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1.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884304

ABSTRACT

Plant derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized membranous vesicles released by plant cells, which contain lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and specific pharmacologically active substances. They are safe, widely available and expediently extractive. They have gratifyingly biological activity against inflammation, cancer, bacteria and oxidative aging, especially for the prevention or treatment of colitis, cancer, alcoholic liver, and COVID-19. In addition, as natural drug carriers, plant derived EVs have the potential to target the delivery of small molecule drugs and nucleic acid through oral, transdermal, injection. With the above advantages, plant derived EVs are expected to have excellent strong competitiveness in clinical application or preventive health care products in the future. We comprehensively reviewed the latest separation methods and physical characterization techniques of plant derived EVs, summarized the application of them in disease prevention or treatment and as a new drug carrier, and analyzed the clinical application prospect of plant derived EVs as a new drug carrier in the future. Finally, the problems hindering the development of plant derived EVs at present and consideration of the standardized application of them are discussed.

2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(8): 2994-3004, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844354

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Distinct physiological states arise from complex interactions among the various organs present in the human body. PET is a non-invasive modality with numerous successful applications in oncology, neurology, and cardiology. However, while PET imaging has been applied extensively in detecting focal lesions or diseases, its potential in detecting systemic abnormalities is seldom explored, mostly because total-body imaging was not possible until recently. METHODS: In this context, the present study proposes a framework capable of constructing an individual metabolic abnormality network using a subject's whole-body 18F-FDG SUV image and a normal control database. The developed framework was evaluated in the patients with lung cancer, the one discharged after suffering from Covid-19 disease, and the one that had gastrointestinal bleeding with the underlying cause unknown. RESULTS: The framework could successfully capture the deviation of these patients from healthy subjects at the level of both system and organ. The strength of the altered network edges revealed the abnormal metabolic connection between organs. The overall deviation of the network nodes was observed to be highly correlated to the organ SUV measures. Therefore, the molecular connectivity of glucose metabolism was characterized at a single subject level. CONCLUSION: The proposed framework represents a significant step toward the use of PET imaging for identifying metabolic dysfunction from a systemic perspective. A better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms and the physiological interpretation of the interregional connections identified in the present study warrant further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Whole Body Imaging
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1135-1144, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764464

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants is threatening public health around the world. Endocytosis functions as an important way for viral infection, and SARS-CoV-2 bears no exception. However, the specific endocytic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. In this study, we used endocytic inhibitors to evaluate the role of different endocytic routes in SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection and found that the viral infection was associated with caveolar/lipid raft- and cytoskeleton-mediated endocytosis, but independent of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Meanwhile, the knockdown of CD147 and Rab5a in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells inhibited SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection, and the co-localization of spike protein, CD147, and Rab5a was observed in pseudovirus-infected Vero E6 cells, which was weakened by CD147 silencing, illustrating that SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entered the host cells via CD147-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, Arf6 silencing markedly inhibited pseudovirus infection in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells, while little change was observed in CD147 knockout-Vero E6 cells. This finding indicated Arf6-mediated CD147 trafficking plays a vital role in SARS-CoV-2 entry. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the CD147-Arf6 axis in mediating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry into the host cells, and further suggest that blockade of this pathway seems to be a feasible approach to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 infection clinically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325384

ABSTRACT

Background: Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) is well-recognized in women competing in endurance sports;however, it is less common in males competing in non-endurance sports. Here, we report a case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with RED-S in an elite male non-endurance skill athlete caused by a change in workout over a short time frame. Case presentation: An 18-year-old elite male non-endurance skill athlete complained of fatigue, depression, and inattention. Blood tests showed low total testosterone levels and a physical examination revealed Tanner stage phase IV-V. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test revealed that the luteinizing hormone (LH) level was 10 times above normal, suggesting hypothalamic hypogonadism. However, magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) of pituitary gland, brain, and adrenal glands were normal. Due to COVID-19 pandemic, he was quarantined for 2 weeks. During that time, he only performed a basic workout. At the end of quarantine, his coach made him follow a new training program that was >50% more intense than the one before quarantine. He also had to restrict calorie intake for snowboarding. He was diagnosed as relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The condition resolved after lifestyle and training modifications. Conclusions: : RED-S is not restricted to endurance athletes. Elite athletes performing non-endurance sports can also suffer from it after a significant modification of training. Sports scientists/trainers should monitor caloric intake and training intensity to avoid RED-S, protect the health and improve the performance of all athletes.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325310

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic and an anxiety-provoking event. Therefore, a study was conducted to identify potential risk and protective factors related to anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : We collected information on demographic data and lifestyles by conducting a web-based survey of 19,802 participants from 34 provinces in China during COVID-19 pandemic. Level of anxiety was evaluated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. We used ordinal multivariable logistic regression to estimate the associations of anxiety level with potential risk and protective factors, and further developed a new score to simplify the assessment of anxiety disorder during COVID-19 crisis. Results: : Among 19,802 participants (mean [SD] age, 25.3 [8.1], years;10,121 [51.1%] men), we found that those who were front-line medical personnel, suffered from chronic diseases, with present symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection or contact history had 112%, 93%, 40% and 15% increase risk of higher anxiety level;while those with knowledge about personal protective measures or wore masks had 75% and 29% lower risk of higher anxiety level respectively. We developed a risk score by calculating the sum of single score of 17 factors. Each one increase of the risk score was associated with a 297% increase in anxiety index score. In categorical analysis, low risk (the risk score between 1 to 2), the moderate risk group (the risk score of 3) and high risk group (the risk score ≥4) had a -0.40 (95% CI: -1.55, 0.76), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.61) and 9.18 (95% CI: 8.04, 10.33) increase in anxiety index score, and a 26% (95% CI: -7%, 72%), 172% (95% CI: 100%, 270%), and 733% (95% CI: 516%, 1026%) higher risk of anxiety disorder respectively, when compared with the very low risk group (the risk score of 0). The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.74) for the model fitted the developed risk score, with the cut-off point of 3.5. Conclusions: : These findings revealed protective and risk factors associated with anxiety disorder, and propose a practical and simple method of identifying people who are at an increased risk of anxiety disorder during COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324163

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global epidemic posing threat to public health. Without specific drugs and therapies, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of currently applicable drugs.This study was a retrospective analysis of the effect of the administration of statins on survival in patients with severe COVID-19. Design: This study was a retrospective analysis of data collected in the ICU of Tongji Hospital affiliated with Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) during the COVID-19 outbreak.Data from69 patients with severe COVID-19 treated in the ICU from February to March 2020 were collected for the analysis.Patients with severe COVID-19 were treated with the standard of care at the time, and some patients were also treated with statins. Results: : Sixty-four patients with complete records were enrolled in the final stage of analysis. Statin administration had a beneficial effect on the overall survival of the patients. The statin administration cohorthad a significantly shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) according to t-tests. The aPTT and PT were also stable, as shown by locally weighted smoothing (LOESS) analysis. The use of statins combined with corticosteroids, anti-coagulants and anti-hypertensive drugs had a relatively greater effect on survival. Conclusions: : Statins can be therapeutic agents that may promote patient survival, possibly by improving coagulation function. Trial registration: HIRB 2020-1119 September 11 th , 2020, retrospectively registered.

7.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 12(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602102

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients’ perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54–14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13–212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17–0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTS More than one-third ofpatients met the diagnostic criteria of probable PTSD 1 month post-discharge. Providing timely emotional support during hospitaliza-tion may be one of the key measures for preventing PTSD in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 677025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403470

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global crisis; however, our current understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains limited. Herein, we performed RNA sequencing using peripheral blood from acute and convalescent patients and interrogated the dynamic changes of adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection over time. Our results revealed numerous alterations in these cohorts in terms of gene expression profiles and the features of immune repertoire. Moreover, a machine learning method was developed and resulted in the identification of five independent biomarkers and a collection of biomarkers that could accurately differentiate and predict the development of COVID-19. Interestingly, the increased expression of one of these biomarkers, UCHL1, a molecule related to nervous system damage, was associated with the clustering of severe symptoms. Importantly, analyses on immune repertoire metrics revealed the distinct kinetics of T-cell and B-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with B-cell response plateaued in the acute phase and declined thereafter, whereas T-cell response can be maintained for up to 6 months post-infection onset and T-cell clonality was positively correlated with the serum level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Together, the significantly altered genes or biomarkers, as well as the abnormally high levels of B-cell response in acute infection, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 through mediating inflammation and immune responses, whereas prolonged T-cell response in the convalescents might help these patients in preventing reinfection. Thus, our findings could provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of host immune response to COVID-19 and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies and effective vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1915576, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284836

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients' perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13-212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19.


Antecedentes: El COVID-19 ha supuesto una inmensa carga psicológica para el paciente infectado. El malestar psicológico puede persistir aún después de la recuperación inicial de la infección.Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia y los factores predictores del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) provisional en pacientes recuperados de COVID-2019.Métodos: El cuestionario inicial se realizó en pacientes con el COVID-19 desde el 10 de febrero del 2020 hasta el 25 de febrero del 2020 en un hospital designado. Se consideraron las variables demográficas y clínicas, además, se evaluaron los niveles de depresión y ansiedad mediante el cuestionario de salud del paciente de 9 elementos y el cuestionario del trastorno de ansiedad generalizada de 7 elementos, respectivamente. Un cuestionario de seguimiento fue realizado un mes después del alta. Los síntomas de TEPT fueron medidos por el Cuestionario de Eventos de Impacto 6 (IES-6 por sus siglas en ingles) y el nivel de percepción de los pacientes sobre el cuidado de soporte durante la hospitalización fue investigado utilizando un cuestionario auto-administrado.Resultados: Ciento catorce pacientes completaron tanto el cuestionario inicial como el de seguimiento. Cuarenta y un (36.0%) pacientes cumplieron con el punto de corte para el diagnóstico provisional de TEPT según el IES-6. El sexo femenino (OR = 4.69, 95% CI: 1.54-14.37), un nivel de educación secundaria o inferior (OR = 15.49, 95% CI: 1.13-212.71), niveles elevados de ansiedad (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.61) y una menor percepción de soporte emocional durante la hospitalización (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96) fueron factores predictores de riesgo elevado para el desarrollo provisional de TEPT.Conclusiones: El TEPT es observado con frecuencia en pacientes con COVID-19 un mes después del alta. Las pacientes de sexo femenino, los pacientes con un nivel de educación bajo, los pacientes con un nivel elevado de ansiedad y una menor percepción de apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podrían tener mayor probabilidad de desarrollar TEPT en el futuro cercano. El reforzamiento del apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podría ayudar a prevenir el TEPT en pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Survivors/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1063, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and an anxiety-provoking event. There are few studies to identify potential risk and protective factors related to anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We collected information on demographic data and lifestyles by a web-based survey of 19,802 participants from 34 provinces in China during COVID-19 pandemic. Level of anxiety was evaluated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. We used ordinal multivariable logistic regression to estimate the associations of anxiety level with potential risk and protective factors. We further developed a new score to simplify the assessment of anxiety during COVID-19 crisis. RESULTS: Among 19,802 participants, we found that those who were front-line medical personnel, suffered from chronic disease, with present symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection or contact history had 112, 93, 40 and 15% increased risk of higher anxiety level; while those with knowledge about personal protective measures or wore masks had 75 and 29% lower risk of higher anxiety level respectively. We developed a risk score by calculating the sum of single score of 17 factors. Each one increase of the risk score was associated with a 297% increase in anxiety index score. In categorical analysis, low risk (the risk score between 1 to 2), the moderate risk group (the risk score of 3) and high risk group (the risk score ≥ 4) had - 0.40 (95% CI: - 1.55, 0.76), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.61) and 9.18 (95% CI: 8.04, 10.33) increase in anxiety index score, and 26% (95% CI: - 7, 72%), 172% (95% CI: 100, 270%), and 733% (95% CI: 516, 1026%) higher risk of anxiety respectively, when compared with the very low risk group (the risk score of 0). The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.72, 0.74) for the model fitted the developed risk score, with the cut-off point of 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed protective and risk factors associated with anxiety, and developed a simple method of identifying people who are at an increased risk of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; 18(4): e12428, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225674

ABSTRACT

AIM: To deeply explore the experience of front-line nurses who participated in rescuing Wuhan during the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: Using a descriptive qualitative design, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted between February 25 and March 5, 2020. A conventional content analysis method was used in data analysis to extract themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: Six themes emerged after data analysis: (a) worries and stress during rescue; (b) difficulties encountered during rescue; (c) experience of team work; (d) experience of interaction with COVID-19 patients; (e) experience of logistic support and widespread concern; and (f) value and significance of the experience. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses took on difficult missions in the rescue and played an irreplaceable role. They experienced remarkable psychological changes over the intensive work. It was necessary to understand the feelings and problems of the nurses so as to establish a healthcare system that can protect medical staff effectively in future disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Nurses , Adaptation, Psychological , China/epidemiology , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 585537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211866

ABSTRACT

Objective: Little is known about the factors affecting the recovery of mental health in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this study is to look into the change of psychological distress and to explore the role of negative appraisals in the improvement of psychological distress in COVID-19 patients after they recovered from the infection. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal survey on patients with COVID-19 infection in Changsha. The 9-item Patient Health scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, and a newly developed measure, the COVID-19 Impact Scale (CIS) were applied to assess patients' depression, anxiety, and negative appraisal toward COVID-19 infection during their hospitalization and 1 month post-discharge. Results: Seventy-two patients were included in the analysis. A significant decrease in anxiety and depression levels was observed after patients were discharged from hospital. Two meaningful factors of the CIS were extracted based on factor analysis, namely "health impact," and "social impact." The change of social impact explained the 12.7 and 10.5% variance in the depression and anxiety symptom improvement, respectively. Conclusions: Change in negative appraisals, especially the appraisals related to COVID-19 social impact may play a vital role in the relief of psychological distress of infected patients. Therefore, a cognitive and social care perspective might be considered when promoting the mental health recovery and readjustment to society among COVID-19 patients.

13.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isolation form on the recovery of psychological distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after being discharged from hospital. METHODS: Baseline survey was conducted from February 10, 2020 to February 25, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital on the discharge day. After discharge, patients were free to choose whether isolate in a centralized isolation site (i.e. designated hotel) or their own home for another two weeks. A follow-up survey was conducted at the end of the 2-week post-discharge isolation. Depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health were assessed at both time points using the 9-item patient health questionnaire, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale and self-rated health scores, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty centrally isolated and 45 home isolated patients completed both the baseline and the follow-up assessments. Significant effects of time and time by isolation form were found on depression and anxiety levels, with a significant decrease in depression and anxiety shown in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. Besides, a significant time effect was identified on self-rated health with significant improvement found in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation is superior to centralized isolation in the recovery of COVID-19-associated depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health. More attention needs to be paid to the psychological well-being of centrally isolated patients. A sustained and integrated rehabilitation plan is warranted for patients with COVID-19 to achieve both physical and psychological recovery.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 536-541, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has spread rapidly in China and many other countries. The rapid increase in the number of cases has caused widespread panic among people and has become the main public health problem in the world. Severe patients often have difficult breathing and/or hypoxemia after 1 week of onset. A few critically ill patients may not only rapidly develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also may cause coagulopathy, as well as multiple organs failure (such as heart, liver and kidney) or even death. This article is to analyze the predictive role of clinical features in patients with COVID-19 for severe disease, so as to help doctor monitor the severity-related features, restrain the disease progress, and provide a reference for improvement of medical treatment. METHODS: The clinical data of 208 patients with COVID-19 who were isolated and treated in Changsha Public Health Treatment Center from January 17, 2020 to March 14, 2020 were collected. All patients were the mild and ordinary adult patients on admission, including 105 males and 103 females from 19 to 84 (median age 44) years old. According to the "Program for the diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infected pneumonia (Trial version 7)" issued by the General Office of National Health Committee and Office of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine as the diagnostic and typing criteria. According to progression from mild to severe disease during hospitalization, the patients were divided into a mild group (n=183) and a severe transformation group (n=25). The clinical features such as age, underlying disease, blood routine, coagulation function, blood biochemistry, oxygenation index, and so on were analyzed. Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood. Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fractional concentration of inspiratory oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was calculated. The variables with statistical significance were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients in the severe transformation group had more combined underlying diseases than those in the mild group (P<0.05). From the perspective of disease distribution, patients in the severe transformation group had more combined hypertension (P<0.05). In the severe transformation group, PT was significantly longer, the levels of Fib, ALT, AST, CK, LDH, and CRP were significantly higher than those in the mild group (P<0.05 or P<0.001), while LYM, ALB, and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly lower than those in the mild group (P<0.05 or P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis was performed on clinical features with statistically significant differences. Combined with hypertension, LYM, PT, Fib, ALB, ALT, AST, CK, LDH, and CRP as independent variables, and having severe disease or not was the dependent variable. The results show that combined hypertension, decreased LYM, longer PT, and increased CK level were independent risk factors that affected the severity of COVID-19 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The patients with mild COVID-19 who are apt to develop severe diseases may be related to combined hypertension, decreased LYM, and longer PT, and increased CK level. For the mild patients with these clinical features, early intervention may effectively prevent the progression to severe diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 657-664, 2020 Jun 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) brought psychological stress to the public, especially to patients. This study aims to investigate the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. METHODS: We took cross-section investigation for the mental health of 112 patients with COVID-19 via questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were performed to compare general and clinical data between the slight-ordinary patients and severe patients. Single sample t-tests were used to compare the difference between the factor scores of the Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90) in COVID-19 patients with the norm of 2015 and factor scores of SCL-90 in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). RESULTS: The obsessive-compulsive, depression, sleep and eating disorders had the highest frequency among the positive symptoms of SCL-90 in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. The factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 were higher than those of the norm (P≤0.001 or P<0.05). Slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 in Changsha showed lower factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility compared with the patients with SARS (P<0.001 or P<0.05). There was no difference in factor scores of SCL-90 between the patients with severe COVID-19 and those with SARS(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha are higher than those of the norm. However, the mental health of slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 is better than that of patients with SARS. It needs to provide targeting psychological interventions depending on the severity of patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Status , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Depression , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1115-1121, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622192

ABSTRACT

Masks have become one of the most indispensable pieces of personal protective equipment and are important strategic products during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to the huge mask demand-supply gap all over the world, the development of user-friendly technologies and methods is urgently needed to effectively extend the service time of masks. In this article, we report a very simple approach for the decontamination of masks for multiple reuse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Used masks were soaked in hot water at a temperature greater than 56 °C for 30 min, based on a recommended method to kill COVID-19 virus by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The masks were then dried using an ordinary household hair dryer to recharge the masks with electrostatic charge to recover their filtration function (the so-called "hot water decontamination + charge regeneration" method). Three kinds of typical masks (disposable medical masks, surgical masks, and KN95-grade masks) were treated and tested. The filtration efficiencies of the regenerated masks were almost maintained and met the requirements of the respective standards. These findings should have important implications for the reuse of polypropylene masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. The performance evolution of masks during human wear was further studied, and a company (Zhejiang Runtu Co., Ltd.) applied this method to enable their workers to extend the use of masks. Mask use at the company was reduced from one mask per day per person to one mask every three days per person, and 122 500 masks were saved during the period from 20 February to 30 March 2020. Furthermore, a new method for detection of faulty masks based on the penetrant inspection of fluorescent nanoparticles was established, which may provide scientific guidance and technical methods for the future development of reusable masks, structural optimization, and the formulation of comprehensive performance evaluation standards.

17.
J Transl Int Med ; 8(1): 9-19, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-351635

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the current public health threat all over the world. Unfortunately, there is no specific prevention and treatment strategy for this disease. We aim to explore the potential role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in this regard through this literature review. As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs' damage. As interaction of COVID-19 virus spike and ACE2 is essential for virus infection, COVID-19-specific vaccine based on spike protein, small molecule compound interrupting their interaction, human monoclonal antibody based on receptor-binding domain, and recombinant human ACE2 protein (rhuACE2) have aroused the interests of researchers. Meanwhile, ACE2 could catalyze angiotensin II (Ang II) to form angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), thus alleviates the harmful effect of Ang II and amplifies the protection effect of Ang1-7. ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys. ACE2 plays a very important role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. Strategies targeting ACE2 and its ligand, COVID-19 virus spike protein, may provide novel method in the prevention and management of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

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