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1.
PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES ; 35(4):1077-1082, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939750

ABSTRACT

To observe the synergistic effect of garlic essential oil in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), in addition to the routine treatment, we used garlic essential oil in COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms and compared their results to those of patients who did not receive the essential oil. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with COVID-19 patients from 3 hospitals. In the experimental group, 97 patients received garlic essential oil combined with conventional treatment. In the control group, 100 patients received only the conventional treatment for COVID-19. The effectiveness and safety of the garlic essential oil were assessed. Compared to the control group, the group receiving garlic essential oil showed a shorter duration of symptoms, shorter time to negative nucleic acid testing (NAT) results and shorter time to improvement on the computed tomography (CT). In the same period, the experimental group showed an increase in the rate of the disappearance of symptoms and the improvement rates of NAT and CT. Due to its effectiveness and safety in patients with COVID-19, garlic essential oil is recommended as a preventive measure or a supportive therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Value in Health ; 25(7):S498, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1926727

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the two most common subtypes of cutaneous T cell lymphomas. Given their low prevalence, real-world treatment patterns of existing and newly approved therapies for MF and SS remain unknown, especially during the COVID pandemic. This study examined treatment patterns among patients with MF or SS between 2018-2020 in the United States. Methods: Patients in the Symphony Health Solutions database were classified into 6 groups: ≥1 MF diagnosis (no SS diagnosis) in 2018, 2019, and 2020, and ≥1 SS diagnosis in 2018, 2019, 2020, respectively. Utilization of treatments recommended by the current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines was examined: skin-directed therapy (SDT;topical, local radiation, total skin electron beam therapy, or phototherapy), systemic therapy (extracorporeal photopheresis [ECP], parenteral, or oral), and bone marrow transplant (BMT). Results: Overall(mean age;male), 10,527(62.9 years;54.6%), 10,078(63.2 years;54.3%) and 9,414(63.2 years;53.9%) patients had ≥1 MF diagnosis and 869(66.3 years;54.4%), 882(66.9 years;54.8%) and 853(67.3 years;55.6%) patients had ≥1 SS diagnosis in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. From 2018-2020, 56.1-56.6% of MF (SDT 52.1-52.5%;systemics 12.1-13.5%;BMT 0.1-0.2%) and 64.6-68.8% of SS patients (SDT 48.9-52.9%;systemics 41.8-46.5%;BMT 0.8-1.5%) had ≥1 treatment claims. Among MF patients with any systemic therapies, bexarotene was the most common in 2018 (28.1%) and 2019 (27.5%), methotrexate in 2020 (27.2%), and mogamulizumab (2018 MF/SS approval) the 6th most common in 2019 (6.8%) and 2020 (6.6%). Among SS patients with any systemic therapies, ECP was the most common in 2018 (40.8%) and 2019 (33.3%), and mogamulizumab in 2020 (29.2%). Conclusions: Using claims from 2018-2020, approximately half of MF and SS patients had SDT each year, without major change during the COVID pandemic. Since 2018 in SS, there was an increasing systemic usage, with increasing mogamulizumab but decreasing ECP usage.

3.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 45(4):393-398, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1911767

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the difference in the extraction efficiency of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) nucleic acid by using magnetic beads method, centrifugal column method and one-step method. Methods On March 5, 2021, 10 throat swabs were collected from the staff working in the nucleic acid sampling room in Department of Clinical Laboratory, Affiliated Taikang Xianlin Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University. The positive quality control samples were mixed into the swabs and used as mock positive samples. The RNA was extracted from simulated positive samples and their diluted samples by using magnetic beads method, centrifugation column method and one-step method. The purity (A260/A280 ratio) and concentration of the nucleic acid obtained were measured by micro-uv photometry, and fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to compare the CT value and extraction efficiency. The three methods were used to extract the simulated weak positive specimens and to compare the difference of CT values after amplification. The measurement data that followed normal distribution were expressed by x ± s, the t test was used for comparing in the same group, and single factor analysis of variance was used for comparing among multiple groups. A P value smaller than 0.05 indicated a significant difference. Results 2019-nCoV nucleic acid extracted by magnetic bead method, centrifugal column method and one-step method could amplify positive results. There was no significant difference between the CT value of RNA amplification extracted by magnetic bead method and one-step method (t=- 0.995, P=0.376). The CT values of orf1ab gene amplified by centrifugal column method, magnetic bead method and one-step method were 29.28±0.06, 30.82±0.14 and 29.79±0.01 respectively (F=11.196, P=0.041). The CT values of E gene were 28.52±0.40, 27.33±0.78 and 27.38±0.13 respectively (F= 3.407, P=0.169). The CT values of N gene were 28.61±1.02, 27.24±0.20 and 27.25±0.47, respectively (F=2.880, P=0.020). The CT values of human genes extracted by centrifugal column method, magnetic bead method and one-step method were 19.68±0.36, 20.14±0.06 and 20.58±0.49 respectively, which was statistically significant (F=4.904, P=0.048). The CT value of amplified human gene was affected by the dilution of human samples twice. The CT value of undiluted samples was smaller than that of diluted samples twice, with a difference of 2.95±0.22, which was statistically significant (t=-3.025, P=0.039). The extraction time of one-step method, magnetic bead method and centrifugal column method were (15.00±1.50), (20.00±1.50) and (40.00±5.5) min respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (F=688, P=0.027). Conclusions Magnetic bead method, centrifugal column method and one-step method can be used to extract 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, for the centrifugal column method has a higher extraction efficiency than the magnetic bead method and the one-step method. The one-step method is the fastest, followed by the magnetic bead method and the centrifugal column method. A large number of clinical samples can be processed using the magnetic bead method and one-step method. One-step rapid nucleic acid test can also be performed on samples from emergency and fever clinics. It is not recommended to dilute specimens for testing. In order to improve the detection rate, extracting RNA from highly suspected samples with negative initial nucleic acid test by centrifugal column method is suggested. © 2022 Chinese Medical Journals Publishing House Co.Ltd. All rights reserved.

4.
7th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, ICSP 2022 ; : 1050-1054, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901468

ABSTRACT

Due to the difficulty of conducting offline laboratory experiments during the coronavirus outbreak, remote experiments such as experiments over video conference apps have become an important method to collect data for hearing researchers. For remote testing using headphone presentations, compared to monaural (i.e., unilateral or diotic) audio stimuli, dichotic stimuli (i.e., sounds with differences between left and right ears) are used in relatively less studies. In this study, a binaural hearing task of spatial release from masking (SRM) was tested in laboratory and over a video conference app, i.e., Tencent Meeting. In the experiment, the effects of interaural time difference (ITD) on SRM were compared between symmetric and asymmetric hearing which were realized by using a fixed interaural level difference (ILD) of 0 dB and -15 dB respectively. Results showed that 1) SRM was observed in the remote test but it was >4 dB smaller than the laboratory test;2) asymmetric hearing would lead to a ~2 dB significant decrease in the amount of masking release in both laboratory and remote conditions. The results indicate that binaural hearing could be measured remotely using the stereo sharing mode of video conference apps, but the effects of binaural cues especially ITDs may be degraded to some extent. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 172-178, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the health-seeking behaviors of imported malaria cases after returning to China, and to investigate the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis, so as to provide the scientific evidence for early identification of imported malaria cases and prevention of severe cases development and secondary transmission. METHODS: The individual demographic features, and the disease onset and the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China. The characteristics of health-seeking behaviors and epidemiological features of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed, and the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases after returning to China were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 244 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and the time to initial diagnosis of the cases were 1-12 days, with mean time of (1.53 ± 1.65) days, with median time of one day. The highest number of malaria cases seeking healthcare services were found on the day of developing primary symptoms (76 cases, 31.1%), followed by on the second day (68 cases, 27.9%), on the third day (46 cases, 18.9%), and 54 cases (22.1%) received initial diagnosis 3 days following presence of primary symptoms, including 3 cases with initial diagnosis at more than one week. High proportions of imported malaria cases with a delay in the time to initial diagnosis were seen in migrant workers who returned to China in January (14 cases, 5.7%) and December (13 cases, 5.3%) and those aged between 41 and 50 years (32 cases, 13.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed relative short time to initial diagnosis among imported malaria cases returning to China on March [odds ratio (OR) = 0.16, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.03, 0.85)] and those with a history of overseas malaria parasite infections [OR = 0.36, P = 0.001, 95% CI: (0.19, 0.67)]. CONCLUSIONS: Timely health-seeking behaviors should be improved among imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, patients with a history of overseas malaria infections require faster health-seeking activities.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Transients and Migrants , Adult , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/parasitology , Middle Aged
6.
Traitement du Signal ; 39(2):701-710, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893498

ABSTRACT

As Covid-19 plagues the world, a clean environment helps to control the factors and risks that threaten health, and curb the spread of the epidemic. However, the quality evaluation of environmental health faces some problems and challenges in actual management and practice. Firstly, the classification, identification, and quantification of road garbage are mainly done manually, because of the diversity of road garbage, as well as their sharp differences in geometry, color, and texture. Secondly, it is labor-intensive to manually manage the large operation areas on the wide urban roads. Thirdly, the accuracy of statistical indices is affected by the time-varying road environment, making the quality evaluation of environmental health untimely and inaccurate. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent image classification and evaluation method for urban environmental health. Specifically, an environmental garbage recognition and semantic segmentation approach was designed based on UNet++, and combined with the vehicle-mounted machine vision system to automatically identify the typical targets among the road waste control indices. Next, an image attention quantitative evaluation method was developed based on the eye tracking analyzer, and the quantified attention was fused with the statistical features for road garbage classification, forming an attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality. The proposed approach supports the automatic recognition and semantic segmentation of the garbage on urban roads, and realizes the identification of complex targets in different scenes through transfer learning. In addition, the attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality provides environmental management departments with visual basis for quantitative decision-making. © 2022 Lavoisier. All rights reserved.

7.
47th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2022 ; 2022-May:9012-9016, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891401

ABSTRACT

Traditional face-to-face subjective listening test has become a challenge due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed a remote assessment system with Tencent Meeting, a video conferencing application, to address this issue. This paper presents our work on evaluating the reliability of the remote assessment system. Two speech reception threshold (SRT) experiments were conducted to study the effects of noise suppression and maxima selection number on cochlear implant (CI) hearing. Both experiments were conducted locally and remotely, the correlations between the respective results were analyzed. Results showed that remote tests replicated the differences among testing conditions observed in local tests, but the absolute SRT values for individual conditions varied significantly between the two modes. The variations could be attributed to multiple reasons, such as online data transmission issues, audio playback devices, environmental conditions, and the training of participants. In conclusion, the relative variation of SRTs for CIs can be measured reliably, but the absolute SRT values should be carefully compared and explained according to objective and subjective experimental conditions. © 2022 IEEE

8.
Traitement Du Signal ; 39(2):701-710, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884816

ABSTRACT

As Covid-19 plagues the world, a clean environment helps to control the factors and risks that threaten health, and curb the spread of the epidemic. However, the quality evaluation of environmental health faces some problems and challenges in actual management and practice. Firstly, the classification, identification, and quantification of road garbage are mainly done manually, because of the diversity of road garbage, as well as their sharp differences in geometry, color, and texture. Secondly, it is labor-intensive to manually manage the large operation areas on the wide urban roads. Thirdly, the accuracy of statistical indices is affected by the time-varying road environment, making the quality evaluation of environmental health untimely and inaccurate. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent image classification and evaluation method for urban environmental health. Specifically, an environmental garbage recognition and semantic segmentation approach was designed based on UNet++, and combined with the vehicle-mounted machine vision system to automatically identify the typical targets among the road waste control indices. Next, an image attention quantitative evaluation method was developed based on the eye tracking analyzer, and the quantified attention was fused with the statistical features for road garbage classification, forming an attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality. The proposed approach supports the automatic recognition and semantic segmentation of the garbage on urban roads, and realizes the identification of complex targets in different scenes through transfer learning. In addition, the attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality provides environmental management departments with visual basis for quantitative decision-making.

9.
Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research ; 47(1):81-90, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1862959

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the early warning signs of deterioration of patients with COVID-19. Methods: The data of thirty-six patients who were admitted to Handan Infectious Disease Hospital was collected. The clinical features and laboratory testing were analyzed retrospectively. The initial laboratory testing included blood chemistries, blood routine, D-dimer, coagulation function, etc. The patients were divided into mild/common group and severe/critical group. Results: The lymphocyte count, monocyte count, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in severe/critical group were lower compared with those in mild/common group, while the fibrinogen was higher. The lymphocyte count and monocyte count were positively correlated with hemoglobin, pre-albumin respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, patients with lower initial prealbumin and hemoglobin level were more likely to progress into severe conditions. Decreased prealbumin and hemoglobin, combined with lymphocyte count and monocyte count, could be the early warning signs of deterioration of patients with COVID-19.

10.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):1353, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857908

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary failure is one of the major causes of death in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) patients. Lung transplantation has been evolving to rescue those patients' lives with promising success. Explanted native lungs post COVID-19 are valuable to understand the long-term pulmonary pathology of this deadly disease, as currently available data is very limited. Design: Lung transplantation cases post COVID-19 were collected through the pathology database in our institution from January 2020 through September 2021. Patient clinical courses, CT imaging data prior to transplantation and pathological findings are evaluated. Results: The cohort consisted of 12 male patients with a median age of 46.5 years (range 24 - 67). Co-morbidities were present in 6 patients including obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. No prior known pulmonary specific disease was present in any of the patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used in 10 of 12 patients for 54 - 130 days. CT imaging pretransplantation showed extensive bilateral consolidation (5 cases), extensive bilateral ground-glass (3 cases) or extensive infiltration/air space disease (4 cases). All patients survived post double lung transplantation (including one patient with concurrent heart transplantation) and no significant pathologic alteration was identified on most recent surveillance biopsies (26 - 183 days post transplantation). The most prominent pathological finding in the explanted lungs is nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP)- like interstitial fibrosis (100%, 12 cases). Other findings include collections of numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages (8 cases), patchy diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (hyaline membrane formation and/or organizing DAD) (5 cases), intrapulmonary small vessel thrombosis (5 cases), organizing pneumonia (5 cases), necrosis (2 cases), calcifications (5 cases), acute pneumonia (3 cases), peribronchiolar metaplasia (8 cases), and microscopic honeycombing (8 cases). No viral cytopathic changes were seen. The pathologic findings of the two patients who did not receive ECMO are similar to those in patients with variable length of ECMO treatment. Conclusions: Lung transplantation is a successful treatment option for eligible candidates with pulmonary fibrosis and failure post COVID-19. NSIP-like interstitial fibrosis is a universal finding, consistent with a sequala of DAD. A spectrum of acute, subacute, vascular and airway-related changes are also prominent findings in respiratory failure post COVID-19.

11.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):1493-1493, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848891
13.
Recent Patents on Engineering ; 16(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841253

ABSTRACT

Background: The study on facemask detection is of great significance because facemask detection is difficult, and the workload is heavy in places with a large number of people during the COVID-19 outbreak. Objective: The study aims to explore new deep learning networks that can accurately detect facemasks and improve the network's ability to extract multi-level features and contextual information. In addition, the proposed network effectively avoids the interference of objects like masks. The new network could eventually detect masks wearers in the crowd. Methods: A Multi-stage Feature Fusion Block (MFFB) and a Detector Cascade Block (DCB) are proposed and connected to the deep learning network for facemask detection. The network's ability to obtain information improves. The network proposed in the study is Double Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) called DCNN, which can fuse mask features and face position information. During facemask detection, the network extracts the featural information of the object and then inputs it into the data fusion layer. Results: The experiment results show that the proposed network can detect masks and faces in a complex environment and dense crowd. The detection accuracy of the network improves effectively. At the same time, the real-time performance of the detection model is excellent. Conclusion: The two branch networks of the DCNN can effectively obtain the feature and position information of facemasks. The network overcomes the disadvantage that a single CNN is susceptible to the interference of the suspected mask objects. The verification shows that the MFFB and the DCB can improve the network's ability to obtain object information, and the proposed DCNN can achieve excellent detection performance. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(4): 401-404, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834948

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that our cognition towards infectious disease prevention, the advanced technology and the economic status of the whole society has made a great progress in the last decade, the outbreak of COVID-19 pneumonia has again enabled the public to acquire more about super-challenges of infectious diseases, epidemics and the relevant preventive measurements. In order to identify the epidemic signals in early stage or even before the onset of epidemic, the data research and utilization of a series of factors related to the occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases have played a significant role in research of prevention and control during the whole period of surveillance and early warning. Laboratory-based monitoring for the etiology has always been an important part of infectious disease warning system due to pathogens as the direct cause of such diseases. China has initially established a laboratory-based monitoring and early warning system for bacterial infectious diseases based on the Chinese Pathogen Identification Network with an aim to identify pathogens, outbreaks and sources. This network has played an essential role in early detection, tracking and precise prevention and control of bacterial infectious diseases, such as plague, cholera, and epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. This issue focuses on the function of laboratory-based monitoring during the period of early warning, prevention, and control of bacterial infectious diseases, and conducted a wide range of researches based on the analysis of the epidemic and outbreak isolates, together with field epidemiological studies and normal monitoring systems. All of these could illustrate the effect of laboratory surveillance in the infectious disease risk assessment and epidemic investigation. At the same time, we have put forward our review and expectation of scenarios about laboratory-based monitoring and early warning technologies to provide innovative thoughts for promoting a leapfrog development of infectious disease monitoring and early warning system in China.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Laboratories
15.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several candidate vaccines to prevent COVID-19 disease have entered large-scale phase 3 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials and some have demonstrated substantial short-term efficacy. Efficacious vaccines should, at some point, be offered to placebo participants, which will occur before long-term efficacy and safety are known. METHODS: Following vaccination of the placebo group, we show that placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy can be derived by assuming the benefit of vaccination over time has the same profile for the original vaccine recipients and the placebo crossovers. This reconstruction allows estimation of both vaccine durability and potential vaccine-associated enhanced disease. RESULTS: Post-crossover estimates of vaccine efficacy can provide insights about durability, identify waning efficacy, and identify late enhancement of disease, but are less reliable estimates than those obtained by a standard trial where the placebo cohort is maintained. As vaccine efficacy estimates for post-crossover periods depend on prior vaccine efficacy estimates, longer pre-crossover periods with higher case counts provide better estimates of late vaccine efficacy. Further, open-label crossover may lead to riskier behavior in the immediate crossover period for the unblinded vaccine arm, confounding vaccine efficacy estimates for all post-crossover periods. CONCLUSIONS: We advocate blinded crossover and continued follow-up of trial participants to best assess vaccine durability and potential delayed enhancement of disease. This approach allows placebo recipients timely access to the vaccine when it would no longer be proper to maintain participants on placebo, yet still allows important insights about immunological and clinical effectiveness over time.

16.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333630

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) encoded by DNA genomes have been identified across host and pathogen species as parts of the transcriptome. Accumulating evidences indicate that circRNAs play critical roles in autoimmune diseases and viral pathogenesis. Here we report that RNA viruses of the Betacoronavirus genus of Coronaviridae , SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, encode a novel type of circRNAs. Through de novo circRNA analyses of publicly available coronavirus-infection related deep RNA-Sequencing data, we identified 351, 224 and 2,764 circRNAs derived from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively, and characterized two major back-splice events shared by these viruses. Coronavirus-derived circRNAs are more abundant and longer compared to host genome-derived circRNAs. Using a systematic strategy to amplify and identify back-splice junction sequences, we experimentally identified over 100 viral circRNAs from SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells. This collection of circRNAs provided the first line of evidence for the abundance and diversity of coronavirus-derived circRNAs and suggested possible mechanisms driving circRNA biogenesis from RNA genomes. Our findings highlight circRNAs as an important component of the coronavirus transcriptome. SUMMARY: We report for the first time that abundant and diverse circRNAs are generated by SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and represent a novel type of circRNAs that differ from circRNAs encoded by DNA genomes.

17.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) has spread more rapidly than any other betacoronavirus including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. However, the mechanisms responsible for infection and molecular evolution of this virus remained unclear. METHODS: We collected and analyzed 120 genomic sequences of 2019-nCoV including 11 novel genomes from patients in China. Through comprehensive analysis of the available genome sequences of 2019-nCoV strains, we have tracked multiple inheritable SNPs and determined the evolution of 2019-nCoV relative to other coronaviruses. RESULTS: Systematic analysis of 120 genomic sequences of 2019-nCoV revealed co-circulation of two genetic subgroups with distinct SNPs markers, which can be used to trace the 2019-nCoV spreading pathways to different regions and countries. Although 2019-nCoV, human and bat SARS-CoV share high homologous in overall genome structures, they evolved into two distinct groups with different receptor entry specificities through potential recombination in the receptor binding regions. In addition, 2019-nCoV has a unique four amino acid insertion between S1 and S2 domains of the spike protein, which created a potential furin or TMPRSS2 cleavage site. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies provided comprehensive insights into the evolution and spread of the 2019-nCoV. Our results provided evidence suggesting that 2019-nCoV may increase its infectivity through the receptor binding domain recombination and a cleavage site insertion. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Novel 2019-nCoV sequences revealed the evolution and specificity of betacoronavirus with possible mechanisms of enhanced infectivity.

18.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):1353-1353, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1782303
19.
3rd International Conference on Video, Signal and Image Processing, VSIP 2021 ; : 8-15, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1784894

ABSTRACT

At present, COVID-19 cross-infection is easy to occur in dense places such as elevators. There are no epidemic prevention measures for construction site elevators on the market, and most of them require manual temperature measurement and reminders to wear masks and helmets to avoid the spread of the epidemic. This paper designs an intelligent epidemic prevention system for the elevator ride process in a modern construction site environment, which can achieve non-contact human temperature measurement, mask and helmet recognition and voice call elevator function. The system uses Arduino UNO as the control core, Kendryte K210 as machine vision processing module, non-contact infrared temperature sensor MLX90614, and voice recognition sensor LD3320. The system has the functions of non-contact temperature detection, mask/helmet recognition(YOLOv3) and voice call elevator. Experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy rate of helmet, mask, voice call elevator is 91.5%, 92.0% and 93.0% respectively. The temperature measurement accuracy rate is 0.2ĝ., which can effectively prevent the spread of the epidemic caused by contact and breathing, and has the advantages of stable, intelligent, and safe work. © 2021 ACM.

20.
Journal of Virology ; 96(1):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1756184

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 emerged, causing severe human respiratory diseases throughout the globe. Developing broad-spectrum drugs would be invaluable in responding to new, emerging coronaviruses and to address unmet urgent clinical needs. Main protease (Mpro;also known as 3CL(pro)) has a major role in the coronavirus life cycle and is one of the most important targets for anti-coronavirus agents. We show that a natural product, noncovalent inhibitor, shikonin, is a pan-main protease inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E with micromolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Structures of the main protease of different coronavirus genus, SARS-CoV from the betacoronavirus genus and HCoV-NL63 from the alphacoronavirus genus, were determined by X-ray crystallography and revealed that the inhibitor interacts with key active site residues in a unique mode. The structure of the main protease inhibitor complex presents an opportunity to discover a novel series of broad-spectrum inhibitors. These data provide substantial evidence that shikonin and its derivatives may be effective against most coronaviruses as well as emerging coronaviruses of the future. Given the importance of the main protease for coronavirus therapeutic indication, insights from these studies should accelerate the development and design of safer and more effective antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic has created an urgent need for broad-spectrum inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. The main protease is relatively conservative compared to the spike protein and, thus, is one of the most promising targets in developing anticoronavirus agents. We solved the crystal structures of the main protease of SARSCoV and HCoV-NL63 that bound to shikonin. The structures provide important insights, have broad implications for understanding the structural basis underlying enzyme activity, and can facilitate rational design of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus ligands as new therapeutic agents.

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