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1.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957457

ABSTRACT

Reinfection risk is a great concern with regard to the COVID-19 pandemic because a large proportion of the population has recovered from an initial infection, and previous reports found that primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques without viral presence and pathological injury; however, a high possibility for reinfection at the current stage of the pandemic has been proven. We found the reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters with continuous viral shedding in the upper respiratory tracts and few injuries in the lung, and nasal mucosa was exploited by SARS-CoV-2 for replication and shedding during reinfection; meanwhile, no viral replication or enhanced damage was observed in the lower respiratory tracts. Consistent with the mild phenotype in the reinfection, increases in mRNA levels in cytokines and chemokines in the nasal mucosa but only slight increases in the lung were found. Notably, the high levels of neutralizing antibodies in serum could not prevent reinfection in hamsters but may play roles in benefitting the lung recovery and symptom relief of COVID-19. In summary, Syrian hamsters could be reinfected by SARS-CoV-2 with mild symptoms but with obvious viral shedding and replication, and both convalescent and vaccinated patients should be wary of the transmission and reinfection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mesocricetus , Nasal Mucosa , Pandemics , Reinfection
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 157, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724972

ABSTRACT

Identification of a suitable nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 remains challenging. Here, we characterized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in three NHP species: Old World monkeys Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) and Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) and New World monkey Callithrix jacchus (C. jacchus). Infected M. mulatta and M. fascicularis showed abnormal chest radiographs, an increased body temperature and a decreased body weight. Viral genomes were detected in swab and blood samples from all animals. Viral load was detected in the pulmonary tissues of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis but not C. jacchus. Furthermore, among the three animal species, M. mulatta showed the strongest response to SARS-CoV-2, including increased inflammatory cytokine expression and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissues. Collectively, these data revealed the different susceptibilities of Old World and New World monkeys to SARS-CoV-2 and identified M. mulatta as the most suitable for modeling COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Callithrix/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Body Temperature , Body Weight , COVID-19 , Callithrix/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Species Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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