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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293751

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) associated pneumonia has emerged in Wuhan, China. The study aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia.<br><br>Methods: 99 cases admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital during January 1 to 20, 2020 and confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test were analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological features, and laboratory data. <br><br>Findings: Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market. The average age of the patients was 62.85 ± 11.99 years, including 67 males and 32 females. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by RT-PCR, and some of them also by serological testing, and metagenomics sequencing analysis. 50 cases (50.51%) had chronic basic diseases. Patients had clinical manifestations of fever (83%), cough (82%), shortness of breath (31%), muscle aches (11%), headache (8%), fuzzy confusion (7%), chest pain (2%), and diarrhea (2%). According to imaging examination, 74 patients showed bilateral pneumonia (74.75%), 25 patients showed multiple mottled and ground-glass opacity, and 1 patient had pneumothorax. Most patients received antiviral, antibiotics, supportive treatments, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and had good prognosis. 17 patients developed acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and among them, 2 patients worsened in a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure.<br><br>Interpretation: The infection of the 2019-nCoV can result in severe and even fatal respiratory disease like ARDS. It is very important to actively prevent complications and secondary infections, treat underlying diseases, and provide timely organ function support. Early diagnosis, early isolation, multiple treatment, and intervention of CRRT and ECMO when necessary can effectively reduce mortality caused by severe coronavirus pneumonia.<br><br>Funding: National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC1309700)<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work.<br><br>Ethical Approval: The study was approved by Jinyintan Hospital Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients involved before enrolment.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292884

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2);however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 day and 7 days after single-dose vaccination or 6 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight, caused by either the prototype-like strain or beta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Lasted data showed that the animals could be well protected against beta variant challenge 9 months after vaccination. Notably, the weight loss and lung pathological changes of hamsters could still be significantly reduced when the hamster was vaccinated 24 h after challenge. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines, particularly at the start of an outbreak.

3.
Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) ; 15(3): 215-221, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293550

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral responses of pregnant women during the early stage of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: We recruited 1,099 women to complete an online questionnaire survey from February 10 to February 25, 2020. The subjects were divided into two groups (the pregnant women group and the control group). RESULTS: Concerns about infection: most of the participants watched the COVID-19 news at least once a day. Protective behaviors: the utilization rate of pregnant women (often using various measures) was higher than that of nonpregnant women. Exercise: 30.6% of the pregnant women continued to exercise at home, whereas in the control group, this percentage was 8.4%. Spouse relationship: 38.8% of the subjects' relationship improved, whereas only 2.3% thought the relationship was getting worse. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women had some unique behavioral responses different from that of nonpregnant women. It is important to understand the behavioral responses of pregnant women in this network era.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
5.
Faraday Discuss ; 226: 112-137, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253998

ABSTRACT

Air quality in megacities is significantly impacted by emissions from vehicles and other urban-scale human activities. Amid the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in January 2020, strict policies were in place to restrict people's movement, bringing about steep reductions in pollution activities and notably lower ambient concentrations of primary pollutants. In this study, we report hourly measurements of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) and its comprehensive chemical speciation, including elemental and molecular source tracers, at an urban site in Shanghai spanning a period before the lockdown restriction (BR) (1 to 23 Jan. 2020) and during the restriction (DR) (24 Jan. to 9 Feb. 2020). The overall PM2.5 was reduced by 27% from 56.2 ± 40.9 (BR) to 41.1 ± 25.3 µg m-3 (DR) and the organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 was similar, averaged at 5.45 ± 2.37 (BR) and 5.42 ± 1.75 µgC m-3 (DR). Reduction in nitrate was prominent, from 18.1 (BR) to 9.2 µg m-3 (DR), accounting for most of the PM2.5 decrease. Source analysis of PM2.5 using positive matrix factorization modeling of comprehensive chemical composition, resolved nine primary source factors and five secondary source factors. The quantitative source analysis confirms reduced contributions from primary sources affected by COVID-19, with vehicular emissions showing the largest drop, from 4.6 (BR) to 0.61 µg m-3 (DR) and the percentage change (-87%) in par with vehicle traffic volume and fuel sale statistics (-60% to -90%). In the same time period, secondary sources are revealed to vary in response to precursor reductions from the lockdown, with two sources showing consistent enhancement while the other three showing reductions, highlighting the complexity in secondary organic aerosol formation and the nonlinear response to broad primary precursor pollutants. The combined contribution from the two secondary sources to PM2.5 increased from 7.3 ± 6.6 (BR) to 14.8 ± 9.3 µg m-3 (DR), partially offsetting the reductions from primary sources and nitrate while their increased contribution to OC, from 1.6 ± 1.4 (BR) to 3.2 ± 2.0 µgC m-3 (DR), almost offset the decrease coming from the primary sources. Results from this work underscore challenges in predicting the benefits to PM2.5 improvement from emission reductions of common urban primary sources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Carbon/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Biomass , COVID-19/virology , Carbon/chemistry , China , Cluster Analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrates/analysis , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Exp Gerontol ; 151: 111423, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242982

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious respiratory disease, which has caused a pandemic that has become the world's leading public health emergency, threatening people of all ages worldwide, especially the elderly. Complications of COVID-19 are closely related to an upregulation of the inflammatory response revealed by the pro-inflammatory profile of plasma cytokines (to the point of causing a cytokine storm), which is also a contributing cause of the associated coagulation disorders with venous and arterial thromboembolisms, causing multiple organ dysfunction and failure. In severe fulminant cases of COVID-19, there is an activation of coagulation and consumption of clotting factors leading to a deadly disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). It is well established that human immune response changes with age, and also that the pro-inflammatory profile of plasma cytokines is upregulated in both healthy and diseased elderly people. In fact, normal aging is known to be associated with a subclinical, sterile, low-grade, systemic pro-inflammatory state linked to the chronic activation of the innate immune system, a phenomenon known as "inflammaging". Inflammaging may play a role as a condition contributing to the co-occurrence of the severe hyper-inflammatory state (cytokine storm) during COVID-19, and also in other severe infections (sepsis) in older people. Moreover, we must consider the impact of inflammation on coagulation due to the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. The systemic inflammatory state and coagulation disorders are closely related, a phenomenon that here we call "coagul-aging" (Giunta S.). In this review, we discuss the various degrees of inflammation in older adults after being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the adverse effects of aging on the inflammatory response and coagulation system. It is important to note that although there is no gender difference in susceptibility to COVID-19 infection, however, due to differences in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, innate immunity, and comorbidities, older men exhibit more severe disease and higher mortality than older women. There are currently no FDA-approved specific antiviral drugs that can be used against the virus. Therapies used in patients with COVID-19 consist of remdesivir, dexamethasone, low-molecular-weight heparin, in addition to monoclonal antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in the early phase of the disease. Future pharmacological research should also consider targeting the possible role of the underlying scenario of inflammaging in healthy older people to prevent or mitigate disease complications. It is worth mentioning that some specific cytokine antagonists and traditional Chinese medicine preparations can reduce the elderly's inflammatory state.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Affect Disord ; 289: 46-54, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic generates negative psychological effects such as distress. Social influences on subjective distress associated with COVID-19 remain understudied in the Chinese context. Wuhan with its surrounding areas in Hubei province was not only the locale where first COVID-19 cases were detected in the world but was also the hardest hit across China. Data from Hubei provide a unique opportunity to investigate COVID-19-related subjective distress and its social correlates. METHODS: We use original data (N=3,465) from the General Social Survey on COVID-19 in Hubei, China, conducted in August 2020. Regression analysis is employed to examine the impact of socioeconomic status, family structure, and social policies on COVID-19-related subjective distress measured by the Impact of Event-Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: First, individuals with higher socioeconomic status are not more immune to distress, and actually it is those better-educated ones who are more distressed. Second, family structure influences distress. Divorced and widowed individuals are more prone to distress than those who are married or single. Those living with COVID-19-infected family members or living with a larger family are particularly more distressed. Third, stricter lockdown measures promote real and perceived protection and also increase individuals' psychological distance from the disease, thereby reducing subjective distress. LIMITATIONS: The sample is not totally random so we should use caution when generalizing the findings to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The findings contribute to our understanding of mental health disparity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain social groups are at a higher risk of distress than others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113934, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Worry about COVID-19 is an important cognitive component and manifestation of COVID-19-related anxiety. It has a social dimension and is shaped by various social factors. DATA: We employ original data from a large survey (N = 20,632) conducted in China from April 21 to 23, 2020, which provide us with a rare opportunity to investigate COVID-19-induced worry among ordinary Chinese citizens. RESULTS: We find individuals' socioeconomic status, family characteristics, sense of community, and perceived strictness of lockdown measures all have significant influences on worry about COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: First, individuals with higher socioeconomic status such as better education, better income, and more prestigious occupations have richer resources in coping with COVID-19 and are thus less worried. Second, the high human-to-human transmissibility of COVID-19 and increased family obligations during the pandemic imply that larger family size can be a worry-inducing burden. Individuals living with larger families are more worried. Third, a greater sense of community lowers worry as it buffers against the stressor and may enhance individuals' faith in the community's efficacy in containing the virus. Last, stringent lockdown measures may actually have positive psychological effects. They provide real and perceived protection and increase individuals' perceived distance from the disease, thereby reducing public worry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Factors
9.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-15, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153004

ABSTRACT

Innoculation of pneumococcal vaccines among the elderly is an effective public health policy to prevent pneumococcal diseases and it is widely promoted by many developed countries. The pneumococcal vaccination rate among the elderly in China was only 3.7% in 2019, it grew rapidly during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the psychological and demographic-economic factors related to the uptake behavior of pneumococcal vaccination among the Chinese elderly by using an integrated model based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). The theoretical model was tested via structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from 516 Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older. Our results suggested that knowledge, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, attitude, and trust had a significant correlation with behavioral intention; behavioral intention and trust had a positive correlation with the uptake behavior, gender, and and education level and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exerted significant moderating effects. To increase the coverage of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly, it is necessary to provide effective health education by authoritative experts, thereby enhancing their knowledge and positive attitude towardthe vaccination.

10.
Ann Med Psychol (Paris) ; 179(9): 818-821, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122849

ABSTRACT

Objective: We conducted a cohort of tracing discharge patients of COVID-19. Materials and methods: We used the Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or Fisher's exact test to compare differences between age groups and gender groups where appropriate. Results: Our study provides insights into the nature and severity of medical conditions specific to survivors of COVID-19. Conclusions: It also highlights the potential mental health issues resulting from infectious disease outbreaks within communities.

11.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(2): 423-434, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121391

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the clinical features of pregnant women and their neonates with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the evidence of vertical transmission of COVID-19, we retrieved studies included in PubMed, Medline and Chinese databases from January 1, 2000 to October 25, 2020 using relevant terms, such as 'COVID-19', 'vertical transmission' et al. in 'Title/Abstract'. Case reports and case series were included according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We conducted literature screening and data extraction, and performed literature bias risk assessment. Total of 13 case series and 16 case reports were collected, including a total of 564 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their 555 neonates, of which 549 neonates received nucleic acid test for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 18 neonates was diagnosed with COVID-19. The positive rate is 3.28%. Amniotic fluid of one woman was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The majority of infected neonates were born under strict infection control and received isolation and artificial feeding. Up till now, there is no sufficient evidence to exclude the possibility of vertical transmission for COVID-19 based on the current available data.

12.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(1): 17-25, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106649

ABSTRACT

Background: The infection rate of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children was less than that in adults. However, the underlining reason is not well known. Methods: Children with COVID-19 were recruited from two Children's Hospitals in Wuhan and Shanghai in this case-control study. The associations of initial symptoms with age, vaccinations of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), and influenza and pathogens were determined by Chi-square t-test. Results: We evaluated 248 confirmed cases, and 56 suspected cases with COVID-19. The median age was 6.82 years old, and 118 cases (38.82%) were girls. Furthermore, 30.26% of all patients were asymptomatic cases. The percentage of asymptomatic cases vaccinated with BCG was not significantly higher than that without BCG vaccination [86/280 (30.71%) vs. 6/13 (46.15%), P=0.203], and initial symptoms were not related with immunized influenza vaccine (P=0.267). Compared to parameters in pediatric patients with normal body temperatures, patients with fever had higher C reactive protein (CRP) (P<0.001). Conclusions: Pediatric COVID-19 patients with BCG vaccinations exhibit similar clinical manifestations compared to those without BCG vaccinations, and the severity of symptoms in pediatric patients may be related to the maturity of immune function.

13.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(2): e1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084626

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to gain an understanding of the paradox of the immunity in COVID-19 patients with T cells showing both functional defects and hyperactivation and enhanced proliferation. Methods: A total of 280 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were evaluated for cytokine profiles and clinical features including viral shedding. A mouse model of acute infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was applied to dissect the relationship between immunological, virological and pathological features. The results from the mouse model were validated by published data set of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients. Results: The levels of soluble CD25 (sCD25), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than non-severe cases, but only sCD25 was identified as an independent risk factor for disease severity by multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and showed a positive association with the duration of viral shedding. In agreement with the clinical observation, LCMV-infected mice with high levels of sCD25 demonstrated insufficient anti-viral response and delayed viral clearance. The elevation of sCD25 in mice was mainly contributed by the expansion of CD25+CD8+ T cells that also expressed the highest level of PD-1 with pro-inflammatory potential. The counterpart human CD25+PD-1+ T cells were expanded in BALF of COVID-19 patients with severe disease compared to those with modest disease. Conclusion: These results suggest that high levels of sCD25 in COVID-19 patients probably result from insufficient anti-viral immunity and indicate an expansion of pro-inflammatory T cells that contribute to disease severity.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(2): 111, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079876

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest computed tomography (CT) has been found to have high sensitivity in diagnosing novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) at the early stage, giving it an advantage over nucleic acid detection during the current pandemic. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate an integrated deep learning framework on chest CT images for the automatic detection of NCP, focusing particularly on differentiating NCP from influenza pneumonia (IP). Methods: A total of 148 confirmed NCP patients [80 male; median age, 51.5 years; interquartile range (IQR), 42.5-63.0 years] treated in 4 NCP designated hospitals between January 11, 2020 and February 23, 2020 were retrospectively enrolled as a training cohort, along with 194 confirmed IP patients (112 males; median age, 65.0 years; IQR, 55.0-78.0 years) treated in 5 hospitals from May 2015 to February 2020. An external validation set comprising 57 NCP patients and 50 IP patients from 8 hospitals was also enrolled. Two deep learning schemes (the Trinary scheme and the Plain scheme) were developed and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Of the NCP lesions, 96.6% were >1 cm and 76.8% were of a density <-500 Hu, indicating them to have less consolidation than IP lesions, which had nodules ranging from 5-10 mm. The Trinary scheme accurately distinguished NCP from IP lesions, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93. For patient-level classification in the external validation set, the Trinary scheme outperformed the Plain scheme (AUC: 0.87 vs. 0.71) and achieved human specialist-level performance. Conclusions: Our study has potentially provided an accurate tool on chest CT for early diagnosis of NCP with high transferability and showed high efficiency in differentiating between NCP and IP; these findings could help to reduce misdiagnosis and contain the pandemic transmission.

16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1277-1284, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060234

ABSTRACT

Rationale: To assess the longitudinal changes and relationships of clinical measures and extent of CT lung abnormalities in COVID-19. Methods: 81 patients with COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled and followed until discharge. CT scores were quantified on a basis of a CT scoring system where each lung was divided into 3 zones: upper (above the carina), middle, and lower (below the inferior pulmonary vein) zones; each zone was evaluated for percentage of lung involvement on a scale of 0-4 (0, 0%; 1, 0-24%; 2, 25% - 49%; 3, 50% -74%; 4, >74%).Temporal trends of CT scores and the laboratory parameters characteristic of COVID-19 were analyzed. Correlations between the two were determined at three milestones (initial presentation, worst CT manifestation, and recovery finding before discharge). Their correlations with duration to worst CT manifestation and discharge from symptom onset were evaluated. Results: CT scores peaked during illness days 6-11 (median: 5), and stayed steady. C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase increased, peaked on illness days 6-8 and 8-11 (mean: 23.5 mg/L, 259.9 U/L), and gradually declined. Continual decrease and increase were observed in hemoglobin and lymphocyte count, respectively. Albumin reduced and remained at low levels with a nadir on illness days 12-15 (36.6 g/L). Both initial (r = 0.58, 0.64, p < 0.05) and worst CT scores (r = 0.47, 0.65, p < 0.05) were correlated with C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase; and CT scores before discharge, only with albumin (r = -0.41, p < 0.05). Duration to worst CT manifestation was associated with initial and worst CT scores (r = 0.33, 0.29, p < 0.05). No parameters were related to timespan to discharge. Conclusion: Our results illustrated the temporal changes of characteristic clinical measures and extent of CT lung abnormalities in COVID-19. CT scores correlated with some important laboratory parameters, and might serve as prognostic factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(21-22): 677-684, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the successful experience of timely crisis management, correct measures, and successful display of the hospital image in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (FAHZU), to improve the ability of emergency response. METHODS: The FAHZU, as the earliest designated hospital, accomplished the transformation from general hospital to infectious disease hospital under the guiding ideology of centralized patients, centralized experts, centralized resources, and centralized treatment with measures to transfer the Zhijiang campus hospitalized patients quickly, complete the space layout, create diagnosis and treatment space, streamline logistics, and transform logistics facilities within 48 h. As of 5 March, the hospital had admitted 104 patients. RESULTS: Of the severe cases in Zhejiang province 95% underwent centralized treatment with the goal of zero deaths for severely ill patients, zero misdiagnoses for infected patients, and zero infections for medical staff, and this served as a reference for large medical institutions regarding how to manage such a public health emergency. CONCLUSION: The successful cases of FAHZU provided a valuable experience for large medical institutions on how to address public health emergencies and how to carry out diagnosis and treatment and streamline the layout and related facilities in emergency reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Hospitals, General , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Faraday Discuss ; 226: 112-137, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989971

ABSTRACT

Air quality in megacities is significantly impacted by emissions from vehicles and other urban-scale human activities. Amid the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in January 2020, strict policies were in place to restrict people's movement, bringing about steep reductions in pollution activities and notably lower ambient concentrations of primary pollutants. In this study, we report hourly measurements of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) and its comprehensive chemical speciation, including elemental and molecular source tracers, at an urban site in Shanghai spanning a period before the lockdown restriction (BR) (1 to 23 Jan. 2020) and during the restriction (DR) (24 Jan. to 9 Feb. 2020). The overall PM2.5 was reduced by 27% from 56.2 ± 40.9 (BR) to 41.1 ± 25.3 µg m-3 (DR) and the organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 was similar, averaged at 5.45 ± 2.37 (BR) and 5.42 ± 1.75 µgC m-3 (DR). Reduction in nitrate was prominent, from 18.1 (BR) to 9.2 µg m-3 (DR), accounting for most of the PM2.5 decrease. Source analysis of PM2.5 using positive matrix factorization modeling of comprehensive chemical composition, resolved nine primary source factors and five secondary source factors. The quantitative source analysis confirms reduced contributions from primary sources affected by COVID-19, with vehicular emissions showing the largest drop, from 4.6 (BR) to 0.61 µg m-3 (DR) and the percentage change (-87%) in par with vehicle traffic volume and fuel sale statistics (-60% to -90%). In the same time period, secondary sources are revealed to vary in response to precursor reductions from the lockdown, with two sources showing consistent enhancement while the other three showing reductions, highlighting the complexity in secondary organic aerosol formation and the nonlinear response to broad primary precursor pollutants. The combined contribution from the two secondary sources to PM2.5 increased from 7.3 ± 6.6 (BR) to 14.8 ± 9.3 µg m-3 (DR), partially offsetting the reductions from primary sources and nitrate while their increased contribution to OC, from 1.6 ± 1.4 (BR) to 3.2 ± 2.0 µgC m-3 (DR), almost offset the decrease coming from the primary sources. Results from this work underscore challenges in predicting the benefits to PM2.5 improvement from emission reductions of common urban primary sources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Carbon/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Biomass , COVID-19/virology , Carbon/chemistry , China , Cluster Analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrates/analysis , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Patient Educ Couns ; 104(8): 1868-1877, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As an effective measure to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic, wearing mask is widely recommended in countries around the world. This study aims to identify factors that explain the behavioral intention of Wuhan City urban residents to wear masks. METHODS: A theoretical model was extended on UTAUT by incorporating the feature on residents having relevant knowledge and sufficient awareness on the pandemic. During early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, an online survey was conducted in Wuhan City and 728 valid samples were collected from 35 communities. Structural equations modeling and bootstrapping were applied. RESULTS: Sample data present acceptable reliability and validity. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and knowledge about COVID-19 have positive effects on behavioral intention. Facilitating condition, knowledge, and behavioral intention have significant effects on use behavior. Gender, age, education, income, and current marital status are significant moderators in the theoretical model. CONCLUSION: Having relevant knowledge on the pandemic, together with performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating condition, affects behavioral intention and usage behavior of Wuhan residents to wear masks at early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Subgroups have different psychological mechanisms based on their demographic characteristics. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Health policy makers should focus on enhancing residents' knowledge on infectious disease and their awareness of the risk mitigation, and develop personalized measures for different subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Intention , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(5): 637-645, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963335

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics of paediatric cases. METHODS: Information on 1369 paediatric cases with COVID-19 from 8 December 2019 to 7 March 2020 in Hubei province was extracted from the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System. The analysis included epidemic curves, temporal-spatial distribution, clinical classification and interval times between onset and diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1369 paediatric cases, the median age was 9 years and 58.2% of them were males. The proportion of severe and critical cases in children was lower than that in adults and the proportion of asymptomatic cases in children was five times greater than for adult cases. The first paediatric case was reported on 2 January 2020, and the daily number of new paediatric cases remained high from 1 February through to 22 February. The epidemiological curve of paediatric cases lagged behind that of adults by 19 days, and the first spike of the epidemic curve in senior high school students occurred 1 week earlier than in other paediatric groups. The proportion of clustered cases among children was about twice that for adults. The median of the interval in paediatric cases between onset and diagnosis, isolation and notification were 3, 0 and 3 days, respectively, and all of those were significantly shorter than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic curve of child cases lagged behind that of adult cases by 19 days, and the major form of transmission observed was in clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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