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1.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 6787-6793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470713

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of comprehensive treatment on ocular surface function and the visual quality of online teachers with a mild-to-moderate dry eye condition during the early phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Secondary school online teachers diagnosed with a mild-to-moderate dry eye disease in our outpatient clinic from February to May 2020 were enrolled in this retrospective cross-section study, and all patients received dry eye comprehensive treatment. A questionnaire survey on eye-use habits, visual quality and dry eye-related indicators was collected before and after treatment (2 and 4 weeks). The changes and the correlations between indicators before and after treatment were compared. Results: A total of 30 patients (15 females and 15 males) were included. After comprehensive treatment, patients had significantly higher central tear meniscus height (TMH), non-invasive first tear film breakup time (NIBUTf) and non-invasive average tear film breakup time (NIBUTav) than those before with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Lower ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and Meibomian gland scores were observed after treatment with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Objective scatter index (OSI), modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff, strehl ratio (SR), and tear film objective scatter index (TF-OSI) were significantly improved after treatment (P < 0.05). Besides, TF-OSI was positively correlated with the changes in OSDI, Meibomian gland score, eye-use duration and OSI with statistical significance (P < 0.05), while it was negatively correlated with NIBUTf, NIBUTav, the TMH of the central lower eyelid, SR, sleep duration, conjunctival congestion and the MTF cutoff (P < 0.05), respectively. No correlation between TF-OSI and ciliary congestion was found (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive treatment could effectively improve the symptoms and visual quality of online teachers with a mild-to-moderate dry eye condition during the early stage of COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1105-1110, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206816

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, which has severely affected global public health security. However, the diagnosis and treatment of the disease need further exploration. Therefore, this retrospective analysis was conducted on multiple indicators of peripheral blood in patients with COVID-19 to determine the role of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of COVID-19. Baseline information and clinical records of 40 patients were collected, including demographic data, disease status, medication, and laboratory routine. The correlation between the inspection indicators and disease classification, as well as prognostic factors, was analyzed. Decreased eosinophils were detected in 33 out of 40 patients with COVID-19 on admission, while lymphocytes and eosinophils were inversely related to the severity of the disease, according to the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Thus, it could be deduced that eosinophils have better sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and play a major role similar to lymphocytes in assessing the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/immunology , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Young Adult
5.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(1):16-22, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1190522

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly and widely in the world, which is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated media. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 was found to have a similar stability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) by analyzing its survival time on different subject surfaces and main influencing factors in related research. SARS-CoV-2 can survive for several days at various subject surfaces or media at room temperature (stainless steel: 2 days, plastic: 3 days, glass: 4 days, etc.), and SARS-CoV-2 can persist for longer time at low temperature and low relative humidity, which has caused severe threat to public health and has posed severe challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19. According to available data, SARS-CoV-2 has the characteristics of high infectiousness and high covertness, similar to influenza A virus. By understanding the survival potential and infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 in environment, targeted disinfection and effective protection can be implemented to reduce the incidence of COVID-19.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5975, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137818

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, numerous studies have been attempting to determine biomarkers, which could rapidly and efficiently predict COVID-19 severity, however there is lack of consensus on a specific one. This retrospective cohort study is a comprehensive analysis of the initial symptoms, comorbidities and laboratory evaluation of patients, diagnosed with COVID-19 in Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, from 4th February to 12th March, 2020. Based on the data collected from 63 severely ill patients from the onset of symptoms till the full recovery or demise, we found not only age (average 70) but also blood indicators as significant risk factors associated with multiple organ failure. The blood indices of all patients showed hepatic, renal, cardiac and hematopoietic dysfunction with imbalanced coagulatory biomarkers. We noticed that the levels of LDH (85%, P < .001), HBDH (76%, P < .001) and CRP (65%, P < .001) were significantly elevated in deceased patients, indicating hepatic impairment. Similarly, increased CK (15%, P = .002), Cre (37%, P = 0.102) and CysC (74%, P = 0.384) indicated renal damage. Cardiac injury was obvious from the significantly elevated level of Myoglobin (52%, P < .01), Troponin-I (65%, P = 0.273) and BNP (50%, P = .787). SARS-CoV-2 disturbs the hemolymphatic system as WBC# (73%, P = .002) and NEUT# (78%, P < .001) were significantly elevated in deceased patients. Likewise, the level of D-dimer (80%, P < .171), PT (87%, P = .031) and TT (57%, P = .053) was elevated, indicating coagulatory imbalances. We identified myoglobin and CRP as specific risk factors related to mortality and highly correlated to organ failure in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Myoglobin/analysis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Troponin I/blood
7.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 869-878, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117772

ABSTRACT

Understanding the persistence of antibody in convalescent COVID-19 patients may help to answer the current major concerns such as the risk of reinfection, the protection period of vaccination and the possibility of building an active herd immunity. This retrospective cohort study included 172 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Wuhan. A total of 404 serum samples were obtained over six months from hospitalization to convalescence. Antibodies in the specimens were quantitatively analyzed by the capture chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA). All patients were positive for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG at the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, and the IgG antibody persisted in all the patients during the convalescence. However, only approximately 25% of patients can detect the IgM antibodies, IgM against N protein (N-IgM) and receptor binding domain of S protein (RBD-IgM) at the 27th week. The titers of IgM, N-IgM and RBD-IgM reduced to 16.7%, 17.6% and 15.2% of their peak values respectively. In contrast, the titers of IgG, N-IgG and RBD-IgG peaked at 4-5th week and reduced to 85.9%, 62.6% and 87.2% of their peak values respectively at the end of observation. Dynamic behavior of antibodies and their correlation in age, gender and severity groups were investigated. In general, the COVID-19 antibody was sustained at high levels for over six months in most of the convalescent patients. Only a few patients with antibody reducing to an undetectable level which needs further attention. The humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients exhibits a typical dynamic of acquired immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Convalescence , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241896, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910304

ABSTRACT

A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) underwent repeated positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA tests after they were discharged from the hospital. We referred to them as re-positive (RP) patients in this study. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients in a retrospective cohort study. After being treated for COVID-19, the patients underwent 14 days of quarantine following their discharge from the Huangshi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Huangshi Hospital of Youse. Two additional sequential SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests were performed at the end of quarantine. The median age of the 368 patients was 51 years, and 184 (50%) patients were female. A total of 23 RP patients were observed at follow-up. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with RP included a higher ratio of lymphocyte/white blood cell on admission (adjusted HR 7.038; 95% CI, 1.911-25.932; P = 0.0034), lower peak temperature during hospitalization (adjusted HR, 0.203; 95% CI, 0.093-0.443; P<0.0001), and the presence of comorbidities, particularly hypertension or chronic diseases in the respiratory system (adjusted HR, 3.883; 95% CI, 1.468-10.273; P = 0.0063). Antivirus treatment with arbidol was associated with a lower likelihood of re-positive outcomes (adjusted HR, 0.178; 95% CI, 0.045-0.709; P = 0.0144).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Quarantine , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616597

ABSTRACT

The contamination of patients' surroundings by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains understudied. We sampled the surroundings and the air of six negative-pressure non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) rooms in a designated isolation ward in Chengdu, China, that were occupied by 13 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who had returned from overseas travel, including 2 asymptomatic patients. A total of 44 of 112 (39.3%) surface samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 as detected by real-time PCR, suggesting extensive contamination, although all of the air samples were negative. In particular, in a single room occupied by an asymptomatic patient, four sites were SARS-CoV-2 positive, highlighting that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients do contaminate their surroundings and impose risks for others with close contact. Placement of COVID-19 patients in rooms with negative pressure may bring a false feeling of safety, and the importance of rigorous environment cleaning should be emphasized.IMPORTANCE Although it has been well recognized that the virus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, can be acquired by exposure to fomites, surprisingly, the contamination of patients' surroundings by SARS-CoV-2 is largely unknown, as there have been few studies. We performed an environmental sampling study for 13 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and found extensive contamination of patients' surroundings. In particular, we found that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients contaminated their surroundings and therefore imposed risks for other people. Environment cleaning should be emphasized in negative-pressure rooms. The findings may be useful to guide infection control practice to protect health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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