Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103904, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nearly 4 billion doses of the BNT162b2-mRNA and CoronaVac-inactivated vaccines have been administrated globally, yet different vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) remain incompletely investigated. METHODS: We compare the immunogenicity and durability of these two vaccines among fully vaccinated Hong Kong people. FINDINGS: Standard BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccinations were tolerated and induced neutralizing antibody (NAb) (100% and 85.7%) and spike-specific CD4 T cell responses (96.7% and 82.1%), respectively. The geometric mean NAb IC50 and median frequencies of reactive CD4 subsets were consistently lower among CoronaVac-vaccinees than BNT162b2-vaccinees. CoronaVac did not induce measurable levels of nucleocapsid protein-specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ T or IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells compared with unvaccinated. Against VOCs, NAb response rates and geometric mean IC50 titers against B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) were significantly lower for CoronaVac (50%, 23.2 and 7.1%, <20) than BNT162b2 (94.1%, 131 and 58.8%, 35.0), respectively. Three months after vaccinations, NAbs to VOCs dropped near to detection limit, along with waning memory T cell responses, mainly among CoronaVac-vaccinees. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that vaccinees especially CoronaVac-vaccinees with significantly reduced NAbs may probably face higher risk to pandemic VOCs breakthrough infection. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund (C7156-20GF and C1134-20GF); the Wellcome Trust (P86433); the National Program on Key Research Project of China (Grant 2020YFC0860600, 2020YFA0707500 and 2020YFA0707504); Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (JSGG20200225151410198 and JCYJ20210324131610027); HKU Development Fund and LKS Faculty of Medicine Matching Fund to AIDS Institute; Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Fund, Innovation and Technology Commission and generous donation from the Friends of Hope Education Fund. Z.C.'s team was also partly supported by the Theme-Based Research Scheme (T11-706/18-N).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336861

ABSTRACT

Summary The ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 infections in Hong Kong, the world model city of universal masking, has resulted in a major public health crisis. In this study, we investigate public servants who had been vaccinated with two dose (82.7%) or three dose (14%) of either CoronaVac (CorV) or BNT162b2 (BNT). During the BA.2 outbreak, 29.3% vaccinees were infected. Three-dose vaccination provided protection with lower incidence rates of breakthrough infections (2×BNT 49.2% vs 3×BNT 16.6%, p <0.0001;2×CorV 48.6% vs 3×CoV 20.6%, p =0.003). The third heterologous vaccination showed the lowest incidence (2×CorV+1×BNT 6.3%). Although BA.2 conferred the highest neutralization resistance compared with variants of concern tested, the third dose vaccination-activated spike-specific memory B and Omicron cross-reactive T cell responses contributed to reduced frequencies of breakthrough infection and disease severity. Our results have implications to timely boost vaccination and immune responses likely required for vaccine-mediated protection against Omicron BA.2 pandemic.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336250

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 infections in Hong Kong, the world model city of universal masking, has resulted in a major public health crisis. Although the third heterologous BNT162b2 vaccination after 2-dose CoronaVac generated higher neutralizing antibody responses than the third homologous CoronaVac booster, vaccine efficacy and corelates of immune protection against the major circulating Omicron BA.2 remains to be investigated. Methods: : We investigated the vaccine efficacy against the Omicron BA.2 breakthrough infection among 481 public servants who had been received with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines including two-dose BNT162b2 (2×BNT, n=169), three-dose BNT162b2 (2×BNT, n=175), two-dose CoronaVac (2×CorV, n=37), three-dose CoronaVac (3×CorV, n=68) and third-dose BNT162b2 following 2×CorV (2×CorV+1BNT, n=32). Humoral and cellular immune responses after three-dose vaccination were characterized and correlated with clinical characteristics of BA.2 infection. Results: : During the BA.2 outbreak, 29.3% vaccinees were infected. Three-dose vaccination provided protection with lower incidence rates of breakthrough infections (2×BNT 49.2% vs 3×BNT 16.6%, p<0.0001;2×CorV 48.6% vs 3×CoV 20.6%, p=0.003). The third heterologous vaccination showed the lowest incidence (2×CorV+1×BNT 6.3%). Although BA.2 conferred the highest neutralization resistance compared with variants of concern tested, the third dose vaccination-activated spike-specific memory B and Omicron cross-reactive T cell responses contributed to reduced frequencies of breakthrough infection and disease severity. Conclusions: : Our results have implications to timely boost vaccination and immune responses likely required for vaccine-mediated protection against Omicron BA.2 pandemic.

4.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(5): 588-601, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830046

ABSTRACT

Live attenuated vaccines might elicit mucosal and sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 that the existing mRNA, adenoviral vector and inactivated vaccines fail to induce. Here, we describe a candidate live attenuated vaccine strain of SARS-CoV-2 in which the NSP16 gene, which encodes 2'-O-methyltransferase, is catalytically disrupted by a point mutation. This virus, designated d16, was severely attenuated in hamsters and transgenic mice, causing only asymptomatic and nonpathogenic infection. A single dose of d16 administered intranasally resulted in sterilizing immunity in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of hamsters, thus preventing viral spread in a contact-based transmission model. It also robustly stimulated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, thus conferring full protection against lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in a transgenic mouse model. The neutralizing antibodies elicited by d16 effectively cross-reacted with several SARS-CoV-2 variants. Secretory immunoglobulin A was detected in the blood and nasal wash of vaccinated mice. Our work provides proof-of-principle evidence for harnessing NSP16-deficient SARS-CoV-2 for the development of live attenuated vaccines and paves the way for further preclinical studies of d16 as a prototypic vaccine strain, to which new features might be introduced to improve safety, transmissibility, immunogenicity and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(6): 887-895.e4, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763630

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant harbors more than 30 mutations in the spike protein, leading to immune evasion from many therapeutic neutralizing antibodies. We reveal that a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-targeting monoclonal antibody, 35B5, exhibits potent neutralizing efficacy to Omicron. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the extracellular domain trimer of Omicron spike with 35B5 Fab reveal that Omicron spike exhibits tight trimeric packing and high thermostability, as well as significant antigenic shifts and structural changes, within the RBD, N-terminal domain (NTD), and subdomains 1 and 2. However, these changes do not affect targeting of the invariant 35B5 epitope. 35B5 potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants by causing significant conformational changes within a conserved N-glycan switch that controls the transition of RBD from the "down" state to the "up" state, which allows recognition of the host entry receptor ACE2. This mode of action and potent neutralizing capacity of 35B5 indicate its potential therapeutic application for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325084

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a global priority. Here, we present three chimpanzee adenovirus vaccines that express either the full-length spike (ChAdTS-S), or receptor-binding domain (RBD) with two different signal sequences (ChAdTS-RBD and ChAdTS-RBDs). Single-dose intranasal or intramuscular immunization induced robust and sustained neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice, with ChAdTS-S being superior to ChAdTS-RBD and ChAdTS-RBDs. Intranasal immunization appeared to induce a predominately Th2-based response whereas intramuscular administration resulted in a predominately Th1 response. The neutralizing activity against several circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants remained unaffected for mice serum but reduced for rhesus macaque serum. Importantly, immunization with ChAdTS-S via either route induced protective immunity against high-dose challenge with live SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Vaccinated macaques demonstrated dramatic decreases in viral RNA in the lungs and nasal swabs, as well as reduced lung pathology compared to the control animals. Similar protective effects were also found in a golden Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, these results confirm that ChAdTS-S can induce protective immune responses in experimental animals, meriting further development toward a human vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662583

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in rapid T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment of T cells. The underlying mechanism, however, remains incompletely understood. In this study, we focused on characterizing the phenotype and kinetics of T-cell subsets with mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) by multicolor flow cytometry and investigating the association between MD and T-cell functionality. While 73.9% of study subjects displayed clinical lymphocytopenia upon hospital admission, a significant reduction of CD4 or CD8 T-cell frequency was found in all asymptomatic, symptomatic, and convalescent cases. CD4 and CD8 T cells with increased MD were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients within the first week of symptom onset. Lower proportion of memory CD8 T cell with MD was found in severe patients than in mild ones at the stage of disease progression. Critically, the frequency of T cells with MD in symptomatic patients was preferentially associated with CD4 T-cell loss and CD8 T-cell hyperactivation, respectively. Patients bearing effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells with the phenotype of high MD exhibited poorer T-cell responses upon either phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin or SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation than those with low MD. Our findings demonstrated an MD-associated mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-induced T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment during the acute phase of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/etiology , Mitochondrial Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Ionomycin/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/immunology , Mitochondrial Diseases/immunology , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Phosphorylcholine/therapeutic use , Polymethacrylic Acids/therapeutic use
9.
Immunotherapy advances ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624261

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading worldwide since December 2019, resulting in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic with 237 million infections and 4.8 million deaths by 11 October 2021. While there are great efforts of global vaccination, ending this pandemic has been challenged by issues of exceptionally high viral transmissibility, re-infection, vaccine-breakthrough infection, and immune escape variants of concerns. Besides the record-breaking speed of vaccine research and development, antiviral drugs including SARS-CoV-2-specific human neutralizing antibodies (HuNAbs) have been actively explored for passive immunization. In support of HuNAb-based immunotherapy, passive immunization using convalescent patients’ plasma have generated promising evidence on clinical benefits for both mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Since the source of convalescent plasma is limited, the discovery of broadly reactive HuNAbs may have significant impacts on the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, therefore, we discuss the current technologies of gene cloning, modes of action, in vitro and in vivo potency and breadth, and clinical development for potent SARS-CoV-2-specific HuNAbs.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103762, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines in emergency use are efficacious against COVID-19, yet vaccine-induced prevention against nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection remains suboptimal. METHODS: Since mucosal immunity is critical for nasal prevention, we investigated the efficacy of an intramuscular PD1-based receptor-binding domain (RBD) DNA vaccine (PD1-RBD-DNA) and intranasal live attenuated influenza-based vaccines (LAIV-CA4-RBD and LAIV-HK68-RBD) against SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Substantially higher systemic and mucosal immune responses, including bronchoalveolar lavage IgA/IgG and lung polyfunctional memory CD8 T cells, were induced by the heterologous PD1-RBD-DNA/LAIV-HK68-RBD as compared with other regimens. When vaccinated animals were challenged at the memory phase, prevention of robust SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasal turbinate was achieved primarily by the heterologous regimen besides consistent protection in lungs. The regimen-induced antibodies cross-neutralized variants of concerns. Furthermore, LAIV-CA4-RBD could boost the BioNTech vaccine for improved mucosal immunity. INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrated that intranasal influenza-based boost vaccination induces mucosal and systemic immunity for effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention in both upper and lower respiratory systems. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund, General Research Fund and Health and Medical Research Fund in Hong Kong; Outbreak Response to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; Shenzhen Science and Technology Program and matching fund from Shenzhen Immuno Cure BioTech Limited; the Health@InnoHK, Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong; National Program on Key Research Project of China; donations from the Friends of Hope Education Fund; the Theme-Based Research Scheme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Influenza Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vero Cells
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2790, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387341

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is of zoonotic origin and contains a PRRA polybasic cleavage motif which is considered critical for efficient infection and transmission in humans. We previously reported on a panel of attenuated SARS-CoV-2 variants with deletions at the S1/S2 junction of the spike protein. Here, we characterize pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and protective ability of a further cell-adapted SARS-CoV-2 variant, Ca-DelMut, in in vitro and in vivo systems. Ca-DelMut replicates more efficiently than wild type or parental virus in Vero E6 cells, but causes no apparent disease in hamsters, despite replicating in respiratory tissues. Unlike wild type virus, Ca-DelMut causes no obvious pathological changes and does not induce elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, but still triggers a strong neutralizing antibody and T cell response in hamsters and mice. Ca-DelMut immunized hamsters challenged with wild type SARS-CoV-2 are fully protected, with little sign of virus replication in the upper or lower respiratory tract, demonstrating sterilizing immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virulence/genetics , Virulence/immunology
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311376

ABSTRACT

The development of a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a global priority. Here, we aim to develop novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on a derivative of less commonly used rare adenovirus serotype AdC68 vector. Three vaccine candidates were constructed expressing either the full-length spike (AdC68-19S) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) with two different signal sequences (AdC68-19RBD and AdC68-19RBDs). Single-dose intramuscular immunization induced robust and sustained binding and neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice up to 40 weeks after immunization, with AdC68-19S being superior to AdC68-19RBD and AdC68-19RBDs. Importantly, immunization with AdC68-19S induced protective immunity against high-dose challenge with live SARS-CoV-2 in a golden Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccinated animals demonstrated dramatic decreases in viral RNA copies and infectious virus in the lungs, as well as reduced lung pathology compared to the control animals. Similar protective effects were also found in rhesus macaques. Taken together, these results confirm that AdC68-19S can induce protective immune responses in experimental animals, meriting further development toward a human vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pan troglodytes , RNA, Viral/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transfection , Treatment Outcome
13.
Cell ; 184(8): 2212-2228.e12, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116430

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute respiratory disease and multiorgan failure. Finding human host factors that are essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection could facilitate the formulation of treatment strategies. Using a human kidney cell line-HK-2-that is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen and identified virus dependency factors (VDFs), which play regulatory roles in biological pathways linked to clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found a role for a secretory form of SARS-CoV-2 receptor, soluble angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (sACE2), in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further investigation revealed that SARS-CoV-2 exploits receptor-mediated endocytosis through interaction between its spike with sACE2 or sACE2-vasopressin via AT1 or AVPR1B, respectively. Our identification of VDFs and the regulatory effect of sACE2 on SARS-CoV-2 infection shed insight into pathogenesis and cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 as well as potential treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vasopressins/immunology , Virus Internalization , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Protein Binding
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(4): 551-563.e5, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101147

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by a burst in the upper respiratory portal for high transmissibility. To determine human neutralizing antibodies (HuNAbs) for entry protection, we tested three potent HuNAbs (IC50 range, 0.0007-0.35 µg/mL) against live SARS-CoV-2 infection in the golden Syrian hamster model. These HuNAbs inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection by competing with human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 for binding to the viral receptor binding domain (RBD). Prophylactic intraperitoneal or intranasal injection of individual HuNAb or DNA vaccination significantly reduces infection in the lungs but not in the nasal turbinates of hamsters intranasally challenged with SARS-CoV-2. Although postchallenge HuNAb therapy suppresses viral loads and lung damage, robust infection is observed in nasal turbinates treated within 1-3 days. Our findings demonstrate that systemic HuNAb suppresses SARS-CoV-2 replication and injury in lungs; however, robust viral infection in nasal turbinate may outcompete the antibody with significant implications to subprotection, reinfection, and vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Turbinates/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Viral Load
17.
Immunity ; 53(4): 864-877.e5, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693493

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in millions of infections, yet the role of host immune responses in early COVID-19 pathogenesis remains unclear. By investigating 17 acute and 24 convalescent patients, we found that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in broad immune cell reduction including T, natural killer, monocyte, and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs were significantly reduced with functional impairment, and ratios of conventional DCs to plasmacytoid DCs were increased among acute severe patients. Besides lymphocytopenia, although neutralizing antibodies were rapidly and abundantly generated in patients, there were delayed receptor binding domain (RBD)- and nucleocapsid protein (NP)-specific T cell responses during the first 3 weeks after symptoms onset. Moreover, acute RBD- and NP-specific T cell responses included relatively more CD4 T cells than CD8 T cells. Our findings provided evidence that impaired DCs, together with timely inverted strong antibody but weak CD8 T cell responses, could contribute to acute COVID-19 pathogenesis and have implications for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Hypertension/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/virology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1664-1670, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630769

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a wide spectrum of disease severity from mild upper respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure. The role of neutralizing antibody (NAb) response in disease progression remains elusive. This study determined the seroprevalence of 733 non-COVID-19 individuals from April 2018 to February 2020 in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and compared the neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses of eight COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with those of 42 patients not admitted to the ICU. We found that NAb against SARS-CoV-2 was not detectable in any of the anonymous serum specimens from the 733 non-COVID-19 individuals. The peak serum geometric mean NAb titer was significantly higher among the eight ICU patients than the 42 non-ICU patients (7280 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1468-36099]) vs (671 [95% CI, 368-1223]). Furthermore, NAb titer increased significantly at earlier infection stages among ICU patients than among non-ICU patients. The median number of days to reach the peak Nab titers after symptoms onset was shorter among the ICU patients (17.6) than that of the non-ICU patients (20.1). Multivariate analysis showed that oxygen requirement and fever during admission were the only clinical factors independently associated with higher NAb titers. Our data suggested that SARS-CoV-2 was unlikely to have silently spread before the COVID-19 emergence in Hong Kong. ICU patients had an accelerated and augmented NAb response compared to non-ICU patients, which was associated with disease severity. Further studies are required to understand the relationship between high NAb response and disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL