Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2300099, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244994

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) pandemic, traditional medical goggles are not only easy to attach bacteria and viruses in long-term exposure, but easy to fogged up, which increases the risk of infection and affects productivity. Bacterial adhesion and fog can be significantly inhibited through the hydrogel coatings, owing to super hydrophilic properties. On the one hand, hydrogel coatings are easy to absorb water and swell in wet environment, resulting in reduced mechanical properties, even peeling off. On the other hand, the hydrogel coatings don't have intrinsic antibacterial properties, which still poses a potential risk of bacterial transmission. Herein, an anti-swelling and antibacterial hydrogel coating is synthesized by 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), acrylamide (AM), dimethylaminoethyl acrylate bromoethane (IL-Br), and poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). Due to the self-driven entropy reduction effect of polycation and polyanion, an ion cross-linking network is formed, which endows the hydrogel coating with excellent antiswelling performance. Moreover, because of the synergistic effect of highly hydrated surfaces and the active bactericidal effect from quaternary ammonium cations, the hydrogel coating exhibits outstanding antifouling performances. This work develops a facile strategy to fabricate anti-swelling, antifouling, and antifogging hydrogel coatings for the protection of medical goggles, and also for biomedical and marine antifouling fields.

2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7263, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320843

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is poor in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The factors related to poor immunogenicity to vaccination in KTRs are not well defined. Here, observational study demonstrated no severe adverse effects were observed in KTRs and healthy participants (HPs) after first or second dose of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Different from HPs with excellent immunity against SARS-CoV-2, IgG antibodies against S1 subunit of spike protein, receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein were not effectively induced in a majority of KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. Specific T cell immunity response was detectable in 40% KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. KTRs who developed specific T cell immunity were more likely to be female, and have lower levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and blood tacrolimus concentrations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blood unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration were significantly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response in KTRs. Altogether, these data suggest compared to humoral immunity, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response are more likely to be induced in KTRs after administration of inactivated vaccine. Reduction of unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration might benefit specific cellular immunity response in KTRs following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Tacrolimus , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Bilirubin , Immunity, Humoral , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
5.
Cell Discov ; 9(1): 37, 2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254818

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread around the world. Mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2 are constantly emerging. At present, Omicron variants have become mainstream. In this work, we carried out a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the reported spike protein antibodies, counting the epitopes and genotypes of these antibodies. We further comprehensively analyzed the impact of Omicron mutations on antibody epitopes and classified these antibodies according to their binding patterns. We found that the epitopes of the H-RBD class antibodies were significantly less affected by Omicron mutations than other classes. Binding and virus neutralization experiments showed that such antibodies could effectively inhibit the immune escape of Omicron. Cryo-EM results showed that this class of antibodies utilized a conserved mechanism to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Our results greatly help us deeply understand the impact of Omicron mutations. Meanwhile, it also provides guidance and insights for developing Omicron antibodies and vaccines.

6.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232033

ABSTRACT

Little information is available for antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern induced by Omicron breakthrough infection and a third booster with an inactivated vaccine (InV) or Ad5-nCoV in people with completion of two InV doses. Plasma was collected from InV pre-vaccinated Omicron-infected patients (OIPs), unvaccinated OIPs between 0 and 22 days, and healthy donors (HDs) 14 days or 6 months after the second doses of an InV and 14 days after a homogenous booster or heterologous booster of Ad5-nCoV. Anti-Wuhan-, Anti-Delta-, and Anti-Omicron-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. InV pre-vaccinated OIPs had higher anti-Wuhan-, anti-Delta-, and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers compared to unvaccinated OIPs. Anti-Wuhan-RBD-IgG titers sharply increased in InV pre-vaccinated OIPs 0-5 days postinfection (DPI), while the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-Delta- and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG were 3.3-fold and 12.0-fold lower. Then, the GMT of anti-Delta- and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG increased to 35 112 and 28 186 during 11-22 DPI, about 2.6-fold and 3.2-fold lower, respectively, than the anti-Wuhan-RBD-IgG titer. The anti-Wuhan-, anti-Delta-, and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers declined over time in HDs after two doses of an InV, with 25.2-fold, 5.6-fold, and 4.5-fold declination, respectively, at 6 months relative to the titers at 14 days after the second vaccination. Anti-Wuhan-, anti-Delta-, and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers elicited by a heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster were significantly higher than those elicited by an InV booster, comparable to those in InV pre-vaccinated OIPs. InV and Ad5-nCoV boosters could improve humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Of these, the Ad5-nCoV booster is a better alternative.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1042784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237497

ABSTRACT

Background: A third mRNA vaccine booster is recommended to improve immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron variants elicited by the third dose of inactivated booster vaccine in KTRs remains unknown. Methods: The blood parameters related to blood cells count, hepatic function, kidney function, heart injury and immunity were explored clinically from laboratory examinations. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgG titer was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immunity was analyzed using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results: The results showed that there were no severe adverse effects and apparent changes of clinical laboratory biomarkers in KTRs and healthy volunteers (HVs) after homologous inactivated vaccine booster. A third dose of inactivated vaccine booster significantly increased anti-Ancestral-spike-trimer-IgG and anti-Ancestral-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers in KTRs and HVs compared with the second vaccination. However, the anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers were significantly lower than anti-Ancestral-RBD-IgG titer in KTRs and HVs after the third dose. Notably, only 25.6% (10/39) and 10.3% (4/39) of KTRs had seropositivity for anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG after booster, which were significantly lower than HVs (anti-Delta-RBD-IgG: 100%, anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG: 77.8%). Ancestral strain nucleocapsid protein and spike specific T cell frequency after booster was not significantly increased in KTRs compared with the second dose, significantly lower than that in HVs. Moreover, 33.3% (12/36), 14.3% (3/21) and 14.3% (3/21) of KTRs were positive for the Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron spike-specific T cells, which were significantly lower than HVs (Ancestral: 80.8%, Delta: 53.8%, and Omicron: 57.7%). Conclusions: A third dose of inactivated booster vaccine may significantly increase humoral immunity against the Ancestral strain in KTRs, while humoral and cellular immunity against the Delta and Omicron variants were still poor in KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology
8.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2208113

ABSTRACT

Background A third mRNA vaccine booster is recommended to improve immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron variants elicited by the third dose of inactivated booster vaccine in KTRs remains unknown. Methods The blood parameters related to blood cells count, hepatic function, kidney function, heart injury and immunity were explored clinically from laboratory examinations. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgG titer was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immunity was analyzed using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results The results showed that there were no severe adverse effects and apparent changes of clinical laboratory biomarkers in KTRs and healthy volunteers (HVs) after homologous inactivated vaccine booster. A third dose of inactivated vaccine booster significantly increased anti-Ancestral-spike-trimer-IgG and anti-Ancestral-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers in KTRs and HVs compared with the second vaccination. However, the anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers were significantly lower than anti-Ancestral-RBD-IgG titer in KTRs and HVs after the third dose. Notably, only 25.6% (10/39) and 10.3% (4/39) of KTRs had seropositivity for anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG after booster, which were significantly lower than HVs (anti-Delta-RBD-IgG: 100%, anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG: 77.8%). Ancestral strain nucleocapsid protein and spike specific T cell frequency after booster was not significantly increased in KTRs compared with the second dose, significantly lower than that in HVs. Moreover, 33.3% (12/36), 14.3% (3/21) and 14.3% (3/21) of KTRs were positive for the Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron spike-specific T cells, which were significantly lower than HVs (Ancestral: 80.8%, Delta: 53.8%, and Omicron: 57.7%). Conclusions A third dose of inactivated booster vaccine may significantly increase humoral immunity against the Ancestral strain in KTRs, while humoral and cellular immunity against the Delta and Omicron variants were still poor in KTRs.

9.
Virol Sin ; 38(2): 233-243, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165946

ABSTRACT

Homologous booster, heterologous booster, and Omicron variants breakthrough infection (OBI) could improve the humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Questions concerning about memory B cells (MBCs) and T cells immunity against Omicron variants, features of long-term immunity, after booster and OBI, needs to be explored. Here, comparative analysis demonstrate antibody and T cell immunity against ancestral strain, Delta and Omicron variants in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (OBIPs) are comparable to that in Ad5-nCoV boosted healthy volunteers (HVs), higher than that in inactivated vaccine (InV) boosted HVs. However, memory B cells (MBCs) immunity against Omicron variants was highest in OBIPs, followed by Ad5-nCoV boosted and InV boosted HVs. OBIPs and Ad5-nCoV boosted HVs have higher classical MBCs and activated MBCs, and lower naïve MBCs and atypical MBCs relative to both vaccine boosted HVs. Collectively, these data indicate Omicron breakthrough infection elicit higher MBCs and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 especially Omicron variants relative to homologous InV booster and heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster.


Subject(s)
Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
10.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(7): 1063-1074, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908191

ABSTRACT

Frequent outbreaks of coronaviruses underscore the need for antivirals and vaccines that can counter a broad range of coronavirus types. We isolated a human antibody named 76E1 from a COVID-19 convalescent patient, and report that it has broad-range neutralizing activity against multiple α- and ß-coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 variants. 76E1 also binds its epitope in peptides from γ- and δ-coronaviruses. 76E1 cross-protects against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 infection in both prophylactic and therapeutic murine animal models. Structural and functional studies revealed that 76E1 targets a unique epitope within the spike protein that comprises the highly conserved S2' site and the fusion peptide. The epitope that 76E1 binds is partially buried in the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer in the prefusion state, but is exposed when the spike protein binds to ACE2. This observation suggests that 76E1 binds to the epitope at an intermediate state of the spike trimer during the transition from the prefusion to the postfusion state, thereby blocking membrane fusion and viral entry. We hope that the identification of this crucial epitope, which can be recognized by 76E1, will guide epitope-based design of next-generation pan-coronavirus vaccines and antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 139, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815514

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant shows substantial resistance to neutralization by infection- and vaccination-induced antibodies, highlighting the demands for research on the continuing discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Here, we developed a panel of bnAbs against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) elicited by vaccination of adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV). We also investigated the human longitudinal antibody responses following vaccination and demonstrated how the bnAbs evolved over time. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), named ZWD12, exhibited potent and broad neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa, Delta, and Omicron by blocking the spike protein binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and provided complete protection in the challenged prophylactic and therapeutic K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model. We defined the ZWD12 epitope by determining its structure in complex with the spike (S) protein via cryo-electron microscopy. This study affords the potential to develop broadly therapeutic mAb drugs and suggests that the RBD epitope bound by ZWD12 is a rational target for the design of a broad spectrum of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Envelope Proteins
13.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 36, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805604

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) has aroused concerns over their increased infectivity and transmissibility, as well as decreased sensitivity to SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Such exigencies call for the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines or inhibitors to combat the circulating SARS-CoV-2 NAb-escape variants and other sarbecoviruses. In this study, we isolated a broadly NAb against sarbecoviruses named GW01 from a donor who recovered from COVID-19. Cryo-EM structure and competition assay revealed that GW01 targets a highly conserved epitope in a wide spectrum of different sarbecoviruses. However, we found that GW01, the well-known sarbecovirus NAb S309, and the potent SARS-CoV-2 NAbs CC12.1 and REGN10989 only neutralize about 90% of the 56 tested currently circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 including Omicron. Therefore, to improve efficacy, we engineered an IgG-like bispecific antibody GW01-REGN10989 (G9) consisting of single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) of GW01 and REGN10989. We found that G9 could neutralize 100% of NAb-escape mutants (23 out of 23), including Omicron variant, with a geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentration of 8.8 ng/mL. G9 showed prophylactic and therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection of both the lung and brain in hACE2-transgenic mice. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses revealed that GW01 and REGN10989 bind to the receptor-binding domain in different epitopes and from different directions. Since G9 targets the epitopes for both GW01 and REGN10989, it was effective against variants with resistance to GW01 or REGN10989 alone and other NAb-escape variants. Therefore, this novel bispecific antibody, G9, is a strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2, NAb-escape variants, and other sarbecoviruses that may cause future emerging or re-emerging coronavirus diseases.

14.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 74: 102388, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796139

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as a public health crisis and led to tremendous economic devastation. The spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for virus entry, representing the initial step of viral infection. S is one of the major targets for development of the antiviral drugs, antibodies, and vaccines. ACE2 is a peptidase that plays a physiologically important role in the renin-angiotensin system. Concurrently, it also forms dimer of heterodimer with the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 to regulate intestinal amino acid metabolism. The symptoms of COVID-19 are closely correlated with the physiological functions of ACE2. In this review, we summarize the functional and structural studies on ACE2, B0AT1, and their complex with S of SARS-CoV-2, providing insights into the various symptoms caused by viral infection and the development of therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(7): e39, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594198

ABSTRACT

GWASs have identified numerous genetic variants associated with a wide variety of diseases, yet despite the wide availability of genetic testing the insights that would enhance the interpretability of these results are not widely available to members of the public. As a proof of concept and demonstration of technological feasibility, we developed PAGEANT (Personal Access to Genome & Analysis of Natural Traits), usable through Graphical User Interface or command line-based version, aiming to serve as a protocol and prototype that guides the overarching design of genetic reporting tools. PAGEANT is structured across five core modules, summarized by five Qs: (i) quality assurance of the genetic data; (ii) qualitative assessment of genetic characteristics; (iii) quantitative assessment of health risk susceptibility based on polygenic risk scores and population reference; (iv) query of third-party variant databases (e.g. ClinVAR and PharmGKB) and (v) quick Response code of genetic variants of interest. Literature review was conducted to compare PAGEANT with academic and industry tools. For 2504 genomes made publicly available through the 1000 Genomes Project, we derived their genomic characteristics for a suite of qualitative and quantitative traits. One exemplary trait is susceptibility to COVID-19, based on the most up-to-date scientific findings reported.


Subject(s)
Genome, Human , Software , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Humans
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 315, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442755

ABSTRACT

The evolution of coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, makes broad-spectrum coronavirus preventional or therapeutical strategies highly sought after. Here we report a human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-targeting monoclonal antibody, 3E8, blocked the S1-subunits and pseudo-typed virus constructs from multiple coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 mutant variants (SARS-CoV-2-D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.1, and P.1), SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63, without markedly affecting the physiological activities of ACE2 or causing severe toxicity in ACE2 "knock-in" mice. 3E8 also blocked live SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in a prophylactic mouse model of COVID-19. Cryo-EM and "alanine walk" studies revealed the key binding residues on ACE2 interacting with the CDR3 domain of 3E8 heavy chain. Although full evaluation of safety in non-human primates is necessary before clinical development of 3E8, we provided a potentially potent and "broad-spectrum" management strategy against all coronaviruses that utilize ACE2 as entry receptors and disclosed an anti-coronavirus epitope on human ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Vero Cells
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 664619, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325524

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have highlighted observations regarding re-tested positivity (RP) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in discharged COVID-19 patients, however, the immune mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 RNA RP in immunocompetent patients remain elusive. Herein, we describe the case of an immunocompetent COVID-19 patient with moderate symptoms who was twice re-tested as positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and the period between first and third viral RNA positivity was 95 days, longer than previously reported (18-25 days). The chest computed tomography findings, plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titer, and whole blood transcriptic characteristics in the viral RNA RP patient and other COVID-19 patients were analyzed. During the SARS-CoV-2 RNA RP period, new lung lesions were observed. The COVID-19 patient with viral RNA RP had delayed seroconversion of anti-spike/receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgA antibody and NAbs and were accompanied with disappearance of the lung lesions. Further experimental data validated that NAbs titer was significantly associated with anti-RBD IgA and IgG, and anti-spike IgG. The RP patient had lower interferon-, T cells- and B cell-related genes expression than non-RP patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms, and displayed lower cytokines and chemokines gene expression than severe patients. Interestingly, the RP patient had low expression of antigen presentation-related genes and low B cell counts which might have contributed to the delayed anti-RBD specific antibody and low CD8+ cell response. Collectively, delayed antigen presentation-related gene expression was found related to delayed adaptive immune response and contributed to the SARS-CoV-2 RNA RP in this described immunocompetent patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1304-1319.e9, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246001

ABSTRACT

Despite mounting evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engagement with immune cells, most express little, if any, of the canonical receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, using a myeloid cell receptor-focused ectopic expression screen, we identified several C-type lectins (DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, LSECtin, ASGR1, and CLEC10A) and Tweety family member 2 (TTYH2) as glycan-dependent binding partners of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Except for TTYH2, these molecules primarily interacted with spike via regions outside of the receptor-binding domain. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of pulmonary cells from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicated predominant expression of these molecules on myeloid cells. Although these receptors do not support active replication of SARS-CoV-2, their engagement with the virus induced robust proinflammatory responses in myeloid cells that correlated with COVID-19 severity. We also generated a bispecific anti-spike nanobody that not only blocked ACE2-mediated infection but also the myeloid receptor-mediated proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2-myeloid receptor interactions promote immune hyperactivation, which represents potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL