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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952966

ABSTRACT

Although the lungs are the primary organ involved, increasing evidence supports the neuroinvasive potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study investigates the potential relationship between coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related deterioration of brain structure and the degree of damage to lung function. Nine COVID-19 patients were recruited in critical condition from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged between 4 February and 27 February 2020. The demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All patients underwent chest CT imaging, 129Xe gas lung MRI, and 1H brain MRI. Four of the patients were followed up for 8 months. After nearly 12 months of recovery, we found no significant difference in lung ventilation defect percentage (VDP) between the COVID-19 group and the healthy group (3.8 ± 2.1% versus 3.7 ± 2.2%) using 129Xe MRI, and several lung-function-related parameters-such as gas-blood exchange time (T)-showed improvement (42.2 ms versus 32.5 ms). Combined with 1H brain MRI, we found that the change in gray matter volume (GMV) was strongly related to the degree of pulmonary function recovery-the greater the increase in GMV, the higher degree of pulmonary function damage.

2.
J Behav Med ; 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942298

ABSTRACT

The two studies reported in the paper examined (1) the extended parallel process model's (EPPM; Witte 1992) ability to predict and explain college students' COVID-19 vaccination behavior, and (2) the EPPM-related reasons for college students' COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Study 1 was a longitudinal study that measured the EPPM constructs at Time 1 and COVID-19 vaccine behavior two months later at Time 2. For danger control, results indicate that perceived threat and perceived efficacy positively predicted intentions and that intentions positively predicted behavior. For fear control, results indicate that perceived threat positively predicted fear, that perceived efficacy did not predict fear, and that fear negatively predicted defensive avoidance, reactance, and fatalism. Study 2 was a cross-sectional survey that assessed EPPM-related reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Results indicate that the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy were related to response efficacy (i.e., participants were concerned about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine). The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 40-46, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained stress during COVID-19 may be associated with depression in front-line medical staff, which would expose them to severe threats. This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between perceived stress and depression is mediated by insomnia, and whether this mediation is moderated by resilience. METHODS: For front-line medical staff, this study used online questionnaire to evaluate their perceived stress, depression, insomnia and resilience. A conditional process model was performed to examine the relationship between perceived stress and depression, as well as the mediating effect of insomnia and the moderating effect of resilience. RESULTS: A total of 606 front-line medical staff completed the survey. Higher level of perceived stress was significantly positively related to severe insomnia and depression. In addition, insomnia was positively related to depression, while resilience could moderate the effect of perceived stress on depression by direct and indirect paths. LIMITATIONS: The causality among perceived stress, depression, insomnia and resilience is difficult to be verified. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress is positively related to depression, and insomnia can mediate the effect of perceived stress on depression. In addition, the effect of perceived stress on depression, whether direct or indirect, is moderated by resilience, which is a protective factor for mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Medical Staff , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
4.
Cardiol Plus ; 5(4): 171-174, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776421

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that thromboembolic complications are a key determinant of inhospital mortality of patients with COVID-19. Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy is an important component of inhospital management of patients with COVID-19. Considering that millions of patients worldwide are prescribed oral anticoagulation therapy, herein, we summarize the pros and cons of non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin, in terms of pharmacodynamics, and therapeutic efficacy and adverse effect monitoring in the context of the global pandemic of COVID-19. Despite a lack of evidence from high-quality randomized trials, an NOAC, rather than warfarin, would be a scientifically reasonable treatment option for patients with COVID-19 in the outpatient setting.

5.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054292, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of existing studies and evidence on the impact of school closures and reopenings during the pandemic. INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated widespread school closures, and reopening schools safely has a pivotal role in the well-being of children and teachers, SARS-CoV-2 transmission control and optimal societal functioning. Widespread school closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have caused adverse effects on the education, physical health and mental well-being of children. An understanding of the impact of school closures and reopenings as well as factors influencing school safety is critical to bringing schools' operational status back to normal. Despite the implication of individual concerns and knowledge on disease prevention practices, there is a paucity of research on individual knowledge, needs and behaviours in the context of school reopenings. In the proposed study, we will conduct a scoping review to identify and provide inventory of the current research and evidence on the impact of COVID-19 on K-12 schools (primary and secondary schools) and vice versa. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Eligible studies/literature include members of K-12 (primary and secondary) schools (students, parents, staff, faculty, COVID-19 coordinator, school nurses) in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We will exclude university or college students. There will be no exclusion based on methods, timing or school operational status.All concepts regarding school closures and reopenings will be considered, and all types of research will be considered.This scoping review will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. Sources of evidence published from 2020 to 31 October 2021 will be included. The search will include PubMed, preprints in EuropePMC, ERIC, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and VHL. We will cover grey literature in Harvard Think Tank Database, COVID-19 Evidence Hub like COVID-END and Google Scholar. The abstract and title screening, full-text screening and data extraction will be done by two independent reviewers.Disagreements will be resolved by an independent third reviewer. Data extract will be done on Qualtrics form to ensure accurate extraction. Citation chaining will be performed on key articles identified. A critical appraisal will be performed.The scoping review will take place from 1 August 2021 to 15 November 2021. We will perform a final round of updated search and citation chaining. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The review will be based on published works and grey literature, thus it is exempt from formal ethical approval. This protocol cannot be registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews because this registry is not for scoping reviews. We will register it in OSF Registration. The paper will appear in a peer-reviewed, open-access journal to ensure a broad dissemination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
Biomedicines ; 10(4):781, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762177

ABSTRACT

Although the lungs are the primary organ involved, increasing evidence supports the neuroinvasive potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study investigates the potential relationship between coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related deterioration of brain structure and the degree of damage to lung function. Nine COVID-19 patients were recruited in critical condition from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged between 4 February and 27 February 2020. The demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All patients underwent chest CT imaging, 129Xe gas lung MRI, and 1H brain MRI. Four of the patients were followed up for 8 months. After nearly 12 months of recovery, we found no significant difference in lung ventilation defect percentage (VDP) between the COVID-19 group and the healthy group (3.8 ±2.1% versus 3.7 ±2.2%) using 129Xe MRI, and several lung-function-related parameters-such as gas–blood exchange time (T)-showed improvement (42.2 ms versus 32.5 ms). Combined with 1H brain MRI, we found that the change in gray matter volume (GMV) was strongly related to the degree of pulmonary function recovery-the greater the increase in GMV, the higher degree of pulmonary function damage.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2120913119, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758464

ABSTRACT

SignificanceThe coronavirus main protease (Mpro) is required for viral replication. Here, we obtained the extended conformation of the native monomer of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Mpro by trapping it with nanobodies and found that the catalytic domain and the helix domain dissociate, revealing allosteric targets. Another monomeric state is termed compact conformation and is similar to one protomer of the dimeric form. We designed a Nanoluc Binary Techonology (NanoBiT)-based high-throughput allosteric inhibitor assay based on structural conformational change. Our results provide insight into the maturation, dimerization, and catalysis of the coronavirus Mpro and pave a way to develop an anticoronaviral drug through targeting the maturation process to inhibit the autocleavage of Mpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Allosteric Regulation/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Humans , Luciferases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization
9.
Eur Radiol ; 32(8): 5297-5307, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To visualize and quantitatively assess regional lung function of survivors of COVID-19 who were hospitalized using pulmonary free-breathing 1H MRI. METHODS: A total of 12 healthy volunteers and 27 COVID-19 survivors (62.4 ± 8.1 days between infection and image acquisition) were recruited in this prospective study and performed chest 1H MRI acquisitions with free tidal breathing. Then, conventional Fourier decomposition ventilation (FD-V) and global fractional ventilation (FVGlobal) were analyzed. Besides, a modified PREFUL (mPREFUL) method was developed to adapt to COVID-19 survivors and generate dynamic ventilation maps and parameters. All the ventilation maps and parameters were analyzed using Student's t-test. Pearson's correlation and a Bland-Altman plot between FVGlobal and mPREFUL were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between COVID-19 and healthy groups regarding a static FD-V map (0.47 ± 0.12 vs 0.42 ± 0.08; p = .233). However, mPREFUL demonstrated lots of regional high ventilation areas (high ventilation percentage (HVP): 23.7% ± 10.6%) existed in survivors. This regional heterogeneity (i.e., HVP) in survivors was significantly higher than in healthy volunteers (p = .003). The survivors breathed deeper (flow-volume loop: 5375 ± 3978 vs 1688 ± 789; p = .005), and breathed more air in respiratory cycle (total amount: 62.6 ± 19.3 vs 37.3 ± 9.9; p < .001). Besides, mPREFUL showed both good Pearson's correlation (r = 0.74; p < .001) and Bland-Altman consistency (mean bias = -0.01) with FVGlobal. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic ventilation imaging using pulmonary free-breathing 1H MRI found regional abnormity of dynamic ventilation function in COVID-19 survivors. KEY POINTS: • Pulmonary free-breathing1H MRI was used to visualize and quantitatively assess regional lung ventilation function of COVID-19 survivors. • Dynamic ventilation maps generated from 1H MRI were more sensitive to distinguish the COVID-19 and healthy groups (total air amount: 62.6 ± 19.3 vs 37.3 ± 9.9; p < .001), compared with static ventilation maps (FD-V value: 0.47 ± 0.12 vs 0.42 ± 0.08; p = .233). • COVID-19 survivors had larger regional heterogeneity (high ventilation percentage: 23.7% ± 10.6% vs 13.1% ± 7.9%; p = .003), and breathed deeper (flow-volume loop: 5375 ± 3978 vs 1688 ± 789; p = .005) than healthy volunteers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protons , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation , Respiration , Survivors
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325271

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the clinical sequelae and immunological features of COVID-19 survivors who have been discharged from the hospital for 5-8 months. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged ≥18 years who were discharged from hospitals in Wuhan from January to April 2020. The demographics, clinical features, and laboratory findings of the participants were collected from medical records in the hospital. The participants from the study completed an investigation of clinical sequelae, blood tests, a pulmonary function examination and an unarmed rehabilitation evaluation at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine. A group of volunteers who were free of COVID-19 and lived in Wuhan during the outbreak were recruited as the comparison group.Results: The average age of the 574 COVID-19 survivors was 57.7±11.4 years, and 348 (60.6%) survivors were female. The average number of days from the onset of symptoms was 241.79±16.16. The average number of days from discharge was 194.3±14.4. Clinical sequelae were common, including general symptoms (n=321, 55.9%), respiratory symptoms (n=265, 46.2%), digestive symptoms (n=84, 14.6%), nervous symptoms (n=75,13.1%) and psychosocial symptoms (n=201, 35%). A total of 190 (33.7%) survivors reported reduced exercise capacity. Through the results of pulmonary function examination, anomalies were noted in carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO)% in 110 cases (32.4%), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)% in 105 cases (30.7%), forced expired flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF 50 )% in 128 cases (37.4%), and forced expired flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF 75 )% in 240 cases (70.2%). The counts of T lymphocyte, CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, B lymphocyte and NK cell in the survival group was significantly lower than that in the comparison group(all P < 0.05).There were 252 (43.9%) survivors whose total T lymphocyte counts had dropped, 260 (45.3%) whose CD4+T lymphocyte counts had dropped, 231 (40.2%) whose CD8+ T lymphocyte counts had dropped, 119 (20.7%) whose B lymphocyte counts had dropped, and 54 (9.4%) whose NK cell counts had dropped. But there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of lymphocyte subsets reduction between severe and nonsevere groups (all P > 0.05). The T lymphocyte counts, CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts of the patients before discharge were significantly higher than those in the early stage of admission (P < 0.025). There were 319 (55.6%) survivors with positive or weakly positive IgG antibodies and 17 (2.9%) survivors with positive or weakly positive IgM antibodies.Conclusion: Even after 5 to 8 months of discharge, many survivors still have clinical sequelae, and some of them have impaired immune function. Therefore, the long-term rehabilitation of COVID-19 survivors remains a concern.Funding Statement: This study was funded by the National Key R&D Plan of China (2020YFC0841600), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Research on Emergency in TCM (2017B030314176), R&D plan in key areas of Guangdong Province (2020B1111300005), and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2020ZYLCYJ05-11).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethical committees of Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China (GPHCM;No. BF2020-205-01). All participants signed informed consent forms.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324114

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of corticosteroid therapy on outcomes of patients with Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is highly controversial. We aimed to compare the risk of death between COVID-19-related ARDS patients with corticosteroid treatment and those without. Methods In this single-centre retrospective observational study, patients with ARDS caused by COVID-19 between 24 December 2019 and 24 February 2020 were enrolled. The primary outcome was 60-day in-hospital death. The exposure was prescribed systemic corticosteroids or not. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 60-day in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 382 patients including 226 (59.2%) patients who received systemic corticosteroids and 156 (40.8%) patients with standard treatment were analyzed. The maximum dose of corticosteroids was 80.0 (IQR 40.0–80.0) mg equivalent methylprednisolone per day, and duration of corticosteroid treatment was 7.0 (4.0–12.0) days in total. In Cox regression analysis using corticosteroid treatment as a time-varying variable, corticosteroid treatment was associated with a significant reduction in risk of in-hospital death within 60 days (HR, 0.48;95% CI, 0.25, 0.93;p  = 0.0285). The association remained significantly after adjusting for age, sex, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at hospital admission, propensity score of corticosteroid treatment, and comorbidities (HR: 0.51;CI: 0.27, 0.99;p  = 0.0471). Corticosteroids were not associated with delayed viral RNA clearance in our cohort. Conclusion In this clinical practice setting, low-to-moderate dose corticosteroid treatment was associated with reduced risk of death in COVID-19 patients who developed ARDS.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315491

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a multi-systemic disease that is highly contagious and pathogenic. The long-term consequences of it are not yet clear, as is whether society and life can return to a healthy state. Long-term assessment of their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is essential. This study aimed to investigate HRQoL and its risk factors in COVID-19 survivors at a follow-up of 6-month. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted among 192 COVID-19 patients with confirmed age ≥ 18 years who were discharged from various hospitals in Wuhan from January to April 2020. The demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory results of the study subjects were obtained from the hospital's medical records. Survivors' HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36), cognition was assessed using the ascertain dementia eight-item informant questionnaire (AD8), and survivors' pulmonary function were examined. All participants in this study completed the survey and testing at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Chinese and Western Medicine. SF-36 scores were compared with the Chinese norm, and logistic regression and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the factors affecting HRQoL in COVID-19 survivors. Results: SF-36 showed significant differences in HRQoL between COVID-19 survivors and the general Chinese population ( P< 0.05).Multiple linear regression demonstrated that age was negatively correlated with physical functioning (PF), role-physical limitation (RP) and social functioning (SF) ( P <0.05). Bodily pain (BP), vitality (VT), SF and role-emotional limitation (RE) were negatively correlated with females ( P <0.05). Length from discharge to follow‐up was positively correlated with PF and RP ( P <0.05). Abnormal cognitive function was negatively correlated with PF, RP, general health (GH), VT, SF, RE and mental health (MH) ( P <0.05). Abnormal Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO%<80%) was significantly negatively correlated with PF and SF ( P <0.05).In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between Coronary heart disease and RP, GH, VT and RE ( P <0.05).Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age(OR 1.032) and AD8 scores (OR 1.203)were risk factors associated with a low physical component summary (PCS) score. Length from discharge to follow‐up (OR 0.971) was the protective factor for PCS score. Abnormal cognitive function (OR 1.543) was a significant determinant associated with a mental component summary (MCS)<50 in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: The HRQoL of COVID-19 survivors remains to be improved at six-month follow-up. Future studies should track HRQoL in older adults, women, patients with abnormal DLCO, and abnormal cognitive function for a long time and provide them with rehabilitation advice and guidance.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315294

ABSTRACT

Background: Online teaching is being widely adopted to achieve medical teaching objectives during the COVID-19 pandemic. To explore the dental virtual clerkship so as to continue the education of final-year dental undergraduate interns, combined mode of courses including small private online course, problem-based learning, online dental practice broadcasting and dental practice based on relatives’ or friends’ oral health management were applied for clerkship education for final-year interns.MethodsCombined courses of virtual clerkship was conducted from March to May, 2020 for final-year interns, while online preclerkship curriculum teaching was conducted for non-final-year students. Using the online students’ engagement scale (OSE), Biggs’ revised two-factor version of the study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), student engagement and study process were evaluated for both. Teaching efficacy were evaluated via teachers' sense of efficacy scale (TSES) as well. ResultsStudents’ engagement was higher in final-year students, especially the emotion and participation categories (P<0.01). In the emotion category, 80.95% identified with putting forth effort on lecture and applying knowledge to life. Study approaches on deep motive and strategy were dominated in final-year interns (P<0.01). Teacher’ sense of efficacy also reflected the positive influence on student virtual clerkship. There was no significant difference among three categories including the sense of student engagement, instructional strategies and classroom management (P>0.05).ConclusionThis combined mode of courses on dental virtual clerkship could be potentially applied during the pandemic or be supplementary for traditional by-chair clerkship after the pandemic.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312728

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced a worldwide pneumonia with a high infectivity and mortality. However, the predicting biomarkers and their potential mechanism in the progression of COVID-19 are not well known. Objective The aim of this study is to identify the candidate predictors of COVID-19 and investigate their underlying mechanism. Methods The retrospective study was conducted to identify the potential laboratory indicators with prognostic values of COVID-19 disease. Then, the prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the overall survival of COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of the most important prognostic indicators in lungs and peripherals, respectively. Results 304 hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital were included in the retrospective study. CEA was the only laboratory indicator with significant difference in the univariate (P < 0.001) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.021). The scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of CEA in lungs and peripherals, respectively. The results revealed the potential roles of CEA were significantly distributed in Type II pneumocytes of BALF and developing neutrophils of PBMCs, participating in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication. Conclusion This study identifies the prognostic roles of CEA in COVID-19 patients and implies the potential roles of CEACAM8-CEACAM6 in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication of developing neutrophils and Type II pneumocyte.

15.
Clin Nephrol ; 97(5): 289-297, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687331

ABSTRACT

Billions of COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered to combat the ongoing global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. While these vaccines are considered safe, with most adverse events being mild to moderate and transient, uncommon systemic side effects of the vaccines, including de novo or re-activation of various glomerular diseases have recently been observed. We report 6 patients who developed glomerular or acute tubulointerstitial disease shortly after receiving COVID-19 vaccinations. Five of these patients received mRNA vaccines (3 Moderna, 2 Pfizer-BioNTech) and 1 received adenovirus-26 vector vaccine (Johnson and Johnson/Janssen). Four of our patients developed de novo glomerulonephritis or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN), while the other 2 had re-activation of prior glomerulonephritis. Two patients presented with acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by severe ATIN. While both of them also had evidence of immune complex glomerular disease, ATIN was the dominant feature on the biopsies. Two other patients presented with high-grade proteinuria and AKI. Like the aforementioned patients, these patients had evidence of immune complex glomerular disease, but acute onset nephrotic syndrome was the leading clinical feature. Another patient presented with de novo myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Yet another patient had re-activation of immunoglobulin-A glomerulonephritis that had been quiescent for several years prior to the vaccination. It is difficult to ascertain any causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and onset/recurrence of kidney diseases. However, vigilance about occurrence of such complications is imperative. Importantly, all our cases responded well to the immunosuppressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antigen-Antibody Complex , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Humans , Male , Nephritis, Interstitial , Vaccination
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 114, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peripartum depression in and after pregnancy are common, reported by 11.9% of women worldwide, and the proportion was even higher during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of peripartum depression under the influence of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 2026 pregnant and postpartum women residing in Beijing, Wuhan, and Lanzhou of China were recruited from February 28 to April 9, 2020. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess their depressive symptoms. The women were divided into four subgroups based on pregnancy stage, and a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted on each subgroup. RESULTS: Under the influence of COVID-19, the prevalence rate of peripartum depression among Chinese women was 9.7%. It was 13.6, 10.8, 7.9 and 7.3% in the first, second, third trimester and puerperium, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the influence of current pregnancy status on movement (Mild vs. No, aORs were 3.89, P < 0.001, 2.92, P = 0.003, 1.58, P = 0.150 in the three trimesters, respectively; Severe vs. No, aORs were 13.00, 20.45, 5.38 in the three trimesters, respectively, all P < 0.05), and worries and fears about childbirth (aORs were 2.46, 2.96, 2.50 in the three trimesters, respectively, all P < 0.05) were associated with depression throughout pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of peripartum depression during the COVID-19 outbreak in China was not higher than usual. The influence of current pregnancy status on movement, as well as worries and fears about childbirth were independent risk factors for peripartum depression throughout pregnancy during COVID-19. The stage of pregnancy should be considered when implementing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Peripartum Period/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Patient Health Questionnaire , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 47(4): 352-360, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599588

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A prospective and nonrandomized concurrent controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To address the early effects of concurrent treatment with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on fusion rates in patients who have undergone spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Intervertebral pseudarthrosis has been reported after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), especially in patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis. No study has assessed the early effects of concurrent treatment with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on fusion rates. METHODS: Patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis who underwent TLIF or PLIF in our department were included. Patients in the VK2+VD3 group received vitamin K2, vitamin D3, and calcium treatment, whereas subjects in the control group only received calcium and vitamin D3. Spine fusion was evaluated by computed tomography. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOA-BPEQ) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess the clinical and neurological symptoms. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were measured for osteoporotic evaluation. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were included, and nine patients subsequently discontinued because of 2019-nCoV. At six months postoperatively, complete fusion rates were significantly higher in the VK2+VD3 group than that in the control group (91.18% vs 71.43%, P = 0.036). At six months postoperatively, BMD was increased in the VK2+VD3 group and was higher than that in the control group, although there was no significant difference. At three months postoperatively, a significant increase in procollagen type I amino terminal propeptide (91.81%) and a slight decrease in C-terminal end peptide (8.06%) were observed in the VK2+VD3 group. In both groups, the JOA-BPEQ and VAS scores were significantly improved after spine surgery. CONCLUSION: Administration of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 can increase lumbar interbody fusion rates, improve clinical symptoms, promote bone information, and avoid further decline in BMD within six months after TLIF or PLIF.Level of Evidence: 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Osteoporosis , Spinal Fusion , Collagen Type I , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/complications , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/drug therapy , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Osteoporosis/complications , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Fusion/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin K 2
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 721952, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399196

ABSTRACT

Background: Contact tracing is a core element of the public health response to emerging infectious diseases including COVID-19. Better understanding the implementation context of contact tracing for pandemics, including individual- and systems-level predictors of success, is critical to preparing for future epidemics. Methods: We carried out a prospective implementation study of an emergency volunteer contact tracing program established in New Haven, Connecticut between April 4 and May 19, 2020. We assessed the yield and timeliness of case and contact outreach in reference to CDC benchmarks, and identified individual and programmatic predictors of successful implementation using multivariable regression models. We synthesized our findings using the RE-AIM implementation framework. Results: Case investigators interviewed only 826 (48%) of 1,705 cases and were unable to reach 545 (32%) because of incomplete information and 334 (20%) who missed or declined repeated outreach calls. Contact notifiers reached just 687 (28%) of 2,437 reported contacts, and were unable to reach 1,597 (66%) with incomplete information and 153 (6%) who missed or declined repeated outreach calls. The median time-to-case-interview was 5 days and time-to-contact-notification 8 days. However, among notified contacts with complete time data, 457 (71%) were reached within 6 days of exposure. The least likely groups to be interviewed were elderly (adjusted relative risk, aRR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89, p = 0.012, vs. young adult) and Black/African-American cases (aRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, pairwise p = 0.01, vs. Hispanic/Latinx). However, ties between cases and their contacts strongly influenced contact notification success (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) 0.60). Surging caseloads and high volunteer turnover (case investigator n = 144, median time from sign-up to retirement from program was 4 weeks) required the program to supplement the volunteer workforce with paid public health nurses. Conclusions: An emergency volunteer-run contact tracing program fell short of CDC benchmarks for time and yield, largely due to difficulty collecting the information required for outreach to cases and contacts. To improve uptake, contact tracing programs must professionalize the workforce; better integrate testing and tracing services; capitalize on positive social influences between cases and contacts; and address racial and age-related disparities through enhanced community engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Aged , Humans , Prospective Studies , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 875, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Warfarin treatment requires frequent monitoring of INR (international normalized ratio) to adjust dosage in a therapeutic range. In China, patients living in small towns usually go to tertiary hospitals to get warfarin monitoring and dosing, resulting in low frequencies of follow-ups and high incidence of complications. Influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, patients on warfarin have further reduced their visits to healthcare institutions. While patient self-testing (PST) via using a point-of-care testing device for INR measuring at home has been widely used in developed countries and demonstrated improved clinical outcomes compared to usual care in clinics, it is rarely applied in developing countries, including China. This proposed study will develop and assess the "Safe Multidisciplinary App-assisted Remote patient-self-Testing (SMART) model" for warfarin home management in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a multi-center randomized controlled trial. We will carry out the study in three county hospitals, three small tertiary hospitals and three large tertiary hospitals with anticoagulation clinics in Hunan province of China. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to the SMART model group (n = 360) or the control group (usual care clinic group, n = 360; anticoagulation clinic group, n = 120). Patients in the SMART model group do PST at home once every two to 4 weeks. Controls receive usual care in the clinics. All the patients will be followed up through outpatient clinics, phone call or online interviews at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month. The percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR), incidence of warfarin associated major bleeding and thromboembolic events and costs will be compared between the SMART model group and control groups. DISCUSSION: Patients in the SMART model group would show improved TTR, lower incidence of complications and better quality of life compared to the control groups. Our design, implementation and usage of the SMART model will provide experience and evidence in developing a novel model for chronic disease management to solve the problem of healthcare service maldistribution, an issue particularly obvious in developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR 2000038984 . Registered 11 October, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Warfarin/adverse effects
20.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369062

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing has enabled to capture the gene activities at single-cell resolution, thus allowing reconstruction of cell-type-specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs). The available algorithms for reconstructing GRNs are commonly designed for bulk RNA-seq data, and few of them are applicable to analyze scRNA-seq data by dealing with the dropout events and cellular heterogeneity. In this paper, we represent the joint gene expression distribution of a gene pair as an image and propose a novel supervised deep neural network called DeepDRIM which utilizes the image of the target TF-gene pair and the ones of the potential neighbors to reconstruct GRN from scRNA-seq data. Due to the consideration of TF-gene pair's neighborhood context, DeepDRIM can effectively eliminate the false positives caused by transitive gene-gene interactions. We compared DeepDRIM with nine GRN reconstruction algorithms designed for either bulk or single-cell RNA-seq data. It achieves evidently better performance for the scRNA-seq data collected from eight cell lines. The simulated data show that DeepDRIM is robust to the dropout rate, the cell number and the size of the training data. We further applied DeepDRIM to the scRNA-seq gene expression of B cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the patients with mild and severe coronavirus disease 2019. We focused on the cell-type-specific GRN alteration and observed targets of TFs that were differentially expressed between the two statuses to be enriched in lysosome, apoptosis, response to decreased oxygen level and microtubule, which had been proved to be associated with coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis
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