mechanisms underlying inflammatory storms have not been well elucidated. Here, we analyzed the clinical and immunological characteristics of 71 confirmed COVID-19 patients. Based on the National Health Commission of China (NHCC) guidelines, patients were stratified into mild and severe types. We compared the clinical and laboratory data obtained from electronic medical records between the two types. In regard to the hematological parameters, COVID-19 patients showed decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocyte count, eosinophil count, and complement C1q, whereas neutrophils, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were significantly increased, especially in severe cases. We also found that CD3+ CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD19+ B lymphocytes, and CD16+ CD56+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of all patients were decreased. In addition, CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, and complement C1q in severely ill patients decreased more significantly. Additionally, interleukin 6 (IL-6) elevation was particularly prominent in all patients, especially in severe cases. These results suggest that CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, C1q as well as IL-6 may play critical roles in the inflammatory cytokine storm. The dysregulation of these aforementioned immune parameters, along with bacterial coinfection, were the important causes of exacerbation of the patients' condition and death. This study improves our understanding of the immune dysregulation of COVID-19 and provides potential immunotherapeutic strategies.IMPORTANCE The dysregulation of CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, C1q as well as IL-6, along with bacterial coinfection, were important causes of exacerbation of the patients' condition and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Complement C1q/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality
15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 24: 100426, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628008

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been widely spread and caused tens of thousands of deaths, especially in patients with severe COVID-19. This analysis aimed to explore risk factors for mortality of severe COVID-19, and establish a scoring system to predict in-hospital deaths. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed and clinical characteristics were compared. LASSO regression as well as multivariable analysis were used to screen variables and establish prediction model. Findings: A total of 2529 patients with COVID-19 was retrospectively analyzed, and 452 eligible severe COVID-19 were used for finally analysis. In training cohort, the median age was 66•0 years while it was 73•0 years in non-survivors. Patients aged 60-75 years accounted for the largest proportion of infected populations and mortality toll. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were monitored up to 54 days, and IgG levels reached the highest during 20-30 days. No differences were observed of antibody levels between severe and non-severe patients. About 60.2% of severe patients had complications. Among acute myocardial injury (AMI), acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute liver injury (ALI), the heart was the earliest injured organ, whereas the time from AKI to death was the shortest. Age, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), percentage of lymphocytes (LYM%), procalcitonin (PCT), serum urea, C reactive protein and D-dimer (DD), were identified associated with mortality by LASSO binary logistic regression. Then multivariable analysis was performed to conclude that old age, CHD, LYM%, PCT and DD remained independent risk factors for mortality. Based on the above variables, a scoring system of COVID-19 (CSS) was established to divide patients into low-risk and high-risk groups. This model displayed good discrimination (AUC=0·919) and calibration (P=0·264). Complications in low-risk and high-risk groups were significantly different (P<0·05). Use of corticosteroids in low-risk groups increased hospital stays by 4·5 days (P=0·036) and durations of disease by 7·5 days (P=0·012) compared with no corticosteroids. Interpretation: Old age, CHD, LYM%, PCT and DD were independently related to mortality. CSS was useful for predicting in-hospital mortality and complications, and it could help clinicians to identify high-risk patients with poor prognosis. Funding: This work was supported by the Key Project for Anti-2019 novel Coronavirus Pneumonia from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (grant number 2020YFC0845500).

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 246, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612624

ABSTRACT

Background. The outbreak of COVID-19 has attracted the attention of the whole world. Our study aimed to describe illness progression and risk profiles for mortality in non-survivors. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 155 patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and focused on 18 non-survivors among them. Briefly, we compared the dynamic profile of biochemical and immune parameters and drew an epidemiological and clinical picture of disease progression from disease onset to death in non-survivors. The survival status of the cohort was indicated by a Kaplan-Meier curve. Results. Of the non-survivors, the median age was 73.5 years, and the proportion of males was 72.2%. Five and 13 patients were hospital-acquired and community-acquired infection of SARS-CoV-2, respectively. The interval between disease onset and diagnosis was 8.5 days (IQR, [4-11]). With the deterioration of disease, most patients experienced consecutive changes in biochemical parameters, including lymphopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, as well as elevated D-dimer and procalcitonin. Regarding the immune dysregulation, patients exhibited significantly decreased T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, including CD3+T, CD3+CD4+Th, and CD3+CD8+Tc cells. By the end of the disease, most patients suffered from severe complications, including ARDS (17/18; 94.4%), acute cardiac injury (10/18; 55.6%), acute kidney injury (7/18; 38.9%), shock (6/18; 33.3%), gastrointestinal bleeding (1/18; 5.6%), as well as perforation of intestine (1/18; 5.6%). All patients died within 45 days after the initial hospital admission with a median survivor time of 13.5 days (IQR, 8-17). Conclusions. Our data show that patients experienced consecutive changes in biochemical and immune parameters with the deterioration of the disease, indicating the necessity of early intervention.

19.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2384-2386, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-425585
20.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(7): 1205-1215, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88716

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability, hypertension, and multiorgan dysfunction. Effective antivirals with safe clinical profile are urgently needed to improve the overall prognosis. In an analysis of a randomly collected cohort of 124 patients with COVID-19, we found that hypercoagulability as indicated by elevated concentrations of D-dimers was associated with disease severity. By virtual screening of a U.S. FDA approved drug library, we identified an anticoagulation agent dipyridamole (DIP) in silico, which suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. In a proof-of-concept trial involving 31 patients with COVID-19, DIP supplementation was associated with significantly decreased concentrations of D-dimers (P < 0.05), increased lymphocyte and platelet recovery in the circulation, and markedly improved clinical outcomes in comparison to the control patients. In particular, all 8 of the DIP-treated severely ill patients showed remarkable improvement: 7 patients (87.5%) achieved clinical cure and were discharged from the hospitals while the remaining 1 patient (12.5%) was in clinical remission.

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