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2.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(2):160-166, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1855880

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the incidence, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in China in 2020.

3.
Atmospheric Environment ; : 119192, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1850685

ABSTRACT

The Chinese Spring Festival (CSF) is the most solemn traditional festival in China, and the substantial changes in anthropogenic activities in megacities provide a unique natural experiment to assess the influence of short-term emission changes on air quality. Here we applied a machine learning based random forest algorithm to six-year aerosol composition measurements in urban Beijing during the CSFs of 2012–2020 to quantify the relative contributions of meteorology and emission changes to air quality. Our results demonstrate large variabilities of air pollutants during the CSF due to the meteorological changes and holiday effect. By removing the meteorological effect, we found that the reduced emissions during CSF caused an average decrease of 5.1% for non-refractory PM2.5 with chloride and primary organic aerosol being the largest (8.8–18.7%) while the changes in secondary species were small. The COVID-19 lockdown during 2020 led to additional reductions of primary species by 16.3–36.8%, yet increases in nitrate and secondary organic aerosol due to enhanced secondary production. Our study has a significant implication that reducing local traffic and cooking emissions is far from enough for mitigating air pollution in winter in megacities due to the nonlinear effect of secondary production and regional transport. A synergetic control of multiple precursors, e.g., NOx and ammonia, is of great importance to reduce secondary aerosol and improve air quality.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 809033, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in an endothelial dysfunction in acute phase. However, information on the late vascular consequences of COVID-19 is limited. METHODS: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) examination were performed, and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed in 86 survivors of COVID-19 for 327 days (IQR 318-337 days) after recovery. Comparisons were made with 28 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and 30 risk factor-matched patients. RESULTS: Brachial artery FMD was significantly lower in the survivors of COVID-19 than in the healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls [median (IQR) 7.7 (5.1-10.7)% for healthy controls, 6.9 (5.5-9.4)% for risk factor-matched controls, and 3.5(2.2-4.6)% for COVID-19, respectively, p < 0.001]. The FMD was lower in 25 patients with elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [2.7(1.2-3.9)] than in 61 patients without elevated TNF-α [3.8(2.6-5.3), p = 0.012]. Furthermore, FMD was inversely correlated with serum concentration of TNF-α (r = -0.237, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Survivors of COVID-19 have a reduced brachial artery FMD, which is inversely correlated with increased serum concentration of TNF-α. Prospective studies on the association of endothelial dysfunction with long-term cardiovascular outcomes, especially the early onset of atherosclerosis, are warranted in survivors of COVID-19.

7.
Am J Chin Med ; 50(2): 351-369, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723921

ABSTRACT

The development of anti-COVID-19 drugs has become the top priority since the outbreak of the epidemic, and Traditional Chinese medicine plays an important role in reducing mortality. Here, hesperidin and its glycosylation product, glucosyl hesperidin were selected to determine their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 due to their structural specificity as reported. To be specific, their binding ability with ACE2, M, S, RBD and N proteins were verified with both in silico and wet lab methods, i.e., molecular docking and binding affinity tests, including biolayer interferometry assay (BLI) and isothermal titration calorimetry assay (ITC). Moreover, systematic pharmacological analysis was conducted to reveal their pharmacological mechanism in treating COVID-19. Finally, their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was determined in vitro in a biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratory. The results demonstrated their outstanding binding affinity with ACE2, M, S and RBD proteins, while showed barely unobserved binding with N protein, indicating their key roles in influencing the invasion and early replication phase of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, both hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin were shown to have a great impact on immune, inflammation and virus infection induced by COVID-19 according to the systematic pharmacological analysis. Moreover, the IC50s of hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin against SARS-CoV-2 were further determined (51.5 [Formula: see text]M and 5.5 mM, respectively) with cell-based in vitro assay, suggesting their great anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. All in all, present research was the first to verify the binding ability of hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin with SARS-CoV-2 proteins with both in silico and wet-lab methods and proposed the possibility of applying hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hesperidin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Glucosides , Hesperidin/analogs & derivatives , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 567-574, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia is commonly encountered in cancer patients. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim), a cytokine that initiates proliferation and differentiation of mature granulocytes, is widely given to oncology patients to counteract neutropenia, reducing susceptibility to infection. However, the clinical impact of neutropenia and G-CSF use in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. METHODS: An observational cohort of 379 actively treated cancer patients with COVID-19 was assembled to investigate links between concurrent neutropenia and G-CSF administration on COVID-19-associated respiratory failure and death. These factors were encoded as time-dependent predictors in an extended Cox model, controlling for age and underlying cancer diagnosis. To determine whether the degree of granulocyte response to G-CSF affected outcomes, the degree of response to G-CSF, based on rise in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 24 hours after growth factor administration, was also incorporated into a similar Cox model. RESULTS: In the setting of active COVID-19 infection, outpatient receipt of G-CSF led to an increased number of hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-10.0, P value: .017). Furthermore, among inpatients, G-CSF administration was associated with increased need for high levels of oxygen supplementation and death (HR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.19-10.2, P value: .024). This effect was predominantly seen in patients that exhibited a high response to G-CSF based on their ANC increase post-G-CSF administration (HR: 7.78, 95% CI: 2.05-27.9, P value: .004). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risks versus benefits of G-CSF administration should be considered in neutropenic cancer patients with COVID-19, because G-CSF administration may lead to worsening clinical and respiratory status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Filgrastim/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 17, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692628

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlights the need of developing vaccines with broad protection. Here, according to the immune-escape capability and evolutionary convergence, the representative SARS-CoV-2 strains carrying the hotspot mutations were selected. Then, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mutI-tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, which combined heterologous RBDs from different representative strains into a hybrid immunogen and integrated immune-escape hotspots into a single antigen. When compared with a homo-tri-RBD vaccine candidate in the stage of phase II trial, of which all three RBDs are derived from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, mutI-tri-RBD induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta and Beta variants, and maintained a similar immune response against the prototype strain. Pseudo-virus neutralization assay demonstrated that mutI-tri-RBD also induced broadly strong neutralizing activities against all tested 23 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The in vivo protective capability of mutI-tri-RBD was further validated in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged by the live virus, and the results showed that mutI-tri-RBD provided potent protection not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against the Delta and Beta variants.

10.
Endosc Int Open ; 10(2): E163-E170, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692504

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims Endoscopists have been at increased risk because of their direct contact with patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. For patients, being diagnosed with and monitored for gastrointestinal cancer and digestive diseases in timely fashion has been challenging, given pandemic-related adjustments in endoscopy departments. We developed a novel noncontact magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy (ncMCE) system in our medical center. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of ncMCE for gastric examination. Patients and methods Patients were randomly assigned to groups that received ncMCE or MCE in a 1:1 ratio from March 26, 2020 to April 26, 2020. Primary endpoints were feasibility assessed by completion rate (CR) and safety based on the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) including infection. Secondary endpoints included maneuverability of endoscopists, pre-procedure perception and post-procedure satisfaction of patients, gastric examination time (GET), and diagnostic yield (DY). Results Forty patients were enrolled with 100 % CR in both groups without any AEs. Neither the endoscopist nor the patients were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 14 days after gastric examination. There were no significant differences in maneuverability (19.3 vs. 20.0, P  = 0.179), pre-procedure perception (9 vs. 9, P  = 0.626) and post-procedure satisfaction (45 vs. 44, P =  0.999), ord DY (20 % vs. 30 %, P  = 0.465). Conclusions ncMCE is a feasible and safe method of gastric examination, which has the potential to protect both medical staff and patients from COVID-19 infection while providing serving as an essential endoscopy service.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315645

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out earlier in Wuhan, and the plague spread rapidly from multiple resources of different countries. COVID-19 has caused millions of diagnosed people worldwide, causing many deaths and posing a severe threat to public health in countries around the world. Facing this urgent situation, in-depth research on the emerging SARS-CoV-2 to understand the related pathogenic mechanism and epidemiological characteristics is urgent. This type of activity would be useful to determine its origin to formulate effective prevention and treatment strategies for affected patients.This paper adopts t-SNE based on machine learning to draw a phylogenetic tree from collected genomic sequences to analyze G20 countries’ samples. The phylogenetic tree of the generating mechanism was described, and intermediate results were illustrated. The results of this research showed that viruses in many countries have similar or similar relationships among the gene sequences.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324477

ABSTRACT

Background: A new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Current diagnostic methods mainly include nucleic acid detection, antibody detection, antigen detection, and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging. Although these methods are crucial for the diagnosis of COVID-19, there is a lack of a rapid and economical method for preliminary screening COVID-19. Methods: We measured the FeNO concentrations of 103 subjects without COVID-19 and 46 patients with COVID-19. Using machine learning (ML) method, we build a ML model based on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration and features of age, and body size for rapid preliminary screening COVID-19 suspects with low-cost. Findings: The statistical analysis t-test show that there is a significant difference between the FeNO of healthy people and patients with COVID-19. The ML model can screen out the patients with COVID-19 or other diseases, which show abnormal FeNO distributions. An area under the curve of 0.982 and a sensitivity 0.917 have been achieved for preliminary screening COVID-19 suspects. This non-invasive detection method which takes in two minutes and costs less than a dollar could provide a direction for the control of the rapid spread COVID-19. Interpretation During the COVID-19 pandemic, large numbers and extensive testing of COVID-19 patients remains a problem. Public healthy efforts to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread need to find a more economical and faster screening method.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322841

ABSTRACT

Background: Peripheral hematological changes in severe COVID-19 patients may reflect the immune reaction during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Characteristics of peripheral blood cells as early signals were needed to be investigated for clarifying its associations with the fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed and the hospitalized COVID-19 patients were recruited in wards of Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China). Characteristics of peripheral blood cells in survivors and non-survivors were analyzed. Also the comparison among patients with different level of eosinophils was performed. Results: 198 patients were included in this study, of whom 185 were discharged and 13 died in hospital. Compared to the survivors, counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly decreased in non-survivors. According to the level of eosinophils, patients were divided into low EOS group (< 0.02×10 9 /L) and normal EOS group (≥ 0.02×10 9 /L). Patients in the low EOS group showed a significantly higher fever compared to normal EOS group. The proportion of patients in low EOS group who used glucocorticoids increased significantly than the other group. Death rate in the low EOS group was higher and no patient death in normal EOS group. Moreover, positive correlation was found between the counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils in patients with glucocorticoids use but not in patients without the treatment. Conclusions: Hematological changes differed between survivors and non-survivors with COVID-19. Lymphopenia and eosinopenia could serve to predict the poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Initial counts of eosinophils may guide us in usage of glucocorticoids for COVID-19 treatment.

14.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres ; n/a(n/a):e2021JD035710, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1665681

ABSTRACT

Unexpectedly frequent severe haze episodes were observed in Beijing during February-March in 2021 after two phases of clean air action plan (2013-2020), yet the causes remained unclear. Here we conducted real-time fine particle (PM2.5) composition measurements during January-March in 2021 using a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor and an aethalometer and compared with those during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) period in 2020. Our results showed ubiquitously elevated concentrations of chloride, black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA) in 2021, suggesting increased primary emissions during the post COVID-19 period. By using the machine-learning based random forest (RF) algorithm, we found largely different responses of aerosol changes to meteorology in different months. After decoupling the effects of meteorology, the PM2.5 changes from 2020 to 2021 were reduced from -35.6% to -29.0% in January, -24.1% to -4.5% in February and +92.6% to +34.2% in March, respectively. Our results demonstrate dominant roles of stagnant meteorology and secondary production in the formation of severe haze episodes in March 2021. In particular, we found that the compositions of observed and deweathered PM2.5 were fairly similar between 2020 and 2021, and the ratios of secondary OA to secondary inorganic aerosols were close. Our study indicates that decoupling the influence of meteorological conditions is of great importance for better evaluation of mitigating strategies of air pollution due to the large impact of meteorology on the changes in PM2.5 species particularly in a short period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 756790, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574359

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 can result in myocardial injury in the acute phase. However, information on the late cardiac consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study to investigate the late cardiac consequences of COVID-19. Standard echocardiography and myocardial strain assessment were performed, and cardiac blood biomarkers were tested in 86 COVID-19 survivors 327 days (IQR 318-337 days) after recovery. Comparisons were made with 28 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and 30 risk factor-matched patients. Results: There were no significant differences in all echocardiographic structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain, right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain, LV end-diastolic volume, RV dimension, and the ratio of peak early velocity in mitral inflow to peak early diastolic velocity in the septal mitral annulus (E/e') among COVID-19 survivors, healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls. Even 26 patients with myocardial injury at admission did not have any echocardiographic structural and functional abnormalities. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to serum concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Conclusion: This study showed that COVID-19 survivors, including those with myocardial injury at admission and those with severe and critical types of illness, do not have any echocardiographic evidence of cardiac structural and functional abnormalities 327 days after diagnosis.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1236, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peripheral hematological changes in severe COVID-19 patients may reflect the immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Characteristics of peripheral white blood cells as early signals were needed to be investigated for clarifying its associations with the fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed and the hospitalized COVID-19 patients were recruited in wards of Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Characteristics of peripheral white blood cells in survivors and non-survivors were analyzed. Comparison among patients with different level of eosinophils was performed. RESULTS: Of 198 patients included in this study, 185 were discharged and 13 died. Levels of eosinophils, lymphocytes and basophils in non-survivors were significantly lower than those in survivors. Death rate in low eosinophils group was higher and no patient died in normal eosinophils group (16.7% vs 0, P < 0.001). The proportion of patients in low eosinophils group who used glucocorticoids was higher than in normal eosinophils group, but glucocorticoids usage was not an indicator for death in subgroup analysis in low eosinophils patients. Moreover, positive correlation was found between the counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils in patients with glucocorticoids use but not in patients without the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological changes differed between survivors and non-survivors with COVID-19. Lymphopenia and eosinopenia could be predictors for poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Initial counts of eosinophils may guide us in usage of glucocorticoids for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Humans , Leukocytes , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation ; 105:102630, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1531516

ABSTRACT

The preventive monitoring and sustainable conservation of large-scale cultural heritage sites require satellite-based Earth observations. In this study, we present the first monitoring and thematic mapping results of the Badaling Great Wall (Beijing, China) using deformation indicators calculated from very high-resolution (VHR) multi-temporal spotlight TerraSAR-X data. The proposed coarse–fine search algorithm achieved high computational efficiency for calculating the unknown parameters of the two-tier network persistent scatterer synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (PSInSAR) approach. The spatiotemporal deformation anomalies, characterized by the absolute velocity, deformation deviation and acceleration, are informative to identify suspected hotspots for prioritizing monitoring activities. We provide an understandable method for thematic mapping and subsequent sustainable conservation of heritage sites by synergistically exploiting impacts from natural degradation and the tourism industry. We determine that the optimum tourist capacity of the site could be 1.0 million per month based on comparing pre- and post-COVID data (2019–2020). This study demonstrates the potential and performance of spaceborne PSInSAR tools for the intelligent management of large-scale architectural heritage sites by integrating InSAR deformation products with environmental and social data.

18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 706252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405403

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global disaster. However, we still don't know how specific SARS-CoV-2-encoded proteins contribute to viral pathogenicity. We found that SARS-CoV-2-encoded membrane glycoprotein M could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis via interacting with PDK1 and inhibiting the activation of PDK1-PKB/Akt signaling. Our investigation further revealed that SARS-CoV-2-encoded nucleocapsid protein N could specifically enhance the M-induced apoptosis via interacting with both M and PDK1, therefore strengthening M-mediated attenuation of PDK1-PKB/Akt interaction. Furthermore, when the M-N interaction was disrupted via certain rationally designed peptides, the PDK1-PKB/Akt signaling was restored, and the boosting activity of N on the M-triggered apoptosis was abolished. Overall, our findings uncovered a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2-encoded M triggers apoptosis with the assistance of N, which expands our understanding of the two key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and sheds light on the pathogenicity of this life-threatening virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoptosis , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318925

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucial for the physiology and pathology of all the organs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) maintains the homeostasis of RAS as a negative regulator. Recently, ACE2 was identified as the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus that is causing the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since SARS-CoV-2 must bind with ACE2 before entering the host cells in humans, the distribution and expression of ACE2 may be critical for the target organ of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the implication of ACE2 in the pathological progression in tissue injury and several chronic diseases, ACE2 may also be essential in the progression and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, we summarized the expression and activity of ACE2 in various physiological and pathological conditions, and discussed its potential implication in the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the current review.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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