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1.
Innovation (N Y) ; 3(1): 100181, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595417

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19 convalescents can build effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity, but it remains unclear how long it can maintain and how efficiently it can prevent the reinfection of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we tested the sera from 248 COVID-19 convalescents around 1 year post-infection in Wuhan, the earliest known epicenter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) was well maintained in most patients and potently neutralizes the infection of the original strain and the B.1.1.7 variant. However, varying degrees of immune escape was observed on the other tested variants in a patient-specific manner, with individuals showing remarkably broad neutralization potency. The immune escape can be largely attributed to several critical spike mutations. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can elicit long-lasting immunity but this is escaped by the emerging variants.

2.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 175: 216-225, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377715

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Quantification of blood nitrite and nitrate, two relatively stable metabolites of NO (generally as NOx), has been acknowledged, in part, representing NO bioactivity. Dysregulation of NOx had been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected populations, but whether patients recovered from COVID-19 disease present with restored NOx is unknown. In this study, serum NO2- and NO3- were quantified and analyzed among 109 recovered adults in comparison to a control group of 166 uninfected adults. Nitrite or nitrate levels were not significantly different among mild-, common-, severe- and critical-type patients. However, these recovered patients had dramatically lower NO2- and NO2-/NO3- than the uninfected group (p < 0.0001), with significantly higher NO3- levels (p = 0.0023) than the uninfected group. Nitrate and nitrite/nitrate were positively and negatively correlated with patient age, respectively, with age 65 being a turning point among recovered patients. These results indicate that low NO2-, low NO2-/NO3- and high NO3- may be potential biomarkers of long-term poor or irreversible outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection. It suggests that NO metabolites might serve as a predictor to track the health status of recovered COVID-19 patients, highlighting the need to elucidate the role of NO after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nitrites , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Humans , Nitrates , Nitric Oxide , SARS-CoV-2
3.
N Engl J Med ; 382(13): 1199-1207, 2020 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-57

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial cases of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and January 2020. We analyzed data on the first 425 confirmed cases in Wuhan to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of NCIP. METHODS: We collected information on demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines of laboratory-confirmed cases of NCIP that had been reported by January 22, 2020. We described characteristics of the cases and estimated the key epidemiologic time-delay distributions. In the early period of exponential growth, we estimated the epidemic doubling time and the basic reproductive number. RESULTS: Among the first 425 patients with confirmed NCIP, the median age was 59 years and 56% were male. The majority of cases (55%) with onset before January 1, 2020, were linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, as compared with 8.6% of the subsequent cases. The mean incubation period was 5.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 7.0), with the 95th percentile of the distribution at 12.5 days. In its early stages, the epidemic doubled in size every 7.4 days. With a mean serial interval of 7.5 days (95% CI, 5.3 to 19), the basic reproductive number was estimated to be 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this information, there is evidence that human-to-human transmission has occurred among close contacts since the middle of December 2019. Considerable efforts to reduce transmission will be required to control outbreaks if similar dynamics apply elsewhere. Measures to prevent or reduce transmission should be implemented in populations at risk. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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