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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoassays for determining past SARS-CoV-2 infection have not been systematically evaluated in vaccinated persons in comparison with unvaccinated persons. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antinucleocapsid antibody (anti-N Ab) seropositivity in mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccinees with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Nested substudy of a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04470427). SETTING: 99 sites in the United States, July 2020 through March 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were aged 18 years or older, had no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and were at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe COVID-19. Substudy participants were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the trial's blinded phase. INTERVENTION: 2 mRNA-1273 or placebo injections 28 days apart. MEASUREMENTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs from days 1 and 29 (vaccination days) and from symptom-prompted illness visits were tested for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples from days 1, 29, and 57 and the participant decision visit (PDV, when participants were informed of treatment assignment; median day 149) were tested for anti-N Abs by the Elecsys immunoassay. RESULTS: Among 700 participants with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 illness during the blinded phase of the trial (through March 2021), seroconversion to anti-N Abs (median of 53 days after diagnosis) occurred in 21 of 52 mRNA-1273 vaccinees (40% [95% CI, 27% to 54%]) versus 605 of 648 placebo recipients (93% [CI, 92% to 95%]). Each 1-log increase in SARS-CoV-2 viral copies at diagnosis was associated with 90% higher odds of anti-N Ab seroconversion (odds ratio, 1.90 [CI, 1.59 to 2.28]). LIMITATION: The scope was restricted to mRNA-1273 vaccinees and the Elecsys assay, the sample size was small, data on Delta and Omicron infections were lacking, and the analysis did not address a prespecified objective of the trial. CONCLUSION: Vaccination status should be considered when interpreting seroprevalence and seropositivity data based solely on anti-N Ab testing. Primary Funding source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: mRNA-1273 vaccine demonstrated 93.2% efficacy against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Coronavirus efficacy (COVE) trial. The humoral immunogenicity results are now reported. METHODS: Participants received two mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo injections, 28 days apart. Immune responses were evaluated in a pre-specified, randomly-selected per-protocol immunogenicity population (n = 272 placebo; n = 1,185 mRNA-1273). Serum binding (bAb) and neutralizing (nAb) antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-spike protein were assessed at days 1, 29, and 57 by baseline SARS-CoV-2-negative (n = 1,197) and -positive (n = 260) status, age and sex. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-negative vaccinees had bAb geometric mean (GM) AU/ml levels of 35,753 at day 29 that increased to 316,448 at day 57 and nAb ID50 titers of 55 at day 29 that rose to 1081 at day 57. In SARS-CoV-2-positive vacinees, the first mRNA-1273 injection elicited bAb and nAb levels that were 11-fold (410,049) and 27-fold (1,479) higher than in SARS-CoV-2-negative vaccinees, respectively, and were comparable to levels after two injections in uninfected participants. Findings were generally consistent by age and sex. CONCLUSION: mRNA-1273 elicited robust serologic immune responses across age, sex, and SARS-CoV-2-status, consistent with its high COVID-19 efficacy. Higher immune responses in those previously-infected support a booster-type effect.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04470427.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(21): 2011-2023, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of children to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an urgent public health need. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in children 6 to 11 years of age are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled expansion evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned children (6 to 11 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were evaluation of the safety of the vaccine in children and the noninferiority of the immune response in these children to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives included determination of the incidences of confirmed Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, regardless of symptoms. Interim analysis results are reported. RESULTS: In part 1 of the trial, 751 children received 50-µg or 100-µg injections of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and on the basis of safety and immunogenicity results, the 50-µg dose level was selected for part 2. In part 2 of the trial, 4016 children were randomly assigned to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo and were followed for a median of 82 days (interquartile range, 14 to 94) after the first injection. This dose level was associated with mainly low-grade, transient adverse events, most commonly injection-site pain, headache, and fatigue. No vaccine-related serious adverse events, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, myocarditis, or pericarditis were reported as of the data-cutoff date. One month after the second injection (day 57), the neutralizing antibody titer in children who received mRNA-1273 at a 50-µg level was 1610 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1457 to 1780), as compared with 1300 (95% CI, 1171 to 1443) at the 100-µg level in young adults, with serologic responses in at least 99.0% of the participants in both age groups, findings that met the prespecified noninferiority success criterion. Estimated vaccine efficacy was 88.0% (95% CI, 70.0 to 95.8) against Covid-19 occurring 14 days or more after the first injection, at a time when B.1.617.2 (delta) was the dominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 50-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe and effective in inducing immune responses and preventing Covid-19 in children 6 to 11 years of age; these responses were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccine Efficacy , Young Adult
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334206

ABSTRACT

Importance The performance of immunoassays for determining past SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were developed in unvaccinated individuals, has not been assessed in vaccinated individuals. Objective To evaluate anti-nucleocapsid antibody (anti-N Ab) seropositivity in mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy trial participants after SARS-CoV-2 infection during the trial’s blinded phase. Design Nested analysis in a Phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy trial. Nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing were taken from all participants on Day 1 and Day 29 (vaccination days), and during symptom-prompted illness visits. Serum samples from Days 1, 29, 57, and the Participant Decision Visit (PDV, when participants were informed of treatment assignment, median day 149) were tested for anti-N Abs. Setting Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 99 sites in the US. Participants Trial participants were ≥ 18 years old with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and at appreciable risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or high risk of severe Covid-19. Nested sub-study consists of participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the blinded phase of the trial. Intervention Two mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or Placebo injections, 28 days apart. Main Outcome and Measure Detection of serum anti-N Abs by the Elecsys (Roche) immunoassay in samples taken at the PDV from participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the blinded phase. The hypothesis tested was that mRNA-1273 recipients have different anti-N Ab seroconversion and/or seroreversion profiles after SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to placebo recipients. The hypothesis was formed during data collection;all main analyses were pre-specified before being conducted. Results We analyzed data from 1,789 participants (1,298 placebo recipients and 491 vaccine recipients) with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the blinded phase (through March 2021). Among participants with PCR-confirmed Covid-19 illness, seroconversion to anti-N Abs at a median follow up of 53 days post diagnosis occurred in 21/52 (40%) of the mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients vs. 605/648 (93%) of the placebo recipients (p < 0.001). Higher SARS-CoV-2 viral copies at diagnosis was associated with a higher likelihood of anti-N Ab seropositivity (odds ratio 1.90 per 1-log increase;95% confidence interval 1.59, 2.28). Conclusions and Relevance As a marker of recent infection, anti-N Abs may have lower sensitivity in mRNA-1273-vaccinated persons who become infected. Vaccination status should be considered when interpreting seroprevalence and seropositivity data based solely on anti-N Ab testing Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04470427 Key Points Question Does prior mRNA-1273 vaccination influence anti-nucleocapsid antibody seroconversion and/or seroreversion after SARS-CoV-2 infection? Findings Among participants in the mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy trial with PCR-confirmed Covid-19, anti-nucleocapsid antibody seroconversion at the time of study unblinding (median 53 days post diagnosis and 149 days post enrollment) occurred in 40% of the mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients vs. 93% of the placebo recipients, a significant difference. Higher SARS-CoV-2 viral copy number upon diagnosis was associated with a greater chance of anti-nucleocapsid antibody seropositivity (odds ratio 1.90 per 1-log increase;95% confidence interval 1.59, 2.28). All infections analyzed occurred prior to the circulation of delta and omicron viral variants. Meaning Conclusions: about the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated persons based on anti-nucleocapsid antibody assays need to be weighed in the context of these results.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329741

ABSTRACT

Importance: Due to the emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, evaluation of boosters is needed. Objectives: Evaluate safety and immunogenicity of 100-μg of mRNA-1273 booster dose in adults. Design: Open-label, Phase 2/3 study. Setting: Multicenter study at 8 sites in the U.S. Participants: The mRNA-1273 100-μg booster was administered to adults who previously received a two dose primary series of 100-μg mRNA-1273 in the phase 3 Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial, at least 6 months earlier. Intervention: Lipid nanoparticle containing 100-μg of mRNA encoding the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-HU-1). Main Outcomes and Measures: Solicited local and systemic adverse reactions, and unsolicited adverse events were collected after vaccination. Primary immunogenicity objectives were to demonstrate non-inferiority of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response against SARS-CoV-2 based on the geometric mean titer (GMTs) and the seroresponse rates (SRRs) (booster dose vs. primary series in a historical control group). nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 variants were also evaluated. Results: The 100-μg booster dose had a greater incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions compared to the second dose of mRNA-1273 as well as the 50-μg mRNA-1273 booster in separate studies. The geometric mean titers (GMTs;95% CI) of SARS-CoV-2 nAbs against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days after the 100-μg booster dose were 4039.5 (3592.7,4541.8) and 1132.0 (1046.7,1224.2) at 28 days after the second dose in the historical control group [GMT ratio=3.6 (3.1,4.2)]. SRRs (95% CI) were 100% (98.6,100) at 28 days after the booster and 98.1% (96.7,99.1) 28 days after the second dose in the historical control group [percentage difference=1.9% (0.4,3.3)]. The GMT ratio (GMR) and SRR difference for the booster as compared to the primary series met the pre-specified non-inferiority criteria. Delta-specific nAbs also increased (GMT fold-rise=233.3) after the 100-μg booster of mRNA-1273. Conclusions and Relevance: The 100-μg mRNA-1273 booster induced a robust neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 and reactogenicity was higher with the 100-μg booster dose compared to authorized booster dose level in adults (50-μg). mRNA-1273 100-μg booster dose can be considered when eliciting an antibody response might be challenging such as in moderately or severely immunocompromised hosts. Trial Registration: NCT04927065

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant has led to growing concerns of increased transmissibility and escape of both natural and vaccine-induced immunity. In this analysis, sera from adult participants in a phase 2 clinical study ( NCT04405076 ) were tested for neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529 after a 2-dose (100 µg) mRNA-1273 primary vaccination series and after a 50-µg mRNA-1273 booster dose. Results from this preliminary analysis show that 1 month after completing the primary series, mRNA-1273-elicited serum neutralization of B.1.1.529 was below the lower limit of quantification;however, neutralization was observed at 2 weeks after the mRNA-1273 booster dose, although at a reduced level relative to wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) and lower than that observed against D614G at 1 month after the primary series.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327106

ABSTRACT

Background: The highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant is a global concern. This study assessed the neutralization activity of two-dose regimens of mRNA-1273 vaccination against Omicron in adults, adolescents and children. Methods Neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant was evaluated in serum samples from adults (≥18 years) in the phase 3, Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) and from adolescents (12-17 years) in the TeenCOVE trials following a two-dose regimen of 100 Background The highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant is a global concern. This study assessed the neutralization activity of two-dose regimens of mRNA-1273 vaccination against Omicron in adults, adolescents and children. Methods Neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant was evaluated in serum samples from adults (≥18 years) in the phase 3, Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) and from adolescents (12-17 years) in the TeenCOVE trials following a two-dose regimen of 100 μg mRNA-1273 and from children (6-<12 years) in the KidCOVE trial administered two doses of 50 μg mRNA-1273. Neutralizing antibody geometric mean ID50 titers (GMT) were measured using a lentivirus-based pseudovirus neutralizing assay at day 1 and 4 weeks (day 57) following the second mRNA-1273 dose, compared with wild-type (D614G). Results At 4 weeks following a second dose of mRNA-1273 (100 μg), the GMT was reduced 28.8-fold compared with D614G in adults (≥18 years). In adolescents (12-17 years), the GMT was 11.8-fold lower than D614G, 4 weeks after a second dose of mRNA-1273 (100 μg), and compared with adults, were 1.5- and 3.8-fold higher for D614G and the Omicron variant, respectively. In children (6-<12 years), 4 weeks post-second dose of 50 μg mRNA-1273, Omicron GMTs were reduced 22.1-fold versus D614G and were 2.0-fold higher for D614G and 2.5-fold higher for Omicron compared with adults. Conclusions A two-dose regimen of 100 μg mRNA-1273 in adolescents and of 50 μg in children elicited neutralization responses against the Omicron variant that were reduced compared with the wild-type D614G, and numerically higher than those in adults.

8.
Nat Med ; 28(4): 823-830, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684093

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) demonstrated 93.2% efficacy in reduction of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the blinded portion of the Phase 3 Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial. While mRNA-1273 demonstrated high efficacy in prevention of COVID-19, including severe disease, its effect on the viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections is not understood. Here, in exploratory analyses, we assessed the impact of mRNA-1273 vaccination in the ongoing COVE trial (number NCT04470427) on SARS-CoV-2 copy number and shedding, burden of disease and infection, and viral variants. Viral variants were sequenced in all COVID-19 and adjudicated COVID-19 cases (n = 832), from July 2020 in the blinded part A of the study to May 2021 of the open-label part B of the study, in which participants in the placebo arm started to receive the mRNA-1273 vaccine after US Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization of mRNA-1273 in December 2020. mRNA-1273 vaccination significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral copy number (95% confidence interval) by 100-fold on the day of diagnosis compared with placebo (4.1 (3.4-4.8) versus 6.2 (6.0-6.4) log10 copies per ml). Median times to undetectable viral copies were 4 days for mRNA-1273 and 7 days for placebo. Vaccination also substantially reduced the burden of disease and infection scores. Vaccine efficacies (95% confidence interval) against SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in the United States during the trial assessed in this post hoc analysis were 82.4% (40.4-94.8%) for variants Epsilon and Gamma and 81.2% (36.1-94.5%) for Epsilon. The detection of other, non-SARS-CoV-2, respiratory viruses during the trial was similar between groups. While additional study is needed, these data show that in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, vaccination reduced both the viral copy number and duration of detectable viral RNA, which may be markers for the risk of virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States
10.
Science ; 375(6576): 43-50, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649486

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus efficacy (COVE) phase 3 clinical trial, vaccine recipients were assessed for neutralizing and binding antibodies as correlates of risk for COVID-19 disease and as correlates of protection. These immune markers were measured at the time of second vaccination and 4 weeks later, with values reported in standardized World Health Organization international units. All markers were inversely associated with COVID-19 risk and directly associated with vaccine efficacy. Vaccine recipients with postvaccination 50% neutralization titers 10, 100, and 1000 had estimated vaccine efficacies of 78% (95% confidence interval, 54 to 89%), 91% (87 to 94%), and 96% (94 to 98%), respectively. These results help define immune marker correlates of protection and may guide approval decisions for messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines and other COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(19): 1774-1785, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At interim analysis in a phase 3, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). After emergency use of the vaccine was authorized, the protocol was amended to include an open-label phase. Final analyses of efficacy and safety data from the blinded phase of the trial are reported. METHODS: We enrolled volunteers who were at high risk for Covid-19 or its complications; participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo, 28 days apart, at 99 centers across the United States. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The data cutoff date was March 26, 2021. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 30,415 participants; 15,209 were assigned to receive the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 15,206 to receive placebo. More than 96% of participants received both injections, 2.3% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and the median follow-up was 5.3 months in the blinded phase. Vaccine efficacy in preventing Covid-19 illness was 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.0 to 94.8), with 55 confirmed cases in the mRNA-1273 group (9.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.2 to 12.5) and 744 in the placebo group (136.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 127.0 to 146.8). The efficacy in preventing severe disease was 98.2% (95% CI, 92.8 to 99.6), with 2 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 106 in the placebo group, and the efficacy in preventing asymptomatic infection starting 14 days after the second injection was 63.0% (95% CI, 56.6 to 68.5), with 214 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 498 in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was consistent across ethnic and racial groups, age groups, and participants with coexisting conditions. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine continued to be efficacious in preventing Covid-19 illness and severe disease at more than 5 months, with an acceptable safety profile, and protection against asymptomatic infection was observed. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Incidence , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(24): 2241-2251, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) among adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age was approximately 900 per 100,000 population from April 1 through June 11, 2021. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in adolescents are unknown. METHODS: In this ongoing phase 2-3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned healthy adolescents (12 to 17 years of age) in a 2:1 ratio to receive two injections of the mRNA-1273 vaccine (100 µg in each) or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were evaluation of the safety of mRNA-1273 in adolescents and the noninferiority of the immune response in adolescents as compared with that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives included the efficacy of mRNA-1273 in preventing Covid-19 or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 3732 participants were randomly assigned to receive mRNA-1273 (2489 participants) or placebo (1243 participants). In the mRNA-1273 group, the most common solicited adverse reactions after the first or second injections were injection-site pain (in 93.1% and 92.4%, respectively), headache (in 44.6% and 70.2%, respectively), and fatigue (in 47.9% and 67.8%, respectively); in the placebo group, the most common solicited adverse reactions after the first or second injections were injection-site pain (in 34.8% or 30.3%, respectively), headache (in 38.5% and 30.2%, respectively), and fatigue (in 36.6% and 28.9%, respectively). No serious adverse events related to mRNA-1273 or placebo were noted. The geometric mean titer ratio of pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers in adolescents relative to young adults was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.24), and the absolute difference in serologic response was 0.2 percentage points (95% CI, -1.8 to 2.4), which met the noninferiority criterion. No cases of Covid-19 with an onset of 14 days after the second injection were reported in the mRNA-1273 group, and four cases occurred in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine had an acceptable safety profile in adolescents. The immune response was similar to that in young adults, and the vaccine was efficacious in preventing Covid-19. (Funded by Moderna and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; Teen COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04649151.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , /administration & dosage , /immunology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Single-Blind Method
14.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1118-1125, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181776

ABSTRACT

Multiple candidate vaccines to prevent COVID-19 have entered large-scale phase 3 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials, and several have demonstrated substantial short-term efficacy. At some point after demonstration of substantial efficacy, placebo recipients should be offered the efficacious vaccine from their trial, which will occur before longer-term efficacy and safety are known. The absence of a placebo group could compromise assessment of longer-term vaccine effects. However, by continuing follow-up after vaccination of the placebo group, this study shows that placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy can be mathematically derived by assuming that the benefit of vaccination over time has the same profile for the original vaccine recipients and the original placebo recipients after their vaccination. Although this derivation provides less precise estimates than would be obtained by a standard trial where the placebo group remains unvaccinated, this proposed approach allows estimation of longer-term effect, including durability of vaccine efficacy and whether the vaccine eventually becomes harmful for some. Deferred vaccination, if done open-label, may lead to riskier behavior in the unblinded original vaccine group, confounding estimates of long-term vaccine efficacy. Hence, deferred vaccination via blinded crossover, where the vaccine group receives placebo and vice versa, would be the preferred way to assess vaccine durability and potential delayed harm. Deferred vaccination allows placebo recipients timely access to the vaccine when it would no longer be proper to maintain them on placebo, yet still allows important insights about immunologic and clinical effectiveness over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic/standards , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic/methods , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Research Design/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 403-416, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. METHODS: This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 99 centers across the United States. Persons at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or its complications were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo 28 days apart. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 30,420 volunteers who were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either vaccine or placebo (15,210 participants in each group). More than 96% of participants received both injections, and 2.2% had evidence (serologic, virologic, or both) of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline. Symptomatic Covid-19 illness was confirmed in 185 participants in the placebo group (56.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7 to 65.3) and in 11 participants in the mRNA-1273 group (3.3 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0); vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3 to 96.8%; P<0.001). Efficacy was similar across key secondary analyses, including assessment 14 days after the first dose, analyses that included participants who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and analyses in participants 65 years of age or older. Severe Covid-19 occurred in 30 participants, with one fatality; all 30 were in the placebo group. Moderate, transient reactogenicity after vaccination occurred more frequently in the mRNA-1273 group. Serious adverse events were rare, and the incidence was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy at preventing Covid-19 illness, including severe disease. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Single-Blind Method , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 221-228, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890662

ABSTRACT

Several vaccine candidates to protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have entered or will soon enter large-scale, phase 3, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. To facilitate harmonized evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of these vaccines, a general set of clinical endpoints is proposed, along with considerations to guide the selection of the primary endpoints on the basis of clinical and statistical reasoning. The plausibility that vaccine protection against symptomatic COVID-19 could be accompanied by a shift toward more SARS-CoV-2 infections that are asymptomatic is highlighted, as well as the potential implications of such a shift.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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