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1.
Liu, Z.; Le, K.; Zhou, X.; Alexander, J. L.; Lin, S.; Bewshea, C.; Chanchlani, N.; Nice, R.; McDonald, T. J.; Lamb, C. A.; Sebastian, S.; Kok, K.; Lees, C. W.; Hart, A. L.; Pollok, R. C.; Boyton, R. J.; Altmann, D. M.; Pollock, K. M.; Goodhand, J. R.; Kennedy, N. A.; Ahmad, T.; Powell, N.; Islam, M.; Croft, N.; Cipriano, B.; Francia, C.; Khalid, N.; Kingston, A.; Lee, I.; Lehmann, A.; Naik, K.; Samuels, K.; Plaatjies, N.; Khatun, H.; Bokth, F.; Pabriaga, E.; Saich, R.; Cousins, H.; Fraser, W.; Thomas, R.; Brown, M.; White, B.; Kirkineziadis, N.; Tilley, B.; Porter, P.; Bryant, R.; Robaczewska, N.; Muhammed, R.; Bi, R.; Cotter, C.; Grove, J.; Hong, K.; Howman, R.; Clayton, S.; Rogers, L.; Sultan, S.; Rooney, M.; Cottrill, C.; Singh, S.; Dawe, C.; Hull, R.; Silva, N.; Chadwick, J.; Robertson, L.; Manning, J.; Finlayson, L.; Roebuck, A.; Dawson, J.; Sonwalkar, S.; Chambers, N.; Robinson, M.; Haigh, A.; Matapure, L.; Raine, T.; Kapizioni, C.; Strongili, K.; Thompson, T.; Ahmed, M.; Kontos, C.; Dawson, C.; Bourges, C.; Barbutti, I.; Gozzard, M. E.; Hendy, P.; Bull, R.; Costa, P.; Davey, L.; Hannington, H.; Nundlall, K.; Martins, C.; Avanzi, L.; Carungcong, J.; Barr, S.; Appleby, R.; Johnson, E.; Shakweh, E.; Phillis, K.; Gascoyne, R.; Crowder, A.; Whileman, A.; London, I.; Grounds, J.; Martin, E.; Pajak, S.; Price, J.; Cawley, K.; Powell, S.; Kearsley, N.; Dhar, A.; Brown, E.; Cowton, A.; Warner, B.; Stuart, C.; Lacey, L.; de Silva, S.; Allcock, C.; Harvey, P.; Jones, L.; Cooke, E.; Slater, J.; King, D.; Brooks, J.; Baker, P.; Beadle, H.; Cruz, C.; Potter, D.; Collum, J.; Masters, F.; Kumar, A.; Coetzee, S.; Peiu, M.; Icke, B.; Raj, M.; Gaynor, E.; Chadokufa, S.; Huggett, B.; Meghari, H.; El-Khouly, S.; Kiparissi, F.; Girshab, W.; Russell-Walker, L.; Jackson, C.; Sidler, S.; Claridge, A.; Fowler, E.; McCafferty, L.; Haxton, L.; Irving, P.; Christodoulides, K.; Clifford, A.; Dawson, P.; Honap, S.; Lim, S.; Luber, R.; Mahiouz, K.; Meade, S.; Raymode, P.; Reynolds, R.; Stanton, A.; Tripoli, S.; Hare, N.; Odukwe, S.; Balachandran, S.; North, E.; North, J.; Browne, B.; Cordle, J.; Jameson, E.; Siaw, Y. H.; Manzano, L.; Segal, J.; Al-Bakir, I.; Khakoo, I.; Portukhay, S.; Thoua, N.; Davidson, K.; Miah, J.; Canclini, L.; Hall, A.; Furreed, H.; Mitchell-Inwang, C.; Hayes, M.; Myers, S.; Talbot, A.; Turnbull, J.; Whitehead, E.; Stamp, K.; Pattinson, A.; Mathew, V.; Sherris, L.; Wilcox, J.; Ramachandran, S.; Robertson, H.; Harvey, A.; Hicks, L.; Byrne, T. M.; Cabreros, L.; Downing-Wood, H.; Hunter, S.; Saifuddin, M. A.; Prabhudev, H.; Balarajah, S.; Krucznski, J.; Driva, K.; D'Mello, A.; Shah, P.; Castro-Seoane, R.; Ibraheim, H.; Constable, L. E.; Lo, J. W.; Torkizadeh, M.; Hermangild, S. K.; Sutherland, H.; Wilhelmsen, E.; Mackintosh, K.; Verma, A. M.; Sebastian, J.; Peerally, M. F.; Guerdette, A. M.; Coburn, S.; Novem lam, C. Y.; Durrant, D.; Schaefer, B.; Serna, S.; Shahzad, M.; Kent, A.; Choong, L. M.; Pantaloni, B.; Ravdas, P.; Vadamalayan, B.; Foley, S.; Arnold, B.; Heeley, C.; Lovegrove, W.; Sowton, D.; Allsop, L.; Gregory, H.; Gill, M.; Holmes, M.; Balan, V.; Turner, S.; Smith, P. J.; Steel, A.; Bretland, G.; King, S.; Lofthouse, M.; Rigby, L.; Subramanian, S.; Tyrer, D.; Martin, K.; Probert, C.; Kamperidis, N.; Adedoyin, T.; Baden, M.; Chacko, F.; Young, L.; Cicchetti, M.; Saifuddin, M.; Yesupatham, P.; Gowda, R.; Williams, M.; Kemp, K.; Akhand, R.; Gray, G.; John, A.; John, M.; Mohammed, T.; Sathe, D.; Jones, N.; Soren, J.; Sprakes, M.; Burton, J.; Kane, P.; Lupton, S.; Bartholomew, J.; Denis, E.; Daniels, A.; MacFaul, G.; Scaletta, D.; Siamia, L.; Williams, F.; Green, C.; Ver, Z.; Lamb, C.; Doona, M.; Hogg, A.; Jeffrey, L.; King, A.; Speight, R. A.; Doyle, J.; Owen, R.; Haworth, J.; Patterson, L.; Varnaulasingam, V.; Mowat, C.; Rice, D.; MacFarlane, S.; MacLeod, A.; Mohammed, S.; Murray, S.; Elliott, A.; Anne Morris, M.; Coke, L.; Hindle, G.; Kolokouri, E.; Wright, C.; Lee, C.; Ward, N.; Dann, A.; Lockett, M.; Cranfield, C.; Jennings, L.; Srivastava, A.; Ward, L.; Jeynes, N.; Ranga, P.; Rajasekhar, P.; Gallagher, L.; Ward, J.; Basnett, R.; Murphy, J.; Parking, L.; Lawson, E.; Short, S.; Devadason, D.; Moran, G.; Khan, N.; Tarr, L.; Olivia, C.; Warbarton, S.; Kelly, S.; Limdi, J.; Goulden, K.; Javed, A.; McKenzie, L.; Melville, J.; Liu, E.; Sabine, J.; Jacob, P.; McSorland, D.; Schofield, N.; Cornwall, L.; Quirke, J.; Crook, E.; Turner, A.; Bhandari, P.; Baker-Moffatt, M.; Dash, J.; Le Poidevin, A.; Downe, H.; Bombeo, L.; Blackman, H.; Smith, R.; Wiles, A.; Bloxham, H.; Dias, J.; Nadar, E.; Curgenven, H.; Gilham, E.; Macdonald, J.; Finan, S.; McMeeken, F.; Mahmood, M.; Shields, S.; Seenan, J. P.; DeSilva, D.; Malkakorpi, S.; Carson, R.; Lawrence, H.; Boateng, O.; Kpodo, F.; Whiteoak, S.; Edger-Earley, K.; Vamplew, L.; Samways, J.; Roffe, S.; Ingram, S.; James, J.; Botfield, S.; Hammonds, F.; James, C.; Berry, Z.; Aspinall, G.; Hawkins, S.; Parkinson, M.; Gardner-Thorpe, H.; Marriott, S.; Redstone, C.; Windak, H.; Adam, A. M.; Mabb, H.; Stevenson, E.; Record, J.; Murray, C.; Diaba, C.; Joseph, F.; Pakou, G.; Gleeson, Y.; Nunag, A.; Berrill, J.; Stroud, N.; Pothecary, C.; Roche, L.; Turner, K.; Deering, L.; Israel, L.; Baker, E.; Nash, M.; Fagbemi, A.; Jennings, F.; Mayor, I.; Wilson, J.; Wheeler, A.; Phillips, N.; Gordon, J.; Levell, E.; Zagalo, S.; Hoad, I.; Anil, B.; Russell, R.; Henderson, P.; Millar, M.; Alexakis, C.; Michalak, N.; Marriott, C.; Stone, S.; Pristopan, V.; Saunders, J.; Burton, H.; Cambridge, V.; Clark, T.; Ekblad, C.; Hierons, S.; Katebe, J.; Saunsbury, E.; Perry, R.; Brookes, M.; Davies, K.; Green, M.; Plumbe, A.; Ormerod, C.; Christensen, H.; Howlett, H.; Keen, A.; Ogor, J.; Greenhaigh, M.; Knowles, K.; Yin, S.; Poulaka, M.; Anthony, A.; Newitt, E.; Trim, F.; Casey, R.; Seymour, K.; Reed, C.; Joy, L.; Fogden, E.; Russell, K.; Hussain, S.; Phillips, A.; Abdulla, M.; Butterworth, J.; Adams, C.; Carnahan, M.; Buckingham, E.; Childs, D.; Magness, A.; Stickley, J.; Motherwell, N.; Tonks, L.; Gibson, H.; Wistance, K.; Thomas, C.; Brinkworth, E.; Connor, L.; Cook, A.; Rees, T.; Harford, R.; Farley, S.; Jones, M.; Wesley, E.; Moss, A.; Lucas, J.; Lorimer, C.; Oleary, M.; Dixon, M.; Goodchild, F.; Twenlow, R.; Pawley, C.; Ramadas, A.; Tregonning, J.; Okeke, O.; Jackson, W.; Koumoutsos, I.; George, V.; Kunhunny, S.; Laverick, S.; Anderson, I.; Smith, S.; Joyce, J.; et al..
The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 8(2):145-156, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2211788

ABSTRACT

Background: Anti-TNF drugs, such as infliximab, are associated with attenuated antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We aimed to determine how the anti-TNF drug infliximab and the anti-integrin drug vedolizumab affect vaccine-induced neutralising antibodies against highly transmissible omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.1, and BA.4 and BA.5 (hereafter BA.4/5) SARS-CoV-2 variants, which possess the ability to evade host immunity and, together with emerging sublineages, are now the dominating variants causing current waves of infection. Method(s): CLARITY IBD is a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study investigating the effect of infliximab and vedolizumab on SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients aged 5 years and older with a diagnosis of IBD and being treated with infliximab or vedolizumab for 6 weeks or longer were recruited from infusion units at 92 hospitals in the UK. In this analysis, we included participants who had received uninterrupted biological therapy since recruitment and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome was neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.4/5 after three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We constructed Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the risk of breakthrough infection in relation to neutralising antibody titres. The study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN45176516, and is closed to accrual. Finding(s): Between Sept 22 and Dec 23, 2020, 7224 patients with IBD were recruited to the CLARITY IBD study, of whom 1288 had no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and were established on either infliximab (n=871) or vedolizumab (n=417) and included in this study (median age was 46.1 years [IQR 33.6-58.2], 610 [47.4%] were female, 671 [52.1%] were male, 1209 [93.9%] were White, and 46 [3.6%] were Asian). After three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 50% neutralising titres (NT50s) were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab than in those treated with vedolizumab, against wild-type (geometric mean 2062 [95% CI 1720-2473] vs 3440 [2939-4026];p<0.0001), BA.1 (107.3 [86.40-133.2] vs 648.9 [523.5-804.5];p<0.0001), and BA.4/5 (40.63 [31.99-51.60] vs 223.0 [183.1-271.4];p<0.0001) variants. Breakthrough infection was significantly more frequent in patients treated with infliximab (119 [13.7%;95% CI 11.5-16.2] of 871) than in those treated with vedolizumab (29 [7.0% [4.8-10.0] of 417;p=0.00040). Cox proportional hazards models of time to breakthrough infection after the third dose of vaccine showed infliximab treatment to be associated with a higher hazard risk than treatment with vedolizumab (hazard ratio [HR] 1.71 [95% CI 1.08-2.71];p=0.022). Among participants who had a breakthrough infection, we found that higher neutralising antibody titres against BA.4/5 were associated with a lower hazard risk and, hence, a longer time to breakthrough infection (HR 0.87 [0.79-0.95];p=0.0028). Interpretation(s): Our findings underline the importance of continued SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes, including second-generation bivalent vaccines, especially in patient subgroups where vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy might be reduced, such as those on anti-TNF therapies. Funding(s): Royal Devon University Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust;Hull University Teaching Hospital NHS Trust;NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre;Crohn's and Colitis UK;Guts UK;National Core Studies Immunity Programme, UK Research and Innovation;and unrestricted educational grants from F Hoffmann-La Roche, Biogen, Celltrion Healthcare, Takeda, and Galapagos. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

2.
JMIR public health and surveillance ; 9:e40201, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2215068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, infodemic spread even more rapidly than the pandemic itself. The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has been prevalent worldwide and hindered pandemic exiting strategies. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccines is a vital contributor to vaccine hesitancy. However, no evidence systematically summarized COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. OBJECTIVE(S): This review aims to synthesize the global evidence on misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccines, including its prevalence, features, influencing factors, impacts, and solutions for combating misinformation. METHOD(S): We performed a systematic review by searching 5 peer-reviewed databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO). We included original articles that investigated misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccines and were published in English from January 1, 2020, to August 18, 2022. We excluded publications that did not cover or focus on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. The Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies, version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2), and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklist were used to assess the study quality. The review was guided by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021288929). RESULT(S): Of the 8864 studies identified, 91 observational studies and 11 interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccines covered conspiracy, concerns on vaccine safety and efficacy, no need for vaccines, morality, liberty, and humor. Conspiracy and safety concerns were the most prevalent misinformation. There was a great variation in misinformation prevalence, noted among 2.5%-55.4% in the general population and 6.0%-96.7% in the antivaccine/vaccine hesitant groups from survey-based studies, and in 0.1%-41.3% on general online data and 0.5%-56% on antivaccine/vaccine hesitant data from internet-based studies. Younger age, lower education and economic status, right-wing and conservative ideology, and having psychological problems enhanced beliefs in misinformation. The content, format, and source of misinformation influenced its spread. A 5-step framework was proposed to address vaccine-related misinformation, including identifying misinformation, regulating producers and distributors, cutting production and distribution, supporting target audiences, and disseminating trustworthy information. The debunking messages/videos were found to be effective in several experimental studies. CONCLUSION(S): Our review provides comprehensive and up-to-date evidence on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and helps responses to vaccine infodemic in future pandemics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021288929;https://tinyurl.com/2prejtfa. Copyright ©Sihong Zhao, Simeng Hu, Xiaoyu Zhou, Suhang Song, Qian Wang, Hongqiu Zheng, Ying Zhang, Zhiyuan Hou. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (https://publichealth.jmir.org), 11.01.2023.

3.
4th IEEE International Conference on Civil Aviation Safety and Information Technology, ICCASIT 2022 ; : 379-383, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213220

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19, air passenger transport industry is sluggishm. At the same time, based on the strong demand for freight business. Airlines focus on developing cargo sector. All-cargo airlines are gradually being established. The number of registered cargo aircraft has gradually increased in recent years,and cargo transport flight hours are gradually increasing. This leads to an increase in cargo aviation security incidents. The safety information analysis of cargo aircraft needs to be solved urgently. In this paper, a hierarchical analysis and clustering research on all-cargo airlines based on China aviaiton safety information data is carried out. The results show that all-cargo airlines security incidents are divided into three categories. The paper provides security recommendations for different incident categories. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 1(2):103-107, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2212960

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and rapidly spread globally, posing a worldwide health emergency. The pathogen causing this pandemic was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 transmits via respiratory droplets and close contact with infected individuals or contaminated items. In addition to these two major transmission routes, other modes of transmission have not been confirmed. Considering that some COVID-19 patients have presented with ocular discomforts and positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA in ocular surfaces, as well as the discovery of the SARS-CoV-2 receptors, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease, serine 2, in the oculus, the ocular surface is now thought to be a possible alternative route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and a replication site. This review summarizes the evidence connecting COVID-19 with ocular tissues, ocular symptoms during SARS-CoV-2 infection, the potential role of the conjunctiva in SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and the physiopathological mechanisms. Appropriate precautions in ophthalmology departments, including innovative complete and effective patient management plans, protective personal equipment, hand hygiene, and strict personal distance intervals, are essential to effectively minimize the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and control the pandemic. © American Society of Clinical Oncology.

5.
Theranostics ; 13(2):724-735, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2203055

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Long COVID with regard to the neurological system deserves more attention, as a surge of treated patients are being discharged from the hospital. As the dynamic changes in white matter after two years remain unknown, this characteristic was the focus of this study. Method(s): We investigated 17 recovered COVID-19 patients at two years after discharge. Diffusion tensor imaging, neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging were performed to identify white matter integrity and changes from one to two years after discharge. Data for 13 revisited healthy controls were collected as a reference. Subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence scale were used to assess cognitive function. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to detect longitudinal changes in 17 recovered COVID-19 patients and 13 healthy controls after one-year follow-up. Correlations between diffusion metrics, cognitive function, and other clinical characteristics (i.e., inflammatory factors) were also analyzed. Result(s): Longitudinal analysis showed the recovery trends of large-scale brain regions, with small-scale brain region deterioration from one year to two years after SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, persistent white matter abnormalities were noted at two years after discharge. Longitudinal changes of cognitive function showed no group difference. But cross-sectional cognitive difference between recovered COVID-19 patients and revisited HCs was detected. Inflammation levels in the acute stage correlated positively with white matter abnormalities and negatively with cognitive function. Moreover, the more abnormal the white matter was at two years, the greater was the cognitive deficit present. Conclusion(s): Recovered COVID-19 patients showed longitudinal recovery trends of white matter. But also had persistent white matter abnormalities at two years after discharge. Inflammation levels in the acute stage may be considered predictors of cognition and white matter integrity, and the white matter microstructure acts as a biomarker of cognitive function in recovered COVID-19 patients. These findings provide an objective basis for early clinical intervention. Copyright © The author(s)

6.
International Journal of Pharmacology ; 18(8):1550-1559, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2201180

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Synovitis is characterized as the inflammation of the synovial membrane, which often occurs in osteoarthritis. The incidence of this medical condition may be related to age, immunological responses and other co-morbidities. Therefore, the objective of the study was to elucidate the anti-Synovitis potential of sinomenine. Materials and Methods: The associated targets about sinomenine and synovitis were investigated in Homo sapiens, which was then elucidated by the PPI network construction via STITCH database. Furthermore, Cytoscape and its plugin were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis. Results: The literature survey and the network revealed 25 potential target proteins to be associated with sinomenine, of which many proteins such as OPRD1, CHRM1 and DAMGO were found to be significantly related to the bioactive action of sinomenine in Homosapiens. Moreover,the GO terms which were associated with the functioning of sinomenine for its anti-Synovitis potential were found to befour, analyzed by the functional annotation gene clusters and abundance values of the target proteins. Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate the anti-Synovitis potential of sinomenine, where its action is dependent upon the molecular mechanisms that exert its beneficial role against synovitis. The core mechanisms that may be related to its anti-synovitis action may be adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signalling pathway, regulation of smooth muscle contraction, adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor signalling pathway and positive regulation of nitric oxide metabolic process.

7.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199202

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, as a crucial public health crisis, has affected our lives in nearly every aspect. Besides its major health threats, COVID-19 brings severe secondary impacts, one of which is the rise of social stigma. Although numerous studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of COVID-19-related stigma, we still lack a systematic understanding of who is being stigmatized during the COVID-19 pandemic, what exacerbates COVID-19-related stigma, and what impacts COVID-19-related stigma has on victims. Therefore, this review aims to provide a systematic overview of COVID-19-related stigma. With 93 papers conducted with 126,371 individuals in more than 150 countries and territories spanning five continents, we identify three targets that have received the most research: Chinese/Asian people, (suspected) patients and survivors, and healthcare workers. Furthermore, we find that for each stigma target, characteristics of the stigmatized, stigmatizer, and context contribute to COVID-19-related stigma and that this stigma negatively influences victims' health and non-health outcomes. We call for future research to provide a more integrative, balanced, and rigorous picture of COVID-19-related stigma via conducting research on neglected topics (e.g., contextual factors that contribute to stigma toward HCWs) and stigma interventions and using a longitudinal design. In practice, we urge governments and institutions (e.g., ministries of public health, hospitals) to pay close attention to stigma issues and to promote safe and inclusive societies.

8.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198910
9.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 12:12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has implemented nationwide lockdown to contain COVID-19 from an early stage. Previous studies of the impact of COVID-19 on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and diseases caused by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in China have yielded widely disparate results, and study on deaths attributable to STDs and BBVs are scarce.

10.
JMIR Formative Research ; 28:28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is a vital public health tool used to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. However, traditional interview-format contact tracing (TCT) is labor-intensive and time-consuming and may be unsustainable for large-scale disease control like the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads rapidly and insidiously. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening is an important means of blocking community transmission in China, but the costs associated with testing are high. Quarantine capacity and medical resources are also threatened. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate different screening strategies to balance outbreak control and consumption of resources. METHODS: A community network of 2000 people, considering the heterogeneities of household size and age structure, was generated to reflect real contact networks, and a stochastic individual-based dynamic model was used to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and assess different whole-area nucleic acid screening strategies. We designed a total of 87 screening strategies with different sampling methods, frequencies of screening, and timings of screening. The performance of these strategies was comprehensively evaluated by comparing the cumulative infection rates, the number of tests, and the quarantine capacity and consumption of medical resource, which were expressed as medians (95% uncertainty intervals, 95% UIs). RESULTS: To implement COVID-19 nucleic acid testing for all people (Full Screening), if the screening frequency was four times/week, the cumulative infection rate could be reduced to 13% (95% UI: 1%, 51%), the miss rate decreased to 2% (95% UI: 0%, 22%), and the quarantine and medical resource consumption was lower than higher-frequency Full Screening or sampling screening. When the frequency of Full Screening increased from five to seven times/week (which resulted in a 2581 increase in the number of tests per positive case), the cumulative infection rate was only reduced by 2%. Screening all people weekly by splitting them equally into seven batches could reduce infection rates by 73% compared to once per week, which was similar to Full Screening four times/week. Full Screening had the highest number of tests per positive case, while the miss rate, number of tests per positive case, and hotel quarantine resource consumption in Household-based Sampling Screening scenarios were lower than Random Sampling Screening. The cumulative infection rate of Household-based Sampling Screening or Random Sampling Screening seven times/week was similar to that of Full Screening four times/week. CONCLUSIONS: If hotel quarantine, hospital and shelter hospital capacity are seriously insufficient, to stop the spread of the virus as early as possible, high-frequency Full Screening would be necessary, but intermediate testing frequency may be more cost-effective in non-extreme situations. Screening in batches is recommended if the testing capacity is low. Household-based Sampling Screening is potentially a promising strategy to implement.

12.
Chinese Public Administration Review ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2195308

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, COVID-19 has been a major public security crisis that has had an enormous impact on the world. With the spread of the epidemic, rumors occur, some of which have even caused public panic. They have greatly affected the government's efforts of epidemic prevention and thus urgently need to be evaluated. This study aimed to examine how to make flexible use of different policy tools to govern rumors based on their different characteristics. From the perspective of behavioral public policy, this study observes the effectiveness of various behavioral policy tools in rumor governance, hoping to explore the optimal solution of rumor governance from the perspective of micro public psychology. The survey experiment shows that individual behavior-related rumors (hereafter referred to as IBRs) are easier to be governed than epidemic progress-related rumors (hereafter referred to as EPRs) are, and that quick response is more effective than non-quick response. Through interaction analysis, it is known that in the governance of IBRs, nudge is more effective in rapid response, while in the context of non-quick response, boost outperforms nudge in rumor governance. A similar phenomenon can be seen in the scenario of EPR governance, despite a tinier difference in effectiveness compared with that of IBRs. The study enlightens us that rumor refutation requires not only people's disbelief in and restraint on rumors, but also the implementation of science-based targeted policies. Based on the conclusion, this study puts forward suggestions on implementing targeted policies of rumor governance.

13.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2192377

ABSTRACT

The health and well-being of migrant workers struggling to make ends meet are being compromised, especially with the uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim is to analyze how organizational empowerment promotes health and well-being from an applied psychological perspective, taking into account the shaping role of individual vulnerability. Links between theory and practice will be established to achieve equitable health and well-being. The underlying mechanism by which organizational empowerment mitigated workplace-induced adverse outcomes was validated in the analysis of construction workers (n = 966). In addition, individual characteristics, namely, excitability, low perceptual threshold, control, and knowledge, attitude, and practice, were identified as critical factors, as well-being consequences vary from person to person. Moderating effect analysis showed that high excitability enhanced the association between work environment exposure and health and well-being. Control and knowledge, attitude, and practice have opposite effects. Moreover, the dual effects of the low perception threshold are verified, that is, facing the work environment produces more negative consequences, whereas perceiving more resources stimulates more positive consequences. Overall, the research provides a clearer dialectical view of vulnerability, contributing wisdom toward accurate management based on empowerment theory, which lays a solid foundation for bridging gaps in health and well-being.

14.
Medicine (United States) ; 101(47):E31931, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2191098

ABSTRACT

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used for diagnosis and outcome prediction in clinical practice. Furthermore, AI in digestive endoscopy has attracted much attention and shown promising and stimulating results. This study aimed to determine the development trends and research hotspots of AI in digestive endoscopy by visualizing articles. Publications on AI in digestive endoscopy research were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection on April 25, 2022. VOSviewer and CiteSpace were used to assess and plot the research outputs. This analytical research was based on original articles and reviews. A total of 524 records of AI research in digestive endoscopy, published between 2005 and 2022, were retrieved. The number of articles has increased 27-fold from 2017 to 2021. Fifty-one countries and 994 institutions contributed to all publications. Asian countries had the highest number of publications. China, the USA, and Japan were consistently the leading driving forces and mainly contributed (26%, 21%, and 14.31%, respectively). With a solid academic reputation in this area, Japan has the highest number of citations per article. Tada Tomohiro published the most articles and received the most citations. Gastrointestinal endoscopy published the largest number of publications, and 4 of the top 10 cited papers were published in this journal. "The Classification,""ulcerative colitis,""capsule endoscopy,""polyp detection,"and "early gastric cancer"were the leading research hotspots. Our study provides systematic elaboration for researchers to better understand the development of AI in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Copyright © 2022 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

15.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S85-S86, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189538

ABSTRACT

Background. Vaccines aim to induce immune responses that prevent disease. They may also clear chronic infections or reduce tumor progression. Vaccine adjuvants augment immune responses, in general, by providing stimulatory signals. Our focus has been on a different type of adjuvant that enhances vaccine-induced T cell responses by modulating the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) pathway. The B and T cell attenuator (BTLA) is expressed on naive T cells and, upon binding to HVEM on antigen presenting cells, dampens signaling through the T cell receptor. HVEM binds with a different domain to the co-stimulator LIGHT. Within a trimolar BTLA-LIGHT/HVEM complex, inhibition prevails. Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) attaches to the BTLA binding site of HVEM and as it has higher binding affinity outcompetes BTLA binding and allows for co-stimulation through LIGHT. This results in enhanced signaling through the T cell receptor and thereby augments and broadens CD8+ T cell responses as we showed with chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC) vector vaccines for several viral antigens. Methods. Immunogenicity in rodents was evaluated following one or two immunizations with AdC vectors expressing antigens of HIV (gag), HPV-16 (E7/6/5), HBV (core & pol), influenza virus (nucleoprotein) and SARS-CoV2 (nucleoprotein), with or without gD. Vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses, including their magnitude, functions, duration, and breadth were characterized. Vaccine efficacy was also evaluated. Results. Vaccination with gD-antigen fusion proteins increased CD8+ T cell frequencies to all of the antigens tested (Fig) and improved efficacy. Addition of gD increased stimulation of CD8+ T cells to subdominant epitopes and thereby enhanced breadth of responses. Conclusion. Checkpoint modification of the HVEM pathway with a gD-antigen fusion protein produces potent, prolonged, and broad responses of CD8+ T cells to immunodominant and subdominant epitopes. The latter is especially important for chronic viral infections, where, due to exhaustion of T cells to dominant epitopes therapeutic efficacy of vaccines may rely on expansion of T cells to subdominant epitopes. Clinical studies to evaluate therapeutic vaccination for chronic HBV are planned. (Figure Presented).

16.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 24(Supplement K):K178, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188686

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypovitaminosis D is common in the Italian population and has a comparable effect to diabetes mellitus on survival after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to evaluate if the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D changed over time, considering also frequent lockdowns in the last years due to COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): According to the year of enrollment, we divided our cohort of 1042 patients hospitalized for AMI, into three groups (group 1 with 368 patients enrolled from 2014 till 2016, group 2 with 470 patients enrolled in the period from 2017 till 2019, and group 3 including 204 patients enrolled in the last three years, from 2020 till 2022) and evaluate whether the concentration of vitamin D changed in the last decade. Result(s): The median concentration of vitamin D in our cohort of patients with AMI was 18.2 (11.48-25.73) ng/ml). Throughout the three groups (2014-2016, 2017-2019, 2020-2022), the median plasma vitamin D showed a trend toward an increase (17.3 (10.33-24.2) ng/ml, 18.95 (11.6-26.73) ng/ml, and 19.05 (12.5-27.3) ng/ml respectively), which was significant between the group 1 vs 2 and 3 (p = 0.033 and p = 0.004, respectively), while between the group 2 and 3 did not. Despite the trend of increase, the percentage of patients with hypovitaminosis D in each group remained high (61.4%, 53.8% and 52.0% respectively). As expected, samples taken between May and September have significantly higher vitamin D values compared to ones taken from October to April for each group (the group 1: 21.80 (15.55-31.23) ng/ml vs 15.8 (9.22-23.98) ng/ml, p < 0.0001;the group 2: 22.05 (14.10-30.98) ng/ml vs 16.50 (11.03-23.90) ng/ml, p < 0.0001);the group 3: 20.00 (11.90-26.90) ng/ml vs 16.30 (9.75-22.30) ng/ml, p = 0.001). Conclusion(s): There has been a trend of increasing vitamin D values over the years, but hypovitaminosis D remains frequent. During the pandemic, vitamin D levels did not decrease due to frequent lockdowns, possibly due to media awareness that emphasized the significance of vitamin D administration against viral infection.

17.
Brief Bioinform ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2188255

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic has catalyzed the rapid development of mRNA vaccines, whereas, how to optimize the mRNA sequence of exogenous gene such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike to fit human cells remains a critical challenge. A new algorithm, iDRO (integrated deep-learning-based mRNA optimization), is developed to optimize multiple components of mRNA sequences based on given amino acid sequences of target protein. Considering the biological constraints, we divided iDRO into two steps: open reading frame (ORF) optimization and 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 3'UTR generation. In ORF optimization, BiLSTM-CRF (bidirectional long-short-term memory with conditional random field) is employed to determine the codon for each amino acid. In UTR generation, RNA-Bart (bidirectional auto-regressive transformer) is proposed to output the corresponding UTR. The results show that the optimized sequences of exogenous genes acquired the pattern of human endogenous gene sequence. In experimental validation, the mRNA sequence optimized by our method, compared with conventional method, shows higher protein expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study by introducing deep-learning methods to integrated mRNA sequence optimization, and these results may contribute to the development of mRNA therapeutics.

18.
Chemical Society Reviews ; 52(1):361-382, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2186142

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis is a prerequisite for precision medicine, food safety, and environmental monitoring. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas)-based detection, as a cutting-edged technique, has become an immensely effective tool for molecular diagnosis because of its outstanding advantages including attomolar level sensitivity, sequence-targeted single-base specificity, and rapid turnover time. However, the CRISPR/Cas-based detection methods typically require a pre-amplification step to elevate the concentration of the analyte, which may produce non-specific amplicons, prolong the detection time, and raise the risk of carryover contamination. Hence, various strategies for target amplification-free CRISPR/Cas-based detection have been developed, aiming to minimize the sensitivity loss due to lack of pre-amplification, enable detection for non-nucleic acid targets, and facilitate integration in portable devices. In this review, the current status and challenges of target amplification-free CRISPR/Cas-based detection are first summarized, followed by highlighting the four main strategies to promote the performance of target amplification-free CRISPR/Cas-based technology. Furthermore, we discuss future perspectives that will contribute to developing more efficient amplification-free CRISPR/Cas detection systems.

19.
Cell Death Discovery ; 9(1):9, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185786

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) describes the injury to endothelial cells in the lungs and associated vessels due to various factors. Furthermore, ALI accompanied by inflammation and thrombosis has been reported as a common complication of SARS-COV-2 infection. It is widely accepted that inflammation and the cytokine storm are main causes of ALI. Two classical anti-inflammatory cell types, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages, are theoretically capable of resisting uncontrolled inflammation. Recent studies have indicated possible crosstalk between Tregs and macrophages involving their mutual activation. In this review, we discuss the current findings related to ALI pathogenesis and the role of Tregs and macrophages. In particular, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between Tregs and macrophages in ALI pathogenesis. Understanding the role of Tregs and macrophages will provide the potential targets for treating ALI.

20.
Technovation ; 119, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2183683

ABSTRACT

Using data from 112 countries from 1998 to 2018, this study quantifies the overall impact of epidemics on innovation and identifies the underlying channels. Our results show that a 1% increase in the severity of an epidemic can significantly lead to a 0.059% decrease in patent applications and a 0.092% decrease in trademark applications. This negative impact can be explained by GDP, population and R & D expenditure channels. Further, our findings indicate that an increase in international personnel exchange (IPE) and foreign direct investment (FDI) can mitigate this negative impact. Finally, we discuss the policy implications of our results.

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