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1.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 958-965, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI), a rare adverse event, cannot be ignored as millions of doses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of post-vaccine AKI reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). METHODS: After data mapping from December 2020 to June 2021, we summarized demographic and clinical features and outcomes of reported cases from three vaccines (Pfizer-BNT, MODERNA, and JANSSEN). The Bayesian and nonproportional analyses explored the correlations between COVID-19 vaccines and AKI. RESULTS: We identified 1133 AKI cases. Pfizer-BNT appeared to have a stronger AKI correlation than MODERNA and JANSSEN, based on the highest reporting odds ratio (ROR = 2.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.97, 2.36). We observed the differences in ages, comorbidities, current illnesses, post-vaccine AKI causes, and time to AKI onset (all p<.05) among three vaccines. Most patients are elderly, with the highest age in MODERNA (68.41 years) and lowest in JANSSEN (59.75 years). Comorbidities were noticed in 58.83% of the cases and active infections in over 20% of cases. The leading cause of post-vaccine AKI was volume depletion (40.78%), followed by sepsis (11.74%). Patients in Pfizer-BNT had the worst outcome with 19.78% deaths, following 17.78% in MODERNA and 12.36% in JANSSEN (p = .217). The proportion of patients on dialysis was higher in JANSSEN than in Pfizer-BNT and MODERNA (14.61% vs. 6.54%, 10.62%, p = .008). CONCLUSION: AKI could occur after the COVID-19 vaccines, predominantly in elderly patients. However, the causality needs further identification.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccines/adverse effects
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820443

ABSTRACT

The administration of COVID-19 vaccines has become increasingly essential to curb the pandemic. However, adverse events of acute kidney injury (AKI) emerge rapidly as the COVID-19 vaccination promotes. To investigate the intervenable risk factors of AKI, we searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System database and recorded adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccines from Dec 2020 to Jun 2021. We included 1149 AKI cases, of which 627 (54.6%) cases were reported following the Pfizer-BNT COVID-19 vaccine, and 433 (37.7%) were reported after the Moderna vaccine. A univariate analysis revealed that coexisting active illnesses (infections, uncontrolled hypertension, heart failure, etc.) have an unfavorable prognosis, with an increased risk of death (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.70-3.25, p < 0.001). The other risk factors included older age and past disease histories. An adjusted regression analysis proved that coexisting active illnesses worsen AKI prognosis after COVID-19 vaccination, with a higher mortality risk (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.25, p < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, we stratified different variables, and none revealed a significant effect modification on the association between coexisting active illnesses and AKI-associated death after vaccination (p-interaction >0.05). We found that coexisting active illnesses could complicate AKI after vaccines, but the potential causal relationship needed further investigation.

3.
Clin Immunol ; 239: 109022, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803761

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, when coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was just beginning to spread around the world, we presented the potential benefits and controversies of anti-inflammatory therapy in COVID-19 patients based on the limited experience and proposed some types of anti-inflammatory drugs with potential therapeutic value, while without evidence-based data. In the past one more year, many clinical trials or real-world studies have been performed, either confirm or deny the efficacy of certain anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. In this review we summarize the progress of anti-inflammatory and immune therapy in COVID-19, including glucocorticoids, IL-6 antagonist, IL-1 inhibitor, kinase inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669010, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259345

ABSTRACT

Background: The prophylactic vaccination of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is the first large-scale application of this kind in the human world. Over 1.8 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine had been administered in the US until December 2020, and around 0.2% submitted AE reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). This study aimed to evaluate the AEs following immunization (AEFIs) and analyze the potential associations based on the information from the VAERS database. Methods: We searched the VAERS database recorded AEFIs after COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020. After data mapping, we summarized demographic and clinical features of reported cases. Fisher exact test was used to comparing the clinical characteristics among AE groups with an anaphylactic response, concerning neurological disorders and death. Results: VAERS reported 3,908 AEFIs of COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020. Most (79.68%) were reported after the first dose of the vaccine. Among the reported cases, we found that general disorders (48.80%), nervous system disorders (46.39%), and gastrointestinal disorders (25.54%) were the most common AEFIs. The allergy history was more frequent in vaccine recipients with anaphylactic reactions than those without (64.91% vs. 49.62%, OR = 1.88, P <0.017). History of anxiety or depression was more common in subjects reporting severe neurological AEFIs than those reporting other AEFIs (18.37% vs. 7.85%, OR = 2.64, P <0.017). Cases reporting death were significantly older (79.36 ± 10.41-year-old vs. 42.64 ± 12.55-year-old, P <0.01, 95% CI 29.30-44.15) and more likely experienced hypertension (50.00% vs. 11.42%, OR = 7.76, P <0.01) and neurological disorders (50.00% vs. 5.36%, OR = 17.65, P <0.01) than other vaccine recipients. The outpatient and emergency room visit rates were 11.92 and 22.42% for AEFIs, and 2.53% of cases needed hospitalization. Conclusion: AEFIs of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were generally non-severe local or systemic reactions. A prior allergy history is the risk factor for anaphylaxis, while a history of anxiety may link with severe neurological AEs. Such vaccine recipients need further evaluation and monitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 588301, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940193

ABSTRACT

Renal involvement has been implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the related prevalence and prognosis were largely unknown. In this meta-analysis, we searched the literature from PubMed, Embase, through bioRxiv, and medRxiv until April 26, 2020. Studies reporting chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) and/or acute kidney injury (AKI) were included. Demographics, relevant data of disease severity, and patient's prognosis were extracted and aggregated. Twenty-one thousand one hundred sixty-four patients from 52 peer-reviewed studies were included. Thirty-seven studies (n = 16,922) reported CKD in COVID-19 patients at diagnosis, and the pooled prevalence was 3.52% (95% CI, 1.98-5.48%; I 2 = 93%). Subgroup analysis showed that CKD prevalence was higher in severe cases [odds ratio (OR), 3.42; 95% CI 2.05-5.61; I 2 = 0%] compared to those with non-severe disease and deceased cases (6.46, 3.40-12.29; I 2 = 1%) compared with survivors. Pooled prevalence of CKD was lower in Chinese patients (2.56%; 95% CI, 1.79-3.47%; I 2 = 80%) compared to those outside of China (6.32%; 95% CI, 0.9-16.12%; I 2 = 93%) (p = 0.08). The summary estimates for AKI prevalence was 11.46% (95% CI, 6.93-16.94%). Patients with AKI had a higher prevalence of developing into severe cases (OR, 6.97; 95% CI, 3.53-13.75; I 2 = 0%) and mortality risk (45.79, 36.88-56.85; I 2 = 17%). The prevalence estimates of CKD or AKI were not significantly different from preprint publications (p > 0.05). Our study indicates that renal condition, either in CKD or AKI, is associated with COVID-19 prognosis, and taking care of such patients needs further awareness and investigations.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(9): 2205-2221, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence, severity, and outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 varied in different reports. In patients critically ill with COVID-19, the clinicopathologic characteristics of AKI have not been described in detail. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 81 patients critically ill with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit. The incidence, etiologies, and outcomes of AKI were analyzed. Pathologic studies were performed in kidney tissues from ten deceased patients with AKI. RESULTS: A total of 41 (50.6%) patients experienced AKI in this study. The median time from illness to AKI was 21.0 (IQR, 9.5-26.0) days. The proportion of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI were 26.8%, 31.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. The leading causes of AKI included septic shock (25 of 41, 61.0%), volume insufficiency (eight of 41, 19.5%), and adverse drug effects (five of 41, 12.2%). The risk factors for AKI included age (per 10 years) (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.69; P=0.002) and serum IL-6 level (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.73; P=0.003). KDIGO stage 3 AKI predicted death. Other potential risk factors for death included male sex, elevated D-dimer, serum IL-6 level, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Nucleic acid tests and immunohistochemistry failed to detect the virus in kidney tissues. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was a common and multifactorial complication in patients critically ill with COVID-19 at the late stage of the disease course. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Older age and higher serum IL-6 level were risk factors of AKI, and KDIGO stage 3 AKI independently predicted death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 733-739, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) require specialized management. However, the current situation of CKD management is unclear during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 on kidney patients' follow-ups. METHODS: In April 2020, we included patients who underwent kidney biopsy from January 2017 to December 2019 in a referral center of China, and then initiated a survey via telephone on different aspects of follow-up during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected and analyzed demographic data, diagnoses, follow-up conditions, and telemedicine experience. RESULTS: We reached 1190 CKD patients with confirmed kidney biopsies, and included 1164 patients for analysis after excluding those on dialysis. None of our patients have had COVID-19, although more than 50% of them were complicated with other comorbidities, and over 40% were currently using immunosuppressive treatments. Face-to-face clinic visits were interrupted in 836 (71.82%) participants. Medicine adjustments and routine laboratory examinations were delayed or made irregular in about 60% of patients. To continue their follow-ups, 255 (21.90%) patients utilized telemedicine, and about 80% of them were satisfied with the experience. The proportion of telemedicine users was significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatments than those without (31.88% vs. 17.12%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The risk of COVID-19 was mitigated in patients with CKD and other co-existing risk factors when proper protection was utilized. The routine medical care was disrupted during the pandemic, and telemedicine could be a reasonable alternative method.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Adult , Biopsy, Needle , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 483-488, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343363

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread over many countries and regions since the end of 2019, becoming the most severe public health event at present. Most of the critical cases developed multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) may complicate the process of severe COVID-19 patients. This manuscript reviews the different aspects of blood purification in critically ill patients with AKI and increased inflammatory factors, and examines its potential role in severe COVID-19 treatment. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been practiced in many sepsis patients with AKI. Still, the timing and dosing need further robust evidence. In addition to the traditional CRRT, the high-throughput membrane with adsorption function and cytokine adsorption column are two representatives of recently emerging novel membrane technologies. Their potential in removing inflammatory factors and other toxins prospects for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Calcinosis/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines , Heart Valve Diseases/therapy , Hypotrichosis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Skin Diseases, Genetic/therapy , COVID-19 , Calcinosis/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Illness , Heart Valve Diseases/etiology , Humans , Hypotrichosis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases, Genetic/etiology
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