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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992159

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We report that increased levels of pre-existing antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses are associated with decreased antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in SOTRs, supporting that antigenic imprinting modulates vaccine responses in this immunosuppressed population.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 254-262, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared cytokines in COVID-19 versus influenza to define differentiating features of the inflammatory response to these pathogens and their association with severe disease. Because elevated body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for severe COVID-19, we examined the relationship of BMI to cytokines associated with severe disease. METHODS: Thirty-seven cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma from 135 patients with COVID-19, 57 patients with influenza, and 30 healthy controls. Controlling for BMI, age, and sex, differences in cytokines between groups were determined by linear regression and random forest prediction was used to determine the cytokines most important in distinguishing severe COVID-19 and influenza. Mediation analysis was used to identify cytokines that mediate the effect of BMI and age on disease severity. RESULTS: Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased in COVID-19 versus influenza patients, whereas granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-λ1, IL-10, IL-15, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 were significantly elevated in the influenza group. In subgroup analysis based on disease severity, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α were elevated in severe COVID-19, but not in severe influenza. Random forest analysis identified high IL-6 and low IFN-λ1 levels as the most distinct between severe COVID-19 and severe influenza. Finally, IL-1RA was identified as a potential mediator of the effects of BMI on COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to activation of fundamentally different innate immune pathways in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza infection, and emphasize drivers of severe COVID-19 to focus both mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Chemokines , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Smartmat ; 2(4):567-578, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1599184

ABSTRACT

Metal‐organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown numerous potentials as promising materials to address real‐world problems. However, their practical utilization in commercial products was largely limited by the lack of downstream processing methodologies to transform MOF powders into functional products. In this study, a commercially viable solution for the general synthesis of MOF‐fabric composites was introduced. On account of coordination bonding between poly(acrylic acid) and MOF substrates, MOF powders securely adhered onto the surface of fabric materials via a drip cast method to give MOF‐fabric composites easily. This strategy can be applied to different MOF types, as well as a wide variety of fabric materials. The prepared materials showed excellent bacterial killing efficacy attributed to the embedded HKUST‐1 MOF. In light of the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, this methodology could enable the large‐scale fabrication of essential MOF‐based personal protective wearables (e.g., clothing and masks) for use by healthcare professionals.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 606-615, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe clinical phenotype of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that remains poorly understood. METHODS: Hospitalized children <18 years of age with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (N = 53) were recruited into a prospective cohort study; 32 had confirmed COVID-19, with 16 meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C. Differences in nasopharyngeal viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, and cytokine/chemokine profiles were examined, including after adjustments for age and sex. RESULTS: The median ages for those with and without MIS-C were 8.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5-13.9) and 2.2 years (IQR, 1.1-10.5), respectively (P = .18), and nasopharyngeal levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (median 63 848.25 copies/mL versus 307.1 copies/mL, P = .66); 75% of those with MIS-C were antibody positive compared with 44% without (P = .026). Levels of 14 of 37 cytokines/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1RA, IL-2RA, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, IP-10, macrophage-inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MCP-2, MIP-1ß, eotaxin) were significantly higher in children with MIS-C compared to those without, irrespective of age or sex (false discovery rate <0.05; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The distinct pattern of heightened cytokine/chemokine dysregulation observed with MIS-C, compared with acute COVID-19, occurs across the pediatric age spectrum and with similar levels of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load
5.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108863, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108116

ABSTRACT

It is unclear why some SARS-CoV-2 patients readily resolve infection while others develop severe disease. By interrogating metabolic programs of immune cells in severe and recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compared with other viral infections, we identify a unique population of T cells. These T cells express increased Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (VDAC1), accompanied by gene programs and functional characteristics linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. The percentage of these cells increases in elderly patients and correlates with lymphopenia. Importantly, T cell apoptosis is inhibited in vitro by targeting the oligomerization of VDAC1 or blocking caspase activity. We also observe an expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells with unique metabolic phenotypes specific to COVID-19, and their presence distinguishes severe from mild disease. Overall, the identification of these metabolic phenotypes provides insight into the dysfunctional immune response in acutely ill COVID-19 patients and provides a means to predict and track disease severity and/or design metabolic therapeutic regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apoptosis/immunology , Caspases/immunology , Caspases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/immunology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1/metabolism , Young Adult
6.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915966

ABSTRACT

It remains unclear why some patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 readily resolve infection while others develop severe disease. To address this question, we employed a novel assay to interrogate immune-metabolic programs of T cells and myeloid cells in severe and recovered COVID-19 patients. Using this approach, we identified a unique population of T cells expressing high H3K27me3 and the mitochondrial membrane protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which were expanded in acutely ill COVID-19 patients and distinct from T cells found in patients infected with hepatitis c or influenza and in recovered COVID-19. Increased VDAC was associated with gene programs linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. High-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging of the cells revealed dysmorphic mitochondria and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, indicative of apoptosis activation. The percentage of these cells was markedly increased in elderly patients and correlated with lymphopenia. Importantly, T cell apoptosis could be inhibited in vitro by targeting the oligomerization of VDAC or blocking caspase activity. In addition to these T cell findings, we also observed a robust population of Hexokinase II+ polymorphonuclear-myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC), exclusively found in the acutely ill COVID-19 patients and not the other viral diseases. Finally, we revealed a unique population of monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC) expressing high levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) and VDAC. The metabolic phenotype of these cells was not only highly specific to COVID-19 patients but the presence of these cells was able to distinguish severe from mild disease. Overall, the identification of these novel metabolic phenotypes not only provides insight into the dysfunctional immune response in acutely ill COVID-19 patients but also provide a means to predict and track disease severity as well as an opportunity to design and evaluate novel metabolic therapeutic regimens.

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