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1.
Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine ; 8:233372142210960-233372142210960, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1817146

ABSTRACT

Older adults have higher sedentary behavior (SB), lower physical activity, and are particularly susceptible to negative impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health restrictions. Pandemic impacts to SB and health, particularly via objective assessment, are not well documented in the literature. Here we described differences in SB, physical activity, and blood pressure (BP) for older adults before and during the pandemic. Baseline thigh-worn activPAL accelerometer and BP measurements from 95 participants enrolled in a SB intervention trial pre-pandemic were compared to 60 enrolled post-pandemic. We used linear regression models adjusted for demographic and health factors to estimate differences in sample means of SB measures and BP. The post-COVID sample was older (age 67 vs. 70), more female (60% vs. 72%), and included more individuals of color (21% vs. 32%). In fully adjusted models, systolic BP was statistically significantly higher in the post-COVID group (6.8, 95% CI: [0.3,13.3]). After adjustment, activPAL-measured and self-reported activity were non-significant but trended towards greater total sitting (0.4 hours [−0.3, 1.1]), fewer daily steps (−270 [−1078, 538]), and greater self-reported TV time (0.4 hours, [-0.3, 1.1]) post-COVID. Future analyses are warranted to better quantify these impacts and guide clinical care and future interventions.

2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 114, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778593

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760809

ABSTRACT

The impact of repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cortex varies with stimulation parameters, so it would be useful to develop a biomarker to rapidly judge effects on cortical activity, including regions other than motor cortex. This study evaluated rTMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEP) after 1 Hz of motor cortex stimulation. New features are controls for baseline amplitude and comparison to control groups of sham stimulation. We delivered 200 test pulses at 0.20 Hz before and after 1500 treatment pulses at 1 Hz. Sequences comprised AAA = active stimulation with the same coil for test-treat-test phases (n = 22); PPP = realistic placebo coil stimulation for all three phases (n = 10); and APA = active coil stimulation for tests and placebo coil stimulation for treatment (n = 15). Signal processing displayed the evoked EEG waveforms, and peaks were measured by software. ANCOVA was used to measure differences in TEP peak amplitudes in post-rTMS trials while controlling for pre-rTMS TEP peak amplitude. Post hoc analysis showed reduced P60 amplitude in the active (AAA) rTMS group versus the placebo (APA) group. The N100 peak showed a treatment effect compared to the placebo groups, but no pairwise post hoc differences. N40 showed a trend toward increase. Changes were seen in widespread EEG leads, mostly ipsilaterally. TMS-evoked EEG potentials showed reduction of the P60 peak and increase of the N100 peak, both possibly reflecting increased slow inhibition after 1 Hz of rTMS. TMS-EEG may be a useful biomarker to assay brain excitability at a seizure focus and elsewhere, but individual responses are highly variable, and the difficulty of distinguishing merged peaks complicates interpretation.


Subject(s)
Motor Cortex , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Brain , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Motor Cortex/physiology
4.
World wide web ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743840

ABSTRACT

Every epidemic affects the real lives of many people around the world and leads to terrible consequences. Recently, many tweets about the COVID-19 pandemic have been shared publicly on social media platforms. The analysis of these tweets is helpful for emergency response organizations to prioritize their tasks and make better decisions. However, most of these tweets are non-informative, which is a challenge for establishing an automated system to detect useful information in social media. Furthermore, existing methods ignore unlabeled data and topic background knowledge, which can provide additional semantic information. In this paper, we propose a novel Topic-Aware BERT (TABERT) model to solve the above challenges. TABERT first leverages a topic model to extract the latent topics of tweets. Secondly, a flexible framework is used to combine topic information with the output of BERT. Finally, we adopt adversarial training to achieve semi-supervised learning, and a large amount of unlabeled data can be used to improve inner representations of the model. Experimental results on the dataset of COVID-19 English tweets show that our model outperforms classic and state-of-the-art baselines.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324594

ABSTRACT

Background: and objectives: The dynamic change of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been proved to be related to the worse outcomes in various diseases such as pulmonary embolism, acute pancreatitis and acute nonvariceal upper GI bleeding. In the present study, we aimed to identify the association between blood urea nitrogen (BUN) change and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: : This is a retrospective study conducted in the Huoshenshan hospital. Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Feb 5th to March 5th in 2020 who had BUN level tested on admission and on the second day consecutively were included. Patients were stratified into two groups according to the BUN change (increase vs. no increase) during the first 24 hours. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Moreover, other clinical outcomes were also compared. The potential risk factors of in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Results: : There were 266 patients included in the study. The mean change in BUN at 24 hours was 1.0 mg/dL, with 206 patients (77.4%) experiencing no increase in BUN and 60 patients (22.6%) experiencing an increase in BUN. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the BUN increase group compared to no increase group (30.0% vs. 5.8%, P<0.001). BUN increase group also had higher requirement for ICU admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation and incidence of AKI (all P<0.001). After adjusted for related factors, the BUN increase was independently associated with the mortality with an odds ratio of 7.427[95% CI 2.370-23.279]. In the multivariable and survival analysis, BUN increase was also found to be associated with survival regardless of the admission BUN. Conclusions: : In patients with COVID-19, BUN increase at 24 hours was an independent predictor for a composite clinical outcome and in-hospital mortality. The association of BUN increase with worse outcomes further emphasizes the importance of monitoring BUN change and kidney function in the course of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311944

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China (COVID-19) represents a significant and urgent threat to global health. We report here five cases of COVID-19 infection patients in our clinical practices who are medically stable and presumed to successfully “cleared” the virus after antiviral treatments. Case presentation: The clinical evaluation depends on the viral nucleic acid test in respiratory specimens by real-time PCR reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assays according to the authorized guidance. We found that the stool samples of these cured patients remain positive in RT-PCR assay while the virus is undetectable in respiratory specimens. RT-PCR molecular diagnostic assay was designed to specifically detect the presence of viral RNA. Thus, the positive result in the fecal specimens implies the existence of viable virions with the patients. Conclusions: : This highlights the importance to look closely at the assessment standard of medical treatment, as well as the need for reevaluation of the criteria for the initial screening, prevention, and care of patients with this emerging infection.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308259

ABSTRACT

Background: . SARS-COV-2 causes digestive system symptom, the effect of which remains equivocal. Methods: . Patients with COVID-19 were classified into 4 groups according to symptom. The study traced the onset and duration of symptoms, compared laboratory examinations and conducted bioinformatic analysis. Immune indices were further analyzed. Results: . By March 16, 25 patients with COVID-19 and 13 with suspect COVID-19 were admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Digestive system symptom group had the highest level of ESR (mm/h, P <0.0001), serum ferritin (ng/ml, P <0.0001), hepatic enzymes ( P <0.05), and retentive lymphocyte count/percentage ( P <0.05) and its subsets ( P <0.05). Combined group (respiratory combined with subsequent digestive system symptom) had the highest level of IL-6 (pg/ml, P =0.0046), CRP (mg/L, P =0.0004) and moderate lymphocyte depletion. Respiratory system symptom and asymptomatic groups suffered the most from lymphocyte depletion ( P <0.05). Bioinformatic analysis indicated co-expression of binding related proteins of SARS-COV-2 (ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin) in small intestine. CD147 was extensively expressed in alimentary tract. CTSL, PIKfyve, TPC2 and CTSB could be detected with ≥moderate expressions in a variety of organs including alimentary system. Conclusions: . Alimentary system is directly attacked by SARS-COV-2 other than hyperinflammation and immune dysregulation. Involvement of alimentary system might further protect mild and moderate cases from lymphocyte depletion caused by COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325346

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and differences in etiology, clinical manifestations, and psychological activity of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among patients. Results We recruited 90 subjects, 30 were healthy controls, 30 were patients with moderate infection, and 30 were patients with severe/critical infections. No significant differences were noted in the sex ratio, mean age, body mass index, or blood type;however, the history of exposure of the patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls was noteworthy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA) were all increased. In terms of mental health, there were significant differences in the worry scores between severely and moderately infected patients and healthy controls. There was a significant difference in depression scores between patients with moderate infection and healthy hypertension, and there was also a significant difference in dream worry scores. Analysis of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed that for patients with moderate infection, the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. For patients with severe infection, the anxiety score was positively correlated with the dream anxiety score, and the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. Conclusion Patients with severe infection showed increased pain and sputum in the pharyngeal area compared with patients with moderate infection. Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to COVID-19, and lymphopenia may indicate worsening of COVID-19.

9.
J Transl Int Med ; 9(4): 285-293, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677634

ABSTRACT

Background: We evaluated the association between higher resting heart rates (RHRs) and adverse events in COVID-19 patients. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted. Outcomes of patients with different RHRs were compared. Results: Twenty-nine patients had RHRs of <80 bpm (beat per min), 85 had 80-99 bpm and 22 had ≥100 bpm as tachycardia. Those with higher RHRs had lower pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and higher temperatures, and there was a higher proportion of men upon admission (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher RHRs showed higher white blood cell counts and D-dimer, cardiac troponin I (TnI), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and hypersensitive C-reactive protein levels, but lower albumin levels (all P < 0.05) after admission. During follow-up, 26 patients died (mortality rate, 19.1%). The mortality rate was significantly higher among patients with tachycardia than among the moderate and low RHR groups (all P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the risks of death and ventilation use increased for patients with tachycardia (P < 0.001). Elevated RHR as a continuous variable and a mean RHR as tachycardia were independent risk factors for mortality and ventilator use (all P < 0.05) in the multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model. Conclusions: Elevated average RHRs during the first 3 days of hospitalisation were associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Average RHRs as tachycardia can independently predict all-cause mortality.

10.
Cell ; 185(5): 881-895.e20, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649960

ABSTRACT

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data and patient-reported symptoms. We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis: type 2 diabetes, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and specific auto-antibodies. In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes, exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time, leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Convalescence , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoantibodies/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Young Adult
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648939

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Chinese female nurses during the controlled coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) period and explore its associated socio-demographic factors and job characteristics. Methods: With the multistage, stratified sampling method, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September to October 2020 in China. The survey tool included revised Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with 15 items, socio-demographic and job characteristics. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate factor logistic regression analysis were used to identify the risk factors for burnout of female nurses. Results: During controlled COVID-19 period in China, the overall prevalence of burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses was 60.2% with a breakdown in severity as follows: 451 (39.8 %) mild, 163 (14.4%) moderate, and 68 (6.0%) severe burnout. Little variance was reported for burnout symptoms according to job tenure (Waldχ 2 = 14.828, P < 0.05,odds ratio [OR] <1), monthly salary income (Waldχ 2 = 12.460, P < 0.05, OR <1), and night shift (Waldχ 2 = 3.821, P < 0.05, OR > 1). Conclusion: Burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses were prevalent and associated with job tenure, monthly salary income, and night shift. Female nurses who were with shorter job tenure, worked at night shifts, and had lower monthly salaries tended to exhibit increasing high-level burnout than their counterparts. This study serves as an implication for administrators and policy-makers to improve the work conditions of nurses for promoting overall healthcare service quality.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):339-339, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584624

ABSTRACT

Little is known about objective levels of sitting time (ST), patterns of ST, and physical activity (PA) among older adults before compared to during the COVID -19 pandemic. We used data from the Healthy Aging Resources to Thrive Trial to examine differences in activPAL-assessed ST, standing time, breaks from sitting, and steps in study enrollees prior to March 2020 (N = 97, % female = 60.8, % white = 81.4;Mean BMI = 35.2) compared to post-March 2020 (N = 47, % female = 70.2, % white = 72.3;Mean BMI = 36.1). During the pandemic, participants had higher sitting time (Mean = 11.5 vs. 10.7 hours/day), fewer breaks from sitting (Mean = 40 vs. 44 breaks/day), and fewer steps (Mean = 4441 vs. 5931 steps/day) than prior to the pandemic. Interventions may be needed to support older adults with obesity in recovering losses in time spent physically active.

13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294854

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an evolving public health crisis and challenged the medical system globally, especially in the rural-stricken regions. There is concern about the spread of coronavirus in regions with lower education level, weaker health systems and underdeveloped economy. The risk of viral transmission in HD center is elevated because of the densely-populated and high mobility in an enclosed environment.This paper demonstrated the main experiences and strategies of preventing secondary COVID-19 transmission in a HD center from a poverty-stricken rural region in China. Data of subjects including 17 medical workers and 249 patients were collected from the HD center in Huangchuan County People’s Hospital from February to April 2020. It is the first paper to provide the experiences and strategies about preventing COVID-19 secondary transmission in HD center for poverty-stricken rural region.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293463

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo . Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

15.
Trials ; 22(1): 857, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal adverse events were observed in potential association with injection of COVID-19 vaccines, while there was no preventive intervention for it. We aim to investigate the efficacy of auricular acupressure (AA) therapy in preventing and relieving AEFI after injection of COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: The study design is a randomized, multicentre, three-arm controlled, single-blind trial. Participants meeting the inclusion criteria will be advertised and enrolled and assigned in the medical institutions randomly for post-injection observation. No less than 360 participants will be randomized into one of three groups: auricular acupressure group, sham auricular acupressure group, and wait-list group. Interventions will be performed immediately and will happen 4 to 5 times per day for 5 days. The primary clinical outcomes will be quality and quantity evaluation among participants who reported any AEFI and who reported local pain at injection site. Secondary outcomes will concern headache, muscle and (or) joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and other potential events. All the outcomes will be assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the injection. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be performed, with significance level determined as 5%. DISCUSSION: Results of this trial will help to clarify the value of auricular acupressure therapy in preventing and relieving overall and certain adverse events following immunization after injection of COVID-19 vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: China Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ( ChiCTR2100043210 ). Registered on 8 February, 2021.


Subject(s)
Acupressure , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
16.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 111: 106593, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525717

ABSTRACT

Older adults with obesity spend the majority of their waking hours sedentary. Given substantial barriers to regular physical activity in this population, approaches to reduce sedentary time could be an effective health promotion strategy. We present the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to reduce sitting time in older adults with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or above. Participants (N = 284) will be randomized to receive a sitting reduction intervention (termed I-STAND) or a healthy living focused attention control condition. I-STAND includes 10 contacts with a health coach (10 sessions total) and participants receive a wrist-worn prompting device and portable standing desk. The healthy living condition includes 10 sessions with a health coach to set goals around various topics relating to healthy aging. Participants receive their assigned intervention for 6 months. After 6 months, those receiving the I-STAND condition are re-randomized to receive five booster health coaching sessions by 'phone or no further contact; healthy living participants receive no further contact and those in both conditions are followed for an additional 6 months. Measurements initially included wearing an activPAL device and completing several biometric tests (e.g., blood pressure, HbA1c), at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months; however, during the COVID-19 pandemic we shifted to remote assessments and were unable to collect all of these measures. The primary outcomes remained activPAL-assessed sitting time and blood pressure. Recruitment is anticipated to be completed in 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292266

ABSTRACT

Background: Some pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal adverse reactions were observed in potential association with injection of COVID-19 vaccines. However, there were no preventive intervention for it. We aim to investigate efficacy of auricular acupressure (AA) therapy in preventing and (or) relieving AEFI after injection of COVID-19 vaccine. Methods/design: The study design is a randomized controlled, multicentre, three-arm, single-blind trial. Participants meeting the inclusion criteria will be advertised and enrolled, and assigned randomly in the medical institutions for post-injection observation. No less than 360 participants will be randomized into one of three groups: auricular acupressure group, sham auricular acupressure group and wait-list group. Interventions will be performed immediately, and will happen 4 to 5 times per day for 5 days. The primary clinical outcomes will be quality and quantity evaluation among participants who reported any AEFI and who reported local pain at injection site. Secondary outcomes will concern headache, muscle and (or) joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and other potential events. All the outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the injection. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be performed, with significance level determined at the 5 % level. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify the value of auricular acupressure therapy in preventing and (or) relieving overall and certain adverse events following immunization after injection of COVID-19 vaccine. Trial registration: This trial was registered in the China Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) (ChiCTR2100043210) on 8th February, 2021.

18.
Israeli Journal of Aquaculture Bamidgeh ; 73(63949), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1503169

ABSTRACT

In 1984, the Fisheries Research Institute of Hubei Province first introduced channel catfish from the US to China. Since then, the production of China's channel catfish has undergone volatile changes. In 2003, as a substitute for Pangasius fillets from Vietnam, the export volume of channel catfish-processed products increased considerably. In recent years, the Chinese channel catfish industry has shifted from dependence on American and European markets to dominance in Chinese markets. It is expected that the continuing impact of the Covid-19 epidemic in China and the development of the global pandemic will significantly affect the channel catfish farming sector in China. This paper outlines China's channel catfish industry's development, markets, costs, and benefits and provides some suggestions for its development.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 751584, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463475

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Though vaccines and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed to fight COVID-19 in the past year, one major concern is the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 VOCs such as B.1.1.7 (UK), B.1.351 (South Africa), P.1 (Brazil), and B.1.617.1 (India) now dominate the pandemic. Herein, we found that binding activity and neutralizing capacity of sera collected from convalescent patients in early 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, but not non-VOC variants, were severely blunted. Furthermore, we observed evasion of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs from a VH3-30 mAb 32D4, which was proved to exhibit highly potential neutralization against wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. Thus, these results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 VOCs might be able to spread in convalescent patients and even harbor resistance to medical countermeasures. New interventions against these SARS-CoV-2 VOCs are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438749

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic is a great threat to human society and now is still spreading. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, only one recombinant subunit vaccine has been permitted for widespread use. More subunit vaccines for COVID-19 should be developed in the future. The receptor binding domain (RBD), located at the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, contains most of the neutralizing epitopes. However, the immunogenicity of RBD monomers is not strong enough. In this study, we fused the RBD-monomer with a modified Fc fragment of human IgG1 to form an RBD-Fc fusion protein. The recombinant vaccine candidate based on the RBD-Fc protein could induce high levels of IgG and neutralizing antibody in mice, and these could last for at least three months. The secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 in the RBD-stimulated splenocytes of immunized mice also increased significantly. Our results first showed that the RBD-Fc vaccine could induce both humoral and cellular immune responses and might be an optional strategy to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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