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1.
Health Place ; 83: 103055, 2023 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237437

ABSTRACT

Immigrants (foreign-born United States [US] citizens) generally have lower utilization of mental health services compared with US-born counterparts, but extant studies have not investigated the disparities in mental health service utilization within immigrant population nationwide over time. Leveraging mobile phone-based visitation data, we estimated the average mental health utilization in contiguous US census tracts in 2019, 2020, and 2021 by employing two novel outcomes: mental health service visits and visit-to-need ratio (i.e., visits per depression diagnosis). We then investigated the tract-level association between immigration concentration and mental health service utilization outcomes using mixed-effects linear regression models that accounted for spatial lag effects, time effects, and covariates. This study reveals spatial and temporal disparities in mental health service visits and visit-to-need ratio among different levels of immigrant concentration across the US, both before and during the pandemic. Tracts with higher concentrations of Latin American immigrants showed significantly lower mental health service utilization visits and visit-to-need ratio, particularly in the US West. Tracts with Asian and European immigrant concentrations experienced a more significant decline in mental health service utilization visits and visit-to-need ratio from 2019 to 2020 than those with Latin American concentrations. Meanwhile, in 2021, tracts with Latin American concentrations had the least recovery in mental health service utilization visits. The study highlights the potential of geospatial big data for mental health research and informs public health interventions.

2.
Appl Geogr ; 143: 102702, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797188

ABSTRACT

Risk assessment of the intra-city spatio-temporal spreading of COVID-19 is important for providing location-based precise intervention measures, especially when the epidemic occurred in the densely populated and high mobile public places. The individual-based simulation has been proven to be an effective method for the risk assessment. However, the acquisition of individual-level mobility data is limited. This study used publicly available datasets to approximate dynamic intra-city travel flows by a spatio-temporal gravity model. On this basis, an individual-based epidemic model integrating agent-based model with the susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) model was proposed and the intra-city spatio-temporal spreading process of COVID-19 in eleven public places in Guangzhou China were explored. The results indicated that the accuracy of dynamic intra-city travel flows estimated by available big data and gravity model is acceptable. The spatio-temporal simulation method well presented the process of COVID-19 epidemic. Four kinds of spatial-temporal transmission patterns were identified and the pattern was highly dependent on the urban spatial structure and location. It indicated that location-based precise intervention measures should be implemented according to different regions. The approach of this research can be used by policy-makers to make rapid and accurate risk assessments and to implement intervention measures ahead of epidemic outbreaks.

3.
Geohealth ; 5(6): e2021GH000427, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243277

ABSTRACT

Optimizing allocation of vaccine, a highly scarce resource, is an urgent and critical issue during fighting against on-going COVID-19 epidemic. Prior studies suggested that vaccine should be prioritized by age and risk groups, but few of them have considered the spatial prioritization strategy. This study aims to examine the spatial heterogeneity of COVID-19 transmission in the city naturally, and optimize vaccine distribution strategies considering spatial prioritization. We proposed an integrated spatial model of agent-based model and SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered). It simulated spatiotemporal process of COVID-19 transmission in a realistic urban context. Individual movements were represented by trajectories of 8,146 randomly sampled mobile phone users on December 28, 2016 in Guangzhou, China, 90% of whom aged 18-60. Simulations were conducted under seven scenarios. Scenarios 1 and 2 examined natural spreading process of COVID-19 and its final state of herd immunity. Scenarios 3-6 applied four vaccination strategies (random strategy, age strategy, space strategy, and space & age strategy), and identified the optimal vaccine strategy. Scenario 7 assessed the most appropriate vaccine coverage. The results demonstrates herd immunity is heterogeneously distributed in space, thus, vaccine intervention strategies should be spatialized. Among four strategies, space & age strategy is substantially most efficient, with 7.7% fewer in attack rate and 44 days longer than random strategy under 20% vaccine uptake. Space & age strategy requires 30%-40% vaccine coverage to control the epidemic, while the coverage for a random strategy is 60%-70% as a comparison. The application of our research would greatly improves the effectiveness of the vaccine usability.

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