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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338376

ABSTRACT

Background About 3 million people die every year in USA. In order to provide a general direction and background for subsequent research and development in this field, we reviewed the studies about impact of potential factors associated with the main causes of mortality and all-cause mortality. Method Researches are selected by PubMed website for last 15 years with published language of English. The leading cause of death were published by CDC in 2020 (excluded COVID-19) including the ten natural mortalities and unnatural mortality. We summarized the potential factors associated with the mortality and sorted them by “positive/negative effect” and “long-term/short-term effect”. Result Among risk factors, the factors of depression, unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity and other similar factors increase the mortality of main leading natural causes. Among protective factors, the factors of physical activity, nut intake, chocolate consumption were associated with the reduced mortality of multiple diseases. We also found that some factors possess bidirectional influence on different diseases or even one disease. The gender of female negatively affects mortality of diabetes, but positively affects cardiovascular diseases. The majority of air pollutants are risk factors for respiratory diseases while ozone possibly reduce the mortality. Conclusion Our review summarized various factors which have positive/negative and long-term/short-term effects on the main mortality of cause-specific and all-caused mortality. Further study is required to investigate the contribution of different variable on mortality.

2.
Chemical science ; 13(11):3216-3226, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782305

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights the urgent need to develop sensitive methods for diagnosis and prognosis. To achieve this, multidimensional detection of SARS-CoV-2 related parameters including virus loads, immune response, and inflammation factors is crucial. Herein, by using metal-tagged antibodies as reporting probes, we developed a multiplex metal-detection based assay (MMDA) method as a general multiplex assay strategy for biofluids. This strategy provides extremely high multiplexing capability (theoretically over 100) compared with other reported biofluid assay methods. As a proof-of-concept, MMDA was used for serologic profiling of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The MMDA exhibits significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ELISA for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. By integrating the high dimensional data exploration/visualization tool (tSNE) and machine learning algorithms with in-depth analysis of multiplex data, we classified COVID-19 patients into different subgroups based on their distinct antibody landscape. We unbiasedly identified anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid IgG and IgA as the most potently induced types of antibodies for COVID-19 diagnosis, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgA as a biomarker for disease severity stratification. MMDA represents a more accurate method for the diagnosis and disease severity stratification of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as for biomarker discovery of other diseases. A MMDA platform is developed by using metal-tagged antibodies as reporting probes combined with machine learning algorithms, as a general strategy for highly multiplexed biofluid assay.

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1967-1975, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777577

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether blood glucose control can be used as predictors for the severity of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to improve the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19. A two-center cohort with a total of 241 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes was studied. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, the clinical data and laboratory results were collected, the fasting blood glucose levels were followed up at initial, middle stage of admission and discharge, the severity of the COVID-19 was assessed at any time from admission to discharge. Hyperglycemia patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups: good blood glucose control, fair blood glucose control, and blood glucose deterioration. The relationship of blood glucose levels, blood glucose control status, and severe COVID-19 were analyzed by univariate and multivariable regression analysis. In our cohort, 21.16% were severe cases and 78.84% were nonsevere cases. Admission hyperglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.938; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.387-2.707), mid-term hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.758; 95% CI, 1.325-2.332), and blood glucose deterioration (aOR, 22.783; 95% CI, 2.661-195.071) were identified as the risk factors of severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reaching an area under ROC curve of 0.806, and a sensitivity and specificity of 80.40% and 68.40%, respectively, revealed that hyperglycemia on admission and blood glucose deterioration of diabetic patients are potential predictive factors for severe COVID-19. Our results indicated that admission hyperglycemia and blood glucose deterioration were positively correlated with the risk factor for severe COVID-19, and deterioration of blood glucose may be more likely to the occurrence of severe illness in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 754199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775952

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung cancer is the leading source of cancer-caused disability-adjusted life years. Medical cost burden impacts the well-being of patients through reducing income, cutting daily expenses, curtailing leisure activities, and depleting exhausting savings. The COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) was created and validated by De Souza and colleagues. Our study intends to measure the financial burdens of cancer therapy and investigate the link between financial toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in an advanced lung cancer population. Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with confirmed stage III to IV lung cancer were eligible. The COST questionnaire verified by de Souza et al. was used to identify financial toxicity. Multivariable linear regression analysis with log transformation univariate analysis and Pearson correlations were used to perform the analysis. Results: The majority of the patients (90.8%, n = 138/152) had an annual income of $50,000 ($7,775). The cohort's insurance situation was as follows: 64.5% of the cohort had social insurance, 20.4% had commercial insurance, and 22.0% had both. Patients who were younger age (50-59, P < 0.001), employed but on sick leave, and had lower income reported increased levels of financial toxicity (P < 0.05). The risk factors for high financial toxicity: (i) younger age (50-59), (ii) <1 month of savings, and (iii) being employed but on sick leave. Increased financial toxicity is moderately correlated with a decrease in QoL. Conclusion: Poorer psychological status and specific demographics are linked to increased financial toxicity (lower COST). Financial toxicity has a modest relationship with HRQoL and may have a clear link with HRQoL measurements.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Adolescent , China , Cost of Illness , Financial Stress , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Quality of Life
5.
Chem Sci ; 13(11): 3216-3226, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764224

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights the urgent need to develop sensitive methods for diagnosis and prognosis. To achieve this, multidimensional detection of SARS-CoV-2 related parameters including virus loads, immune response, and inflammation factors is crucial. Herein, by using metal-tagged antibodies as reporting probes, we developed a multiplex metal-detection based assay (MMDA) method as a general multiplex assay strategy for biofluids. This strategy provides extremely high multiplexing capability (theoretically over 100) compared with other reported biofluid assay methods. As a proof-of-concept, MMDA was used for serologic profiling of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The MMDA exhibits significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ELISA for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. By integrating the high dimensional data exploration/visualization tool (tSNE) and machine learning algorithms with in-depth analysis of multiplex data, we classified COVID-19 patients into different subgroups based on their distinct antibody landscape. We unbiasedly identified anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid IgG and IgA as the most potently induced types of antibodies for COVID-19 diagnosis, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgA as a biomarker for disease severity stratification. MMDA represents a more accurate method for the diagnosis and disease severity stratification of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as for biomarker discovery of other diseases.

6.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 727-733, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been raised about the risk to children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to collate global experience and provide provisional guidance for managing paediatric IBD (PIBD) in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: An electronic reporting system of children with IBD infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been circulated among 102 PIBD centres affiliated with the Porto and Interest-group of ESPGHAN. A survey has been completed by major PIBD centres in China and South-Korea to explore management during the pandemic. A third survey collected current practice of PIBD treatment. Finally, guidance points for practice have been formulated and voted upon by 37 PIBD authors and Porto group members. RESULTS: Eight PIBD children had COVID-19 globally, all with mild infection without needing hospitalization despite treatment with immunomodulators and/or biologics. No cases have been reported in China and South Korea but biologic treatment has been delayed in 79 children, of whom 17 (22%) had exacerbation of their IBD. Among the Porto group members, face-to-face appointments were often replaced by remote consultations but almost all did not change current IBD treatment. Ten guidance points for clinicians caring for PIBD patients in epidemic areas have been endorsed with consensus rate of 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data for PIBD patients during COVID-19 outbreak are reassuring. Standard IBD treatments including biologics should continue at present through the pandemic, especially in children who generally have more severe IBD course on one hand, and milder SARS-CoV-2 infection on the other.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Foods ; 11(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700376

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the food supply chain and thus threatened the food security of many people, while the impact of the pandemic on food consumption of people living in rural areas is still unknown. This study filled in the research gaps by employing a three-wave food consumption survey from 2019 to 2021 conducted in rural China. We adopted a random effect model and Poisson regression to quantify the short-run and long-run impacts of COVID-19 on rural households' food consumption and dietary quality. We found that rural households increased the consumption of vegetables, aquaculture products and legumes in the short-run, and these changes in consumption behavior even lasted 1 year after lockdown was lifted. However, the positive impact was much smaller in households not engaged in agricultural production. In addition, our results showed that COVID-19 decreased dietary diversity but increased dietary quality for households still engaged in food-related agriculture production. Our study indicated that COVID-19 did not threaten the food security status of rural families in China. On the contrary, rural families, particularly those still engaged in agricultural production, increased the consumption of several foods to strengthen their resistance against the virus.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324498

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have shown that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with underlying comorbidities can have worse outcomes. However, the effect of hypertension on outcomes of COVID-19 patients remains unclear. Research Question: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of hypertension on the outcomes of patients with COVID-19 by using propensity score–matching (PSM) analysis. Study Design and Methods: Participants enrolled in this study were patients with COVID-19 who had been hospitalized at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, China. Chronic comorbidities and laboratory and radiological data were reviewed;patient outcomes and lengths of stay were obtained from discharge records. We used the Cox proportional-hazard model (CPHM) to analyze the effect of hypertension on these patients’ outcomes and PSM analysis to further validate the abovementioned effect. Results: : A total of 226 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, of whom 176 survived and 50 died. The proportion of patients with hypertension among non-survivors was higher than that among survivors (26.70% vs. 74.00%;P < 0.001). Results obtained via CPHM showed that hypertension could increase risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients (hazard ratio 3.317;95% CI [1.709–6.440];P < 0.001). Increased D-dimer levels and higher ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (N/L) were also found to increase these patients’ mortality risk. After matching on propensity score, we still came to similar conclusions. After we applied the same method in critically ill patients, we found that hypertension also increased risk of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Conclusion: Hypertension, increased D-dimer and the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte increased mortality in patients with COVID-19, with hypertension in particular.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321361

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as an infectious disease with cytokine storm, has become an emerging global challenge. To assess the duration of SARS-COV-2 viral shedding and associated risk factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : COVID-19 patients with interleukin (IL)-1b, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines data consecutively admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 27, 2020 through February 5, 2020 were enrolled and been followed up until March 24, 2020. We utilized Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the duration of viral shedding and risk factors affecting virus clearance. Results: : 246 inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. The median duration of viral shedding was 24 days, ranging from 6 to 63 days. Age, severity of COVID-19, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, ferritin and sIL-2R were associated with duration of viral shedding. Administration of lopinavir-ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin did not shorten viral shedding time. Multivariate cox regression analysis revealed that sIL-2R, LDH and severity of COVID-19 were independent factors associated with duration of viral shedding. At stratified analysis, the viral shedding time was positively correlated with age, sIL-2R and LDH in non-corticosteroid subgroup, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte count in corticosteroid group. Conclusions: : The present study demonstrated that elevated sIL-2R, increased LDH and severe status were related to prolongation of viral shedding in COVID-19 inpatients. Further research is urgent to investigate the mechanism of immune reaction involved in the virus clearance process and aim to the optimal antiviral therapy.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310208

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the fever outpatient clinic has been open in Shanghai East Hospital (SEH). We analyzed the data for all 4,699 patients from SEH and the 27 confirmed COVID-19 cases among them to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases identified in the SEH. Methods: : Data were collected for patients who visited the fever outpatient clinic in the SEH between January 23 and April 30, 2020. We compared the characteristics of confirmed cases, including age, occupation, area, symptoms, laboratory results, and computed tomography (CT) scans, by month. Results: : By April 30, 4,699 patients had visited the fever outpatient clinic of the SEH;of those, 27 (0.57%) were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Among the confirmed domestic cases identified between January and February, four of five were from Wuhan, Hubei. Following the spread of the epidemic to other parts of the world, all confirmed cases identified in March–April were cases of individuals who were returning from abroad, mainly Chinese students living abroad. Further, all cases were from outside Shanghai, and no local residents were diagnosed in the clinic. Symptoms, laboratory tests, and CT scans were consistent with previous literature reports of positive COVID-19 cases. Conclusions: : Given the necessity to control the spread of this epidemic domestically and abroad, the focus of COVID-19 prevention and control has shifted. In Shanghai, measures taken to prevent COVID-19 spread were very successful. Early isolation and quarantine are necessary and effective measures.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310207

ABSTRACT

Background: A fever outpatient clinic at the south campus of Shanghai East Hospital (SEH) openedin response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. We analyzed the data of all 11,972patients who visited the fever clinic and the 29 confirmed COVID-19 cases to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases diagnosed at SEH. Methods: : Data were collected from all fever outpatient clinic patients between January 23 and September 30, 2020. We compared the characteristics of confirmed patients, including age, occupation, area, symptoms, laboratory results, and computed tomography (CT) findings, according to month. Results: : By September 30, 2020, 11,972 patients, including 29 (0.24%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, visited the clinic. Four of five confirmed domestic cases identified during January–February 2020 were from Wuhan (mainly elderly retirees and local employees), Hubei. After the epidemic spread internationally, all 22 confirmed cases identified during March–April 2020 were individuals who returned from abroad. They were predominantly young Chinese international students. The sporadic two confirmed cases during May–September 2020 included an employee returning to work from Hubei and an Indian servant from abroad. Symptoms, laboratory tests, and CT findings were consistent with previous reports of COVID-19-positive cases. Conclusions: : The characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases at SEH varied among different periods in response to the spread of the pandemic. However, due to the effective early isolation and quarantine measures, no outbreak occurred in SEH, which contributed to the prevention and control of the epidemic in Shanghai.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309524

ABSTRACT

Background: :The emergence of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 is a major public health issue, causing to a large global outbreak. However, the information regarding the clinical characteristic and progression of severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19 is scarce. Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study and enrolled 126 severe and critically ill adult patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Tongji hospital, between Feb 1 and Feb 20, 2020. Results: Of 126 patients, 85 patients with the positive of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were included. The mean age of 85 patients was 68.3 (SD 10.5) years. More than half were men, 55 (62.4%) had chronic illness. 57 (66.3%) patients had died before Feb 28, 2020. the median duration from onset of illness to death, hospitalization to death and ICU admission to death were 22 (17.0-26.0) days, 9.0 (6.0-13.0) days and 5.0 (2.0-6.0) days, respectively. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were more likely old (69.6 [SD 10.22] vs 65.6 [10.9]). Furthermore, the non-survivors had higher white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lower lymphocyte and platelet count, lymphocyte percentage and albumin. Notably, arbidol may improve the survival of severe and critically ill patients. Conclusions: Our study reveals the non-survivors had worse blood routine and other clinical monitors. Additionally, arbidol may play useful role in the survival of severe and critically ill patients, which needs further validation.

13.
Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research ; 3(1):17-25, 2020.
Article in English | Indonesian Research | ID: covidwho-1647171

ABSTRACT

Now, the whole world is facing the Coronavirus pandemic. In the meantime, students in China are required to do social distancing and not go to school. This Coronavirus pandemic resulted in the use of online learning to teach students. In this research, we will get to know the students' learning attitude towards online learning during the Coronavirus pandemic. The sample population for this research are students in West Java Indonesia. The data will be collected by using questionnaires and there were a total of 16 questionnaires that were collected for this research. The result of this research shows that online learning during this Coronavirus pandemic is not very effective. Also, the students' interest towards online learning is also very low. Based on the interviews done with students and teachers, most of them stated that there are various factors that can affect online learning in China such as the learning environment, internet, etc. The suggestion that is given in this research is that aside from online classes teachers can also use video learning media that are used by developed countries so that it can solve the bad internet problem. The result of this research hopefully can become a reference to improving a more effective learning media that can be used during the Coronavirus pandemic in Indonesia.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 695678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448815

ABSTRACT

Background: Minimal research has examined utility of PC-PTSD-5 in family members of frontline medical workers. The aims of our study were to develop and elucidate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PC-PTSD-5 and to determine its usefulness in screening for possible PTSD in relatives of Chinese healthcare workers during the COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional research in the relatives of medical staffs working in a general hospital during the COVID-19. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize demographic information of family members to find factors associated with PTSD symptoms. For reliability test, the internal consistency of PC-PTSD-5 was accessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A validity test was assessed by Pearson's correlation between scales. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the optimal cutoff score with the maximum Youden Index in this study. Results: The result of demographic information indicated that gender and the type of work undertaken by medical staff in the family have a potential impact on the PTSD symptoms of medical staff's family members. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of PC-PTSD-5 was 0.83, indicating the high reliability. Good validity was also demonstrated by Pearson coefficient. By calculating the Youden index, a cutoff score of 2 was found to be optimal in our study, with sensitivity of 80.74% and specificity of 88.43%. Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated the robust psychometric strengths of the PC-PTSD-5, introducing a reliable tool for screening PTSD among vulnerable and neglected families of these medical workers.

15.
Nurse Educ Today ; 107: 105152, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, safe and effective vaccines with high coverage remain the most effective way of controlling the infection. Therefore, the intention to get vaccinated is a critical issue for nursing students because they will act as health care providers and educators due to their future profession. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention among Chinese nursing students. DESIGN: A cross-sectional online survey was used. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1070 Chinese nursing students participated in this study. METHODS: The study used structured self-administered questionnaires to assess the effects of the following elements; sociodemographic factors, vaccination status, beliefs on general vaccination, beliefs and attitudes towards COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination, and COVID-19 vaccination intention. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between these variables and COVID-19 vaccination intention. RESULTS: More than half (51.9%) of nursing students were willing to vaccinate against COVID-19, while 43.4% were uncertain and 4.7% were unwilling to get vaccinated. Increased likelihood of intention to get vaccinated was associated with positive beliefs towards general vaccination and COVID-19 vaccination, perceived less adverse effects following vaccination, the greater impact of COVID-19 on daily life, and less clinical practice experience in healthcare settings. Those hesitant to vaccinate raised concerns about the safety of vaccines, doubted the efficacy, believed that vaccination was unnecessary, or had insufficient information on COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: More efforts are needed to enhance vaccine confidence and increase the vaccination rates against COVID-19 in nursing students by organizing effective educational campaigns and establishing positive vaccination beliefs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 614443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357532

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel coronavirus mutants is a main factor behind the deterioration of the epidemic situation. Further studies into the pathogenicity of these mutants are thus urgently needed. Binding of the spinous protein receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor was shown to initiate coronavirus entry into host cells and lead to their infection. The receptor-binding motif (RBM, 438-506) is a region that directly interacts with ACE2 receptor in the RBD and plays a crucial role in determining affinity. To unravel how mutations in the non-RBM regions impact the interaction between RBD and ACE2, we selected three non-RBM mutant systems (N354D, D364Y, and V367F) from the documented clinical cases, and the Q498A mutant system located in the RBM region served as the control. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted on the mutant systems and the wild-type (WT) system, and verified experiments also performed. Non-RBM mutations have been shown not only to change conformation of the RBM region but also to significantly influence its hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In particular, the D364Y and V367F systems showed a higher affinity for ACE2 owing to their electrostatic interactions and polar solvation energy changes. In addition, although the binding free energy at this point increased after the mutation of N354D, the conformation of the random coil (Pro384-Asp389) was looser than that of other systems, and the combined effect weakened the binding free energy between RBD and ACE2. Interestingly, we also found a random coil (Ala475-Gly485). This random coil is very sensitive to mutations, and both types of mutations increase the binding free energy of residues in this region. We found that the binding loop (Tyr495-Tyr505) in the RBD domain strongly binds to Lys353, an important residue of the ACE2 domain previously identified. The binding free energy of the non-RBM mutant group at the binding loop had positive and negative changes, and these changes were more obvious than that of the Q498A system. The results of this study elucidate the effect of non-RBM mutation on ACE2-RBD binding, and provide new insights for SARS-CoV-2 mutation research.

17.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):601-605, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1352918

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus pneumonia is menacing, and patients with new coronavirus pneumonia combined with other underlying diseases are more at risk. Glycemic control level directly affects the body's immune response and body state. Its low immune status is extremely likely to increase the risk of illness. Infected patients are more likely to aggravate the infection and further cause cytokine storms. Therefore, patients with new type of coronavirus infection and type 2 diabetes need better blood glucose control and management while treating new type of coronavirus infection. This article combines the research on the rational use of diabetes and analyzes the characteristics of the existing clinical data of COVID-19 to explore the pharmacological practice mode and medication monitoring strategy of this special patient. It is hoped to provide COVID-19 patients with diabetes with a more optimized and reasonable medication regimen and improve the clinical medication level.

18.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(19): 4990-4997, 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314992

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the infection of a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)], has become a pandemic. The infection has resulted in about one hundred million COVID-19 cases and millions of deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly spreads through the air and impairs the function of the respiratory system, it also attacks the gastrointestinal epithelial cells through the same receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor, which results in gastroenteric symptoms and potential fecal-oral transmission. Besides the infection of SARS-CoV-2, the treatments of COVID-19 also contribute to the gastroenteric manifestations due to the adverse drug reactions of anti-COVID-19 drugs. In this review, we update the clinical features, basic studies, and clinical practices of COVID-19-associated gastroenteric manifestations.

19.
Sleep Med ; 85: 246-258, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has evolved into the largest public health event in the world. Earlier COVID-19 studies have reported that the pandemic caused widespread impacts on mental health and sleep in the general population. However, it remains largely unknown how the prevalence of mental health problems and sleep disturbance developed and interacted in adolescents at different times in the epidemic. METHODS: 831 teenagers (aged 14-19) underwent a longitudinal follow-up study to evaluate the prevalence of mental health problems and sleep disturbance among adolescents before, during, and after the COVID-19 breakout in China and to explore the interaction between mental health and sleep across the three measurements. The chronotype, anxiety and depression level, sleep quality, and insomnia were investigated during each measurement. RESULTS: The adolescents had delayed sleep onset and sleep offset time, longer sleep duration during the quarantine than before and after the epidemic, whereas their chronotype tended to morning type during the epidemic. Yet, the highest prevalence of anxiety, depression, poor sleeper, and insomnia symptoms were observed before but not during the COVID-19 breakout. The females and adolescents who were eveningness type showed significantly higher anxiety and depression levels, poorer sleep quality, and severe insomnia status than the males and the intermediate and morning types. Sleep disturbance was positively associated with mental problems among three measurements. Pre-measured depression level significantly predicted sleep disturbance level at follow-ups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that adolescents' high prevalence of mental health and sleep problems occurred before the COVID breakout and decreased during and after the epidemic. Gender and chronotype were significant risk factors associated with affective and sleep disturbances. Depression positively predicted later sleep problems, but not vice versa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
20.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(2): e1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to gain an understanding of the paradox of the immunity in COVID-19 patients with T cells showing both functional defects and hyperactivation and enhanced proliferation. METHODS: A total of 280 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were evaluated for cytokine profiles and clinical features including viral shedding. A mouse model of acute infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was applied to dissect the relationship between immunological, virological and pathological features. The results from the mouse model were validated by published data set of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The levels of soluble CD25 (sCD25), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than non-severe cases, but only sCD25 was identified as an independent risk factor for disease severity by multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and showed a positive association with the duration of viral shedding. In agreement with the clinical observation, LCMV-infected mice with high levels of sCD25 demonstrated insufficient anti-viral response and delayed viral clearance. The elevation of sCD25 in mice was mainly contributed by the expansion of CD25+CD8+ T cells that also expressed the highest level of PD-1 with pro-inflammatory potential. The counterpart human CD25+PD-1+ T cells were expanded in BALF of COVID-19 patients with severe disease compared to those with modest disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high levels of sCD25 in COVID-19 patients probably result from insufficient anti-viral immunity and indicate an expansion of pro-inflammatory T cells that contribute to disease severity.

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