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Water ; 15(7):1253, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2300881


The study ascertained the relationship between aquaculture production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in South Africa. The study used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag—Error Correction Model (ARDL-VECM) with time series data between 1990 and 2020. The results showed that the mean annual aquaculture production, GHG emissions, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the period were 5200 tonnes, 412 tonnes, and US$447 billion, respectively. There was a long-run relationship between GHG emissions and GDP. In the short run, GHG emissions had a positive relationship with GDP and a negative relationship with beef production. Furthermore, there was a bi-directional relationship between aquaculture production and GHG emissions. In addition, beef production and GDP had a bi-directional relationship. Beef production also had a positive relationship with aquaculture production. The study concludes that aquaculture production is affected and tends to affect GHG emissions. Aquaculture legislation should consider GHG emissions in South Africa and promote sustainable production techniques.

Phys Chem Earth (2002) ; 127: 103186, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895362


South Africa declared a State of National Disaster due to the COVID-19 pandemic, instituting a nationwide lockdown on 26 March 2020. Sale of goods and services classified as non-essential, such as tobacco and liquor, were prohibited, leading to widespread concerns about viability, job losses and investment in these industries. The study highlighted the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the South African alcohol and tobacco industries, taking the Johannesburg Stock Exchange-listed British American Tobacco (BTI) and Distell Group Limited (DGH) as cases. The Chow Test was utilised to determine the presence of a structural break on the BTI and DGH share prices on both the pronouncement and enactment days of the COVID-19 lockdown. Furthermore, Threshold Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (TGARCH) (1,1) was also used to test for the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown. The sample data used was daily closing share prices from 9 May 2019 to 9 May 2020, from Google Finance. The results show a structural break on the share prices on the enactment of the 26 March 2020, COVID-19 lockdown. Furthermore, the lockdown had a negative effect on the share prices of BTI and DGH. The study concludes that the COVID-19 lockdown will have long-lasting impacts on the ability of the industries to attract financing for recovery and expansion, and existing shareholders will experience reduced earnings, if any. Policy makers should promote investment by increasing interest rates, promoting local demand and supply, and provide business support to mitigate job losses.