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1.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i505, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Home dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD), has been associated with improved patient autonomy, quality of life and overall cost effectiveness (Weinhandl et al. Propensity matched mortality comparison of incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21: 499-506). The 2021 Get It Right First Time (GIRFT) Renal report revealed that home dialysis patients were at a lower risk of contracting and dying of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to those who received in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) (2). Despite these advantages, uptake of home dialysis is still lower than that of ICHD. The aim of our study was to analyse the numbers and reasons for home dialysis withdrawal at the North Bristol NHS Trust between 2018 and 2021. METHOD: All patients on PD and HHD between 2018 and 2021 were included. Analysis of the episodes that led to home dialysis cessation was carried out. As some patients required withdrawal more than once during the 4-year period, each episode of dropout was considered separately. The prevalence rate of patients on home dialysis was calculated. RESULTS: The total number of patients on home dialysis increased from 74 in 2018 to 98 in 2021. The male: female ratio of patients was 3:2 with an average age of 58.3. The number of patients on PD increased from 58 at the end of 2018 to 82 in 2021. The number of patients on HHD remained stable over the years, with an average of 16. The prevalence rate of home dialysis was 17.1% at the end of 2021. Figure 1 shows the total number of patients who started and dropped out of home dialysis every year. The number of patients initiating PD was 58 in 2018, 55 in 2019, 37 in 2020 and 59 in 2021. The number of dropouts was 57 in 2018, 41 in 2019, 29 in 2020 and 43 in 2021. The dip in number of patients initiated on PD in 2020 can be attributed to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, when elective procedures were temporarily withheld. On the other hand, a lower number dropped out during 2020. This may be explained by the emphasis given to self-isolation rules and persistence with home dialysis during the outbreak. The overall increase in PD uptake in 2021 may be explained by the establishment of a new specialist clinic that promotes the uptake of home dialysis. The initiation of a new peer support service group in 2021 may also have contributed. The number of patients initiating and withdrawing from HHD followed the same pattern, with a significant dip in 2020. Figure 2 demonstrates the reasons for withdrawal from PD over the study period. The most prevalent reasons were PD-related infections and transplantation. The observed figures for transplantation reflect the continuous efforts involved in the maintenance of a successful transplant programme. The figure also shows that termination of PD due to failure was highest in 2021. The authors postulate that this surge might be due to the previous year's low PD dropout rate. The leading reason for stopping HHD was transplantation. Other reasons included recovery of renal function and switching to conservative management. Death led to one dropout/year in 2018-20, but none in 2021. CONCLUSION: Around 17% of the NBT's total dialysis population is currently on home dialysis. The commonest reasons for termination of home dialysis were transplantation and PD-related infections. The GIRFT report recommends that all adult renal units in the UK should reach a minimum prevalence rate of 20% of their dialysis population on home dialysis by the end of 2024 (Lipkin et al. Renal medicine: Get It Right First Time (GIRFT) Programme National Specialty Report. March 2021. NHS England and NHS Improvement). Whereas our statistic falls slightly short of this, we aim to reach this target through various strategies. These include continued audit, home dialysis campaign, continued psychological services and a reduction in waiting time for PD catheter insertion.

2.
Zhongguo Dianji Gongcheng Xuebao/Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering ; 42(12):4623-4632, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912216

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, which has posed a major threat to world economic development and people's health and security. In view of the emergence of virus variants, the difficulty of prevention and control is constantly escalating, and rapid, simple and large-scale detection methods play a key role in epidemic control. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detection technology, pattern recognition and plasma disinfection technology, this paper developed a new integrated system for the detection and disinfection of pathogens, and preliminarily tested the effectiveness of the system. In terms of 'detection', the data scale was expanded from 115 to 857 cases. Recognition algorithms including partial least squares classification and convolutional neural network were used to establish classification models for the positive, health control and interference samples, and the prediction accuracy could reach 91.97% and 98.29% respectively. In terms of 'disinfection',to reduce the safety risk of the operation safety, a sample drying and disinfection module and a flexible disinfection film were developed based on the plasma disinfection technology, which was used to protect the key positions of the instruments. The disinfection rate of E. coli in both modules could be higher than 99.9%, in line with the relevant provisions. In summary, the two parts of the spectroscopy detection process of Coronavirus Disease 2019 samples have been innovated. For the first time, the combination of 'detection' and 'disinfection' has been realized, which is conducive to the application and promotion of spectroscopy detection methods. © 2022 Chin. Soc. for Elec. Eng.

3.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ; 95(6):AB134, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885783

ABSTRACT

DDW 2022 Author Disclosures: Armin Parsi: NO financial relationship with a commercial interest ;QiQi Zhou: NO financial relationship with a commercial interest ;G. Nicholas Verne: NO financial relationship with a commercial interest Background: The COVID-19 pandemic required postponement of many elective gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures. With the pandemic now in control, the number of patients requiring GI endoscopic procedures has steadily increased. This increasing demand combined with a shortage of qualified support staff in the aftermath of the pandemic has made efficiency-improvement in endoscopy centers an increasingly important topic for academic medical centers. Aim: To determine strategies to enhance efficiency in an academic tertiary-care endoscopy unit. The overall goal was to decrease physician down-time and maximize the use of support staff and nurses without adversely impacting the patient or provider experience. Methods: We introduced a new metric, inter-procedure time, defined as the elapsed time between endoscope removal from one patient and endoscope insertion into the next patient, as the metric of choice to measure and track improvements in efficiency. This metric not only accounts for the time spent for room turnover but also other factors that may delay initiation of the subsequent procedure while the patient is already in the endoscopy room. In an ongoing prospective quality-improvement project, we initiated a 3-pronged intervention strategy: 1) employed a “one- endoscopist-two-room” model, 2) improved nonphysician staff utilization by having a nurse rotating between two endoscopy rooms, and 3) instituted clear communication of when a procedure was close to completion in order to begin the room turnover process. Results: The inter-procedure times were prospectively measured for 100 consecutive patients presenting for elective outpatient endoscopy before the intervention and 66 consecutive patients after the intervention. Patient demographics, severity of comorbidities, and the type of endoscopic procedures did not differ between the two groups. Before the intervention, the average inter-procedure time was 36.7±21min while after the intervention the average inter- procedure time decreased to 17±9.7 min(p< 0.001). After the intervention, the number of endoscopic procedures performed per day increased by 32% without any change in the number of endoscopists or support staff. Conclusions: 1. Strategies such as one-endoscopist-two-room model, improving nonphysician staff utilization, and improved communication between providers can significantly enhance efficiency of endoscopy units without increasing costs. 2. Decreasing inter-procedure time is directly associated with increasing endoscopy unit output. Interprocedure time is therefore an appropriate metric for measuring and tracking efficiency in endoscopy units. 3. Further studies are needed to assess sustainability of these improvements in the long term. (No Image Selected)

4.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(5): 455-461, 2022 May 09.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818247

ABSTRACT

Today, there is greater awareness on the association between oral diseases and respiration diseases after the outbreak of COVID-19. However, confusion regarding the oral health management and medical risk prevention for patients with chronic airway diseases has been remained among dental clinicians. Therefore, the dental experts of the Fifth General Dentistry Special Committee, Chinese Stomatological Association, combined with the experts of respiratory and critical care medicine, undertook the formation of consensus on the oral health management of patients with chronic airway diseases in order to help dental clinicians to evaluate medical risks and make better treatment decision in clinical practice. In the present consensus report, the relationship of oral diseases and chronic airway diseases, the oral health management and the treatment recommendations of patients with chronic airway diseases are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Medicine , Consensus , Humans , Oral Health
5.
Frontiers in Energy Research ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1809374

ABSTRACT

Energy and environmental pollution have attracted wide attention, but few studies have been conducted on green total factor energy efficiency (GTFEE) from the perspective of government corruption and market segmentation. By using the panel data of 30 provinces in China for the period 2006 to 2017, this paper tests the relationship between government corruption, market segmentation, and GTFEE. Moreover, considering the threshold effect of government corruption and market segmentation on GTFEE, the system generalized method of moments and the dynamic threshold panel model are adopted to analyze the nonlinear relationship. The regression results indicate that government corruption significantly decreases GTFEE, and market segmentation also has a significant negative impact on GTFEE. Moreover, market segmentation exacerbates the negative impact of corruption on GTFEE. The more serious the government corruption, the more severe the inhibitory effect of market segmentation on GTFEE. Similarly, the higher degree of market segmentation can increase the restraining effect of corruption on GTFEE. The results are still valid after a series of robustness tests. This paper suggests that countries should adopt severe anti-corruption actions, speed up the process of regional integration, and provide a good institutional environment support for the improvement of GTFEE. Copyright © 2022 Zhou, Du and Ren.

6.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 22(4):373-379, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791921

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzed clinical studies, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines on the treatment of COVID-19 with antiviral drugs. It elaborated on the evidence ecosystems in these studies following the "efficacy, evidence-based practice, effectiveness" (3E) model that considered five elements: research hypothesis, research evidence, big data from healthcare facilities, real-world data, and real-world evidence. Finally, this paper summarized the experience in the production, transformation and application of evidence. This paper could help clinicians conduct highquality clinical research and provide good clinical practice based on the best currently available evidence.

7.
10th International Conference of Educational Innovation through Technology, EITT 2021 ; : 123-128, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1769576

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, China launched a large-scale online teaching practice of 'Disrupted classes, Undisrupted Learning.' Based on the existing online learning experiences scale, this study used a random sample to investigate the online learning experience of 387 college students from 29 provinces (cities) of China. The independent sample t-test was used to analyze the gender and regional differences in the online learning experience of college students. This study found that females had higher self-reported anxiety than males in online learning under the influence of the pandemic, which confirmed the physiological differences caused by gender differences in emergencies to a certain extent. College students in rural areas are significantly lower than students in urban areas in terms of family support, technical support, online interaction, and online engagement, but college students in rural areas are significantly higher than those in urban areas in terms of learning anxiety. The conclusions of this study provide constructive suggestions for online education in the post-pandemic era. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-331068

ABSTRACT

It is currently unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccination can also induce IgG and IgA against common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in lactating parents. Here we prospectively analyzed human milk (HM) and blood samples from lactating parents to measure the temporal patterns of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific and anti-HCoV cross-reactive IgA and IgG responses. Two cohorts were analyzed: a vaccination cohort (n=30) who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), and an infection cohort (n=45) with COVID-19 disease. Longitudinal HM and fingerstick blood samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination or, for infected subjects, at 5 time-points 14 - 28 days after confirmed diagnosis. The anti-spike(S) and antinucleocapsid(N) IgA and IgG antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs were measured by multiplex immunoassay (mPlex-CoV). We found that vaccination significantly increased the anti-S IgA and IgG levels in HM. In contrast, while IgG levels increased after a second vaccine dose, blood and HM IgA started to decrease. Moreover, HM and blood anti-S IgG levels were significantly correlated, but anti-S IgA levels were not. SARS2 acute infection elicited anti-S IgG and IgA that showed much higher correlations between HM and blood compared to vaccination. Vaccination and infection were able to significantly increase the broadly cross-reactive IgG recognizing HCoVs in HM and blood than the IgA antibodies in HM and blood. In addition, the broader cross-reactivity of IgG in HM versus blood indicates that COVID-19 vaccination and infection might provide passive immunity through HM for the breastfed infants not only against SARS-CoV-2 but also against common cold coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE: It is unknown if COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and infection in lactating mothers results in cross-reactive antibodies against other common human coronaviruses. Our study demonstrates that mRNA vaccination and COVID-19 infection increase anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG in both blood and milk. IgA and IgG antibody concentrations in milk were more tightly correlated with concentrations in blood after infection compared to mRNA vaccination. Notably, both infection and vaccination resulted in increased IgG against common seasonal β -coronaviruses. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in a lactating parent may result in passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses for the recipient infant.

9.
International Symposium on Educational Technology (ISET) ; : 96-100, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1699098

ABSTRACT

In the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 pandemic emerged in many regions of China, and the spring semester of primary and middle schools was postponed At the call of "Suspension of Classes but not Learning" by MOE, all educational institutes adopted the online learning methods. However, the home-based online learning lacks teacher supervision, peer support, classroom environment constraints. These intensify students' attention difficulty when compared with face-to-face learning in the classroom, which makes students' learning engagement more important to ensure the learning effect. According to online focus group interviews with the education experts and K-12 teachers respectively, the researchers found out some possible influencing factors to K-12 students' online learning engagement: perceived teacher involvement, perceived parental involvement, students' self-discipline, and student emotion. Therefore, this study proposes a prediction model from the above four aspects. By using multivariate linear regression analysis and variance analysis, this study finds: (1) Perceived teacher involvement, perceived parent support, student selfdiscipline and student emotion all have significant positive effects on online learning engagement. (2) There are significant differences in students' online learning engagement for different learning stages and different network environments at home Students' online learning engagement has no significant difference between urban and rural areas.

10.
European Heart Journal ; 42(SUPPL 1):2395, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1553937

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent reports suggested no adverse effects of antihypertensive medication including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system on outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). However, most of these studies lack adequate control groups, and regional and socio-economic differences may additionally affect clinical course and outcome of COVID-19. Methods: In the prospective observational cohort COrona VIrus surviVAl (COVIVA) study at our university hospital, we consecutively enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 between March and June 2020. Patients tested positive for COVID-19 (cases) were compared with patients tested negative, who had a respiratory infection (respiratory control). Primary outcome measure was the composite of ICU admission, 3'-day mortality or rehospitalization for respiratory symptoms. Results: The final analysis consisted of 191 patients with COVID-19 and 323 respiratory controls. Sixty cases (31.4%) and 87 (26.9%) respiratory control patients were on ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). In unadjusted models the hazard ratio [95% CI] for the composite outcome for patients on ACE-I/ARBs was 2.36 [1.34;4.16], p=0.003 and 2.05 [1.03;4.09], p=0.04 among patients with COVID-19 and respiratory controls, respectively. The corresponding multivariable adjusted HRs were 1.32 [0.68;2.55], p=0.41 and 1.20 [0.58;2.48], p=0.62. Furthermore, we did not observe an increased risk for the outcome when assessing ACE-Is and ARBs separately or other antihypertensive agents, both in COVID-19 patients and respiratory controls (Table). Conclusions: In a Swiss cohort of patients with COVID-19 or non-COVID respiratory controls treatment with ACE-I/ARBs or other antihypertensive medication was not associated with adverse events after accounting for comorbidities and risk factors.

11.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116(SUPPL):S399-S400, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1534702

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Upadacitinib (UPA), an oral JAK inhibitor, showed significantly greater efficacy vs placebo (PBO) in induction treatment of patients (pts) with moderately-to-severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) in two phase 3 induction trials, U-ACHIEVE and U-ACCOMPLISH. We evaluated efficacy of UPA in pts who had an inadequate response (IR), loss of response, or intolerance to biologic therapies (Bio-IR) or were non-Bio-IR. Methods: U-ACHIEVE and U-ACCOMPLISH, multicentre, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled trials, randomized pts with moderately to severely active UC to UPA 45 mg QD or PBO for 8 weeks (wks). Randomization was stratified by status of previous biologic failure, ie an inadequate response (IR), loss of response, or intolerance to biologic therapies (Bio-IR or bio-failure) vs non-Bio-IR (nonbio-IR or non-bio-failure), baseline corticosteroid use (yes or no), and baseline adapted Mayo score (≤7 or>7). Efficacy endpoints included primary endpoint of clinical remission (adaptedMayo score) at Wk 8 and ranked secondary endpoints of clinical response (partial adapted Mayo score at Wk 2 and adapted Mayo score at Wk 8), endoscopic improvement (Mayo endoscopic subscore 0 or 1), endoscopic remission (Mayo endoscopic subscore 0) and histologic-endoscopic mucosal improvement at Wk 8 (HEMI;endoscopic subscore ≤1 and Geboes score ≤3.1). Results using non-responder imputation incorporating multiple imputation for missing data due to COVID-19 are reported. Results: In both studies, approximately half the pts were Bio-IR (Table 1). In both Bio-IR and non-Bio-IR pts, significantly higher proportion of pts receiving UPA achieved primary endpoint of clinical remission versus PBO;the magnitude of clinical remission at Wk 8 was greater in non-Bio-IR pts (UPA, 35% vs PBO, 9%;treatment difference [95% CI]: 26.0% [16.0, 36.1]) versus Bio-IR (UPA, 18% vs PBO, 0%;17.5% [11.4, 23.6]) in U-ACHIEVE and non-Bio-IR (UPA, 38% vs PBO, 6%;31.6% [22.8, 40.5]) versus Bio-IR (UPA, 30% vs PBO, 2%;27.1% [19.6, 34.7];Table 1) in U-ACCOMPLISH. Results were generally similar for ranked secondary endpoints (Table 1). UPA 45 mg QD was well-tolerated and no new safety signals were observed. Conclusion: UPA 45 mg QD is an effective induction treatment for pts with moderately to severely active UC. A significantly higher proportion of pts in both Bio-IR and non-Bio-IR groups receiving UPA achieved primary and secondary endpoints versus PBO. The magnitude of difference was greater among pts who were non-Bio-IR versus Bio-IR.

12.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 21(9):1055-1066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527004

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the efficacy of treatments for β-coronaviruses. Methods PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, SinoMed, CNKI and WanFang Data databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) of treatments for β-coronaviruses from inception to June 17th, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analysis was then performed using Stata 14.0 software. Results A total of 109 studies invoving 23 210 patients were included. The results of the systematic review showed that compared with standard of care, corticosteroids could reduce mortality and increase cure rate for COVID-19. However, chloroquine could decrease cure rate. In severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients, corticosteroids could decrease the cure rate. In Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) patients, ribavirin/interferon/both drugs showed higher mortality. Conclusions The currently limited evidence shows that corticosteroids may be effective to COVID-19 patients while having limited effects on SARS patients. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine may have negative effects on COVID-19 patients. Ribavirin/interferon may be harmful to MERS patients. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusions.

13.
International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1480035

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to present the host experience of student hosts in Hong Kong, a popular educational destination for international students from mainland China and other countries. This study examines the interconnection between the experience-based and sociocultural dimensions of visiting friends and relatives (VFR) travel, considering the overall host experience, the host–guest relationship and post-hosting changes in perception of both the VFR experience and destination. Design/methodology/approach: This research adopts a qualitative approach to compare the experience-based and sociocultural dimensions of VFR travel considering international university students as VFR hosts in Hong Kong, taking a student sample from both mainland Chinese and overseas students. Based on a voluntary sampling approach, the research team had face-to-face interviews with the students that agreed to participate. The interviews were conducted voluntarily and anonymously and included those students who had hosted any friends or relatives in the past 12 months. A total of 26 interviews were successfully completed, including 10 mainland Chinese and 16 non-mainland Chinese students. Findings: The results confirm that the VFR host experience is generally shaped by an integration of internal characteristics (sociocultural characteristics of both hosts and visitors) and external environment (urban infrastructure and tourism resources). The two groups distinctively express their host experience that shows some areas of cultural barriers and geographical proximity. Research limitations/implications: The limitations of this research mainly lie on its relatively small sample size because of constraints in accessing the contact information of international students across universities. These shortcomings should be improved by adopting a research design that uses other sampling approaches, such as snowball sampling, to include a wider scope of students from different local universities, or convenience sampling, to interview and compare responses of international students from various educational destinations. Alternative data sources may be considered, for example, through user-generated contents from online and social media platforms that contain sharing of students as hosts. Practical implications: The geographical and cultural proximities influence VFR tourism development and social construction of values and the consequent hosting behaviour. The unique role of international students should be further explored, especially in the Asian context. The outcome of VFR travel must be evaluated and studied more from cultural and personal dimensions than economic gain, which should be relevant to host perspective such as improved quality of life, social ties and place attachment and psychological benefits. The changing risk perception caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may be examined through some forms of travel intention. Social implications: Firstly, the destination marketing organisations of the educational destination should address the difficulty faced by student hosts in terms of external attributes such as local culture, urban infrastructure, tourism resources and information accessibility. Secondly, to target the hosts, some specific VFR-related products and services may be developed for international students through local tertiary institutions such that the role of hosts as ambassadors can be facilitated and enhanced. Thirdly, the functional role of international students can be distinctive based on their unique network, activities and knowledge constructed upon learning during the period of education. Originality/value: The studentification of many educational destination cities, the dynamism of the role of international students as VFR hosts and their cultural differences between places of origin have provided an opportunity for deepening the understanding of VFR tourism. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

14.
2021 International Symposium on Educational Technology, ISET 2021 ; : 96-100, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470345

ABSTRACT

In the beginning of2020, COVID-19 pandemic emerged in many regions of China, and the spring semester of primary and middle schools was postponed. At the call of Suspension of Classes but not Learning by MOE, all educational institutes adopted the online learning methods. However, the home-based online learning lacks teacher supervision, peer support, classroom environment constraints. These intensify students' attention difficulty when compared -with face-to-face learning in the classroom, which makes students' learning engagement more important to ensure the learning effect. According to online focus group interviews with the education experts and K-12 teachers respectively, the researchers found out some possible influencing factors to K-12 students' online learning engagement: perceived teacher involvement, perceived parental involvement, students' self-discipline, and student emotion. Therefore, this study proposes a prediction model from the above four aspects. By using multivariate linear regression analysis and variance analysis, this study finds: (1) Perceived teacher involvement, perceived parent support, student self-discipline and student emotion all have significant positive effects on online learning engagement. (2) There are significant differences in students' online learning engagement for different learning stages and different network environments at home Students' online learning engagement has no significant difference between urban and rural areas. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Pharmaceutical Fronts ; 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402158

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), defined as a worldwide pandemic, has been a public health emergency of international concern. Pudilanxiaoyan oral liquid (PDL), an effective drug of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is considered to be an effective and alternative means for clinical prevention of COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to identify potential active constituents of PDL, and explore its underlying anti-COVID-19 mechanism using network pharmacology. Integration of target prediction (SwissTargetPrediction and STITCH database) was used to elucidate the active components of PDL. Protein-protein interaction network analyses, gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses, network construction, and molecular docking were applied to analyze the prospective mechanisms of the predicted target genes. Our results showed that the key active ingredients in PDL were luteolin, apigenin, esculetin, chrysin, baicalein, oroxylin A, baicalin, wogonin, cymaroside, and gallic acid. A majority of the predicted targets were mainly involved in the pathways related to viral infection, lung injury, and inflammatory responses. An in vitro study further inferred that inhibiting the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-B signaling pathway was a key mechanism by which PDL exerted anti-COVID-19 effects. This study not only provides chemical basis and pharmacology of PDL but also the rationale for strategies to exploring future TCM for COVID-19 therapy.

16.
Cancer Research ; 81(13):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1377253
17.
Methods Pharmacol. Toxicol.. ; : 69-84, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1361275

ABSTRACT

As research continues into the SARS-CoV-2 infection process, many viral and human proteins and other biomolecules have been identified as potential drug targets for treating this and other coronavirus infections. The most therapeutically promising of these include: (1) proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, such as the viral spike (S) protein, the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and human proteases needed to cleave the S protein in preparation for cell membrane fusion;(2) nucleic acid–related enzymes involved in viral RNA replication such as the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and helicase;(3) viral proteases 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLPro) and Papain-like protease (PLpro), which autocatalytically cleave the polyprotein translated from viral RNA;and (4) other intracellular human proteins the virus uses for replication and extracellular proteins the virus regulates to cause inflammation, blood coagulation and other problems associated with infection. In this chapter, we discuss these promising target proteins in terms of their structure, function, and possible chemical or biological modulators.

18.
Pediatric Medicine ; 4, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1342079

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has inflicted the whole world since the end of 2019 and may transform the provision of care of kidney replacement therapy (KRT). This narrative review aimed to summarize the impacts of COVID-19 on the continuity of KRT and the strategies healthcare facilities adopted to ensure the accessibility and continuity of the care. Management for KRT patients infected with COVID-19 was not within the scope of this review. We searched online publications in PubMed and Sinomed before November 2020, using search terms "COVID-19", "care", and "kidney replacement therapy". We found that COVID-19 affected the care cascade of KRT, the choice of treatment modalities, and self-care of individuals on maintenance treatment. Healthcare providers adopted the strategies including preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), using telehealth in the care cascade, and patients' health education and psychosocial support. We concluded that the pandemic has challenged the current provision of care and has a profound influence on the convey of renal care. © 2021 Pediatric Medicine.

19.
Medical Journal of Wuhan University ; 42(4):534-538, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1299714

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize and discuss the experience of perioperative hemodynamic management of lung transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 19 lung transplant recipients from December 2016 to December 2020 were investigated in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, all of which were transferred to the intensive care unit for further monitoring and treatment, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 19 lung transplant recipients included 5 cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 5 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 4 cases of pneumoconiosis, 2 cases of bronchiectasis, 1 case of later lung fibrosis associated with COVID-19, 1 case of connective tissue disease-related pulmonary fibrosis, and 1 case of Kartagener syndrome. Twelve cases adopted double lung transplantation, while seven cases reveived unilateral lung transplantation (4 cases of left single lung transplantation and 3 cases of right single lung transplantation). There were 6 deaths during the perioperative period. One case died of multi-drug resistant bacteria infection, one case died of circulatory failure caused by active thoracic hemorrhage post-operation, the third case died of intraoperative cardiac arrest, and the other 3 cases were given up because of multiple organs failure. The remaining 13 cases were cured and discharged. Of the 19 recipients, 14 received vasopressors. The total and daily fluid output of the recipients in 3 postoperation days were greater than the input volume (P<0.05). Conclusion: Lung transplantation is an effective method for the treatment of end-stage lung disease. The hemodynamic management is a keypoint during perioperative period. It is import to maintain the blood volume as low as possible under the premise of systemic perfusion, limit the amount of fluid, choose albumin or plasma to increase the colloidal osmotic pressure, and strengthen the maintenance of right heart function. These abobe measures may improve the prognosis of lung transplant recipients. © 2021, Editorial Board of Medical Journal of Wuhan University. All right reserved.

20.
Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection ; 54(1):54-60, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1272554

ABSTRACT

Background: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, Hubei, China, spreads across national and international borders. Methods: We prospectively collected medical records of 14 health care workers (HCWs) who were infected with SARS-CoV-2, in neurosurgery department of Wuhan Union Hospital, China. Results: Among the 14 HCWs, 12 were conformed cases, the other 2 were suspected cases. Most of them were either exposed to the two index patients or infected coworkers, without knowing they were COVID-19 patients. There were 4 male and 10 female infected HCWs in this cohort, whose mean age was 36 years (SD, 6 years). The main symptoms included myalgia or fatigue (100%), fever (86%) and dry cough (71%). On admission, 79% of infected HCWs showed leucopenia and 43% lymphopenia. Reduced complement C3 could be seen in 57% of the infected HCWs and IL-6 was significantly elevated in 86% of them. The proportion of lymphocytes subsets, concentrations of immunoglobulins, complement C4, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-a and IFN-g were within normal range in these 14 infected HCWs. The most frequent findings on pulmonary computed tomographic images were bilateral multifocal ground-glass opacifications (86%).

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