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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1872014

ABSTRACT

Background: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is considered to be a disease that mainly involves the respiratory system, an increasing number of studies have reported that COVID-19 patients had pancreatic enzymes (PE) elevation and even pancreatic injury. The study aims to determine the prevalence of PE elevation, and the relationship between elevated PE and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for studies reporting PE elevation in patients with COVID-19 from 1st January 2020 to 24th November 2021. Results A total of 13 studies (24,353 participants) were included in our review. The pooled prevalence of PE elevation in COVID-19 patients was 24% (18%–31%), the pooled odds ratio (OR) of mortality was 2.5 (1.7–3.6), the pooled OR of ICU admission was 4.4 (2.8–6.8), and the pooled OR of kidney injury, respiratory failure and liver injury were 3.5 (1.6–7.4), 2.0 (0.5–8.7), and 2.3 (1.4–3.9) respectively. In addition, the subgroup analysis revealed that although PE elevated to > 3 × upper normal limit (ULN) was significantly related to the mortality (OR = 4.4, 2.1–9.4), it seemed that mild elevation of PE to 1–3 ULN also had a considerable risk of mortality (OR = 2.3, 1.5–3.5). Conclusions PE elevation was a common phenomenon in patients with COVID-19, and was associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, due to the limited numbers of included studies, the result of our study still needed to be validated. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=295630, identifier: CRD42021295630.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841405

ABSTRACT

Foodborne pathogens have become the subject of intense interest because of their high incidence and mortality worldwide. In the past few decades, people have developed many methods to solve this challenge. At present, methods such as traditional microbial culture methods, nucleic acid or protein-based pathogen detection methods, and whole-genome analysis are widely used in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food. However, these methods are limited by time-consuming, cumbersome operations or high costs. The development of nanopore sequencing technology offers the possibility to address these shortcomings. Nanopore sequencing, a third-generation technology, has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity, real-time sequencing, and low turnaround time. It can be widely used in the rapid detection and serotyping of foodborne pathogens. This review article discusses foodborne diseases, the principle of nanopore sequencing technology, the application of nanopore sequencing technology in foodborne pathogens detection, as well as its development prospects.

3.
Cell Insight ; : 100029, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814234

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant poses a striking threat to human society. More than 30 mutations in the Spike protein of the Omicron variant severely compromised the protective immunity elicited by either vaccination or prior infection. The persistent viral evolutionary trajectory generates Omicron-associated lineages, such as BA.1 and BA.2. Moreover, the virus recombination upon Delta and Omicron co-infections has been reported lately, although the impact remains to be assessed. This minireview summarizes the characteristics, evolution and mutation control, and immune evasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 variants, which will be helpful for the in-depth understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 variants and policy-making related to COVID-19 pandemic control.

5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 284, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed 1) to examine the effects of epidemic-related job stressors, perceived social support and organizational support on the burnout and well-being of Chinese healthcare workers in the period of COVID-19 regular epidemic prevention and control and 2) to investigate the moderating effects of social support and organizational support on the relationship between job stressors and burnout and well-being within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. METHODS: A sample of healthcare workers (N = 3477) from 22 hospitals in Beijing, China participated in the cross-sectional investigation in October 2020 and reported epidemic-related job stressors, perceived social support, organizational support, burnout, anxiety and depression symptoms. RESULTS: 1) Medical doctors, females, people aged from 30 to 50, and those who worked in the second line during the pandemic reported higher scores of psychological symptoms and burnout in the period of regular epidemic prevention and control; 2) Epidemic-related job stressors positively predicted burnout, anxiety, and depression among healthcare workers; 3) Perceived social support and organizational support were negatively related to reported burnout, anxiety and depression symptoms; 4) Social support reduced the adverse effects of epidemic-related job stressors on anxiety and depression but enhanced the association between stressors and burnout; 5) Organizational support mitigated the adverse effects of epidemic-related job stressors on depression. CONCLUSION: The results shed light on preventing burnout and enhancing the psychological well-being of healthcare workers under epidemic prevention and control measures by reducing epidemic-related job stressors and strengthening personal and organizational support systems.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Aged , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324440

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept across the world in early 2020, triggering the lockdowns of several billion people across many countries, including China, Spain, India, the U.K., Italy, France, Germany, and most states of the U.S. The transmission of the virus accelerated rapidly with the most confirmed cases in the U.S., and New York City became an epicenter of the pandemic by the end of March. In response to this national and global emergency, the NSF Spatiotemporal Innovation Center brought together a taskforce of international researchers and assembled implemented strategies to rapidly respond to this crisis, for supporting research, saving lives, and protecting the health of global citizens. This perspective paper presents our collective view on the global health emergency and our effort in collecting, analyzing, and sharing relevant data on global policy and government responses, geospatial indicators of the outbreak and evolving forecasts;in developing research capabilities and mitigation measures with global scientists, promoting collaborative research on outbreak dynamics, and reflecting on the dynamic responses from human societies.

7.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; : 100049, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1620970

ABSTRACT

A B S T R A C T Ethnopharmacological relevance Several studies have confirmed that intestinal microflora dysbiosis correlates with the severity of COVID-19 patients. Clinical meta-analysis and our data show that the circulating miRNAs like miRNA-146 and the levels of serum cytokines in the peripheral blood are closely related to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. Despite the widespread use of traditional herbal medicine for COVID-19 in China, the mechanisms remain largely uncovered. Aim of the study We conducted an observational case-control study to verify the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine Qushi Jianpi Hewei Decoction (QJHD) for mild to moderate COVID-19 patients, and investigated the potential biomolecular mechanisms through metagenomics and transcriptomic sequencing methods. Materials and methods QJHD was given orally twice a day individually for 14 to 28 days. A total of 10 patients were enrolled in the study and given QJHD. We observed advantages in clinical cure time rate, and the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms as compared with reports in the literature. The metagenomics sequencing data of fecal microflora and transcriptomic sequencing data of blood cell in patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection patients were selected compared to the healthy control donors. Results No serious adverse events were reported. Meanwhile, the transcriptome analysis showed a decrease of the hsa-miR-21-5p expression in peripheral blood without QJHD. The species composition analysis showed an increase in the expression of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal tract;The interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression also in COVID-19 patient decreased in peripheral blood compared with healthy control donors. And we found an improvement in these parameters in patients taking QJHD. Conclusions Our findings show that QJHD could improve clinical outcomes of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients, probably through beneficial immunomodulatory effects by regulating Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal tract and hsa-miR-21 and IL-10 expression in peripheral blood. (chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030305)

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741502, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477825

ABSTRACT

Host innate immune response follows severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and it is the driver of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) amongst other inflammatory end-organ morbidities. Such life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is heralded by virus-induced activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs; monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells). MPs play substantial roles in aberrant immune secretory activities affecting profound systemic inflammation and end-organ malfunctions. All follow the presence of persistent viral components and virions without evidence of viral replication. To elucidate SARS-CoV-2-MP interactions we investigated transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of human monocyte-derived macrophages. While expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, paralleled monocyte-macrophage differentiation, it failed to affect productive viral infection. In contrast, simple macrophage viral exposure led to robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression but attenuated type I interferon (IFN) activity. Both paralleled dysregulation of innate immune signaling pathways, specifically those linked to IFN. We conclude that the SARS-CoV-2-infected host mounts a robust innate immune response characterized by a pro-inflammatory storm heralding end-organ tissue damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Proteome , Proteomics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114180, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused widespread panic due to its highly infectious and pandemic transmission. We aimed to evaluate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on infected subjects in China. METHODS: This case-control, survey-based study assessed the psychological status of COVID-19 patients and non-infected controls from February 10 to March 18, 2020, in China. Sex, age, education years, marital status, jobs, annual household income, living status, and geographic origin were matched between the two groups. The main outcome measures included anxiety, depression, insomnia, help-seeking behaviors, and treatment for mental problems. RESULTS: A total of 326 patients and 1304 (1:4 ratio) matched non-infected controls were enrolled. Compared with controls, patients had higher scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) (all p<0.01). Patients had higher rate of any mental problems (62.6% vs 42.5%, p<0.01), anxiety (27.3% vs 12.2%, p<0.01), depression (26.7% vs 14.6%, p<0.01), suicidal ideation (16.0% vs 10.7%, p<0.01), and insomnia (57.7% vs 36.7%, p<0.01). Among the subjects with mental problems, the proportion of seeking help (15.2% vs 6.9%, p<0.01) and receiving treatment (11.3% vs 4.3%, p<0.01) was higher in patients than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a higher prevalence of mental problems in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, suggesting a great psychological impact of COVID-19 infection. Our findings highlighted the urgent need for psychological assistance for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 257-275.e6, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009339

ABSTRACT

Given the immune system's importance for cancer surveillance and treatment, we have investigated how it may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection of cancer patients. Across some heterogeneity in tumor type, stage, and treatment, virus-exposed solid cancer patients display a dominant impact of SARS-CoV-2, apparent from the resemblance of their immune signatures to those for COVID-19+ non-cancer patients. This is not the case for hematological malignancies, with virus-exposed patients collectively displaying heterogeneous humoral responses, an exhausted T cell phenotype and a high prevalence of prolonged virus shedding. Furthermore, while recovered solid cancer patients' immunophenotypes resemble those of non-virus-exposed cancer patients, recovered hematological cancer patients display distinct, lingering immunological legacies. Thus, while solid cancer patients, including those with advanced disease, seem no more at risk of SARS-CoV-2-associated immune dysregulation than the general population, hematological cancer patients show complex immunological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure that might usefully inform their care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
11.
Data ; 5(4):118, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-970885

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 from late 2019 not only threatens the health and lives of humankind but impacts public policies, economic activities, and human behavior patterns significantly. To understand the impact and better prepare for future outbreaks, socioeconomic factors play significant roles in (1) determinant analysis with health care, environmental exposure and health behavior;(2) human mobility analyses driven by policies;(3) economic pressure and recovery analyses for decision making;and (4) short to long term social impact analysis for equity, justice and diversity. To support these analyses for rapid impact responses, state level socioeconomic factors for the United States of America (USA) are collected and integrated into topic-based indicators, including (1) the daily quantitative policy stringency index;(2) dynamic economic indices with multiple time frequency of GDP, international trade, personal income, employment, the housing market, and others;(3) the socioeconomic determinant baseline of the demographic, housing financial situation and medical resources. This paper introduces the measurements and metadata of relevant socioeconomic data collection, along with the sharing platform, data warehouse framework and quality control strategies. Different from existing COVID-19 related data products, this collection recognized the geospatial and dynamic factor as essential dimensions of epidemiologic research and scaled down the spatial resolution of socioeconomic data collection from country level to state level of the USA with a standard data format and high quality.

13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(15): 2828-2834, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826087

ABSTRACT

During the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, traditional face-to-face psychological interventions have been suspended due to high risks of rapid transmission. Developing an effective online model of psychological intervention is deemed necessary to deal with the mental health challenges brought up by this disease. An integrated psychological intervention model coined 'COVID-19 Psychological Resilience Model' was developed in Chengdu, China including live media, 24-hour hotline consultations, online video intervention and on-site crisis intervention sessions to provide services to those in need. A total of 45 episodes of live media programs on COVID-19 outbreak-related psychological problems were broadcasted with over 10 million views. A total of 4,236 hotline consultations were completed. More than 50% of the clients had positive feedback about the hotline consultations. A total of 223 cases received online video intervention, of which 84.97% were redirected from the hotline consultation and 15.03% from COVID-19-designated hospital and community-based observation spots. Seventy one-on-one psychological interventions were conducted with 39 COVID-19 patients, and one-third were treated with medication. Additionally, 5 training sessions were conducted to 98 frontline medical staff. This 'COVID-19 Psychological Resilience Model' is proven effective to the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have greatly improved the overall mental health of our target population during the COVID-19 pandemic. This model could provide valuable experiences and serve as a reference guide for other countries to offer effective psychological intervention, and reduce detrimental negative mental health outcomes in public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Services Accessibility , Hotlines , Humans , Internet , Models, Organizational , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Psychotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/therapy
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