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1.
One Health Bulletin ; 3(7), 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20245376

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccines provide a high degree of protection against severe disease, hospitalisation, and death. However, no vaccine claimed 100% effectiveness and it is expected that a small proportion of vaccinated individuals may develop a breakthrough infection due to individual differences, virus variants and other factors. We conducted an epidemiological investigation and analysis of an imported case who had finished four doses of vaccination, and in order to provide a relevant reference for regular epidemic prevention and control in the post-pandemic era.

2.
One Health Bulletin ; 2(17), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2288929

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aimed to describe the characteristics and containment of the Omicron variants in Shanghai compared with the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants in China. Methods: We summarized the data retrieved from the Shanghai Municipal Health Commission from January to June 2022 and the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China from March 2020 to August 2021. Epidemiological analysis was utilized to describe the differences among SARS-CoV-2 variants and the infection situation in the outbreaks in China. Results: The Omicron variants had the characteristics of high insidiousness, rapid transmission, high infectivity, and short incubation period, which were consistent with the characteristics of outbreaks caused by Omicron in other regions in China and abroad. There were 568978 asymptomatic infections in Shanghai from Feburary 26 to June 30, 2022, accounting for 90.73% of the SARS-CoV-2 infections in this outbreak wave. It's significantly different from a total of 23277 SARS-CoV-2 infections in China between March 31, 2020 and August 8, 2021, of which 41.97% of the cases were asymptomatic infections. Conclusions: Compared with previous outbreaks emerged in China, the Omicron outbreak in Shanghai was characterized by multiple point dissemination, wide coverage, a large number of close contacts of confirmed infections and asymptomatic carriers, and difficult source tracing. The lessons from Shanghai's response to Omicron showed that the dynamic zero-COVID policy is still the most suitable response to the virus which can quickly find the infections and curb the transmission route.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(9): 3804-3816, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289002

ABSTRACT

Peroxides find broad applications for disinfecting environmental pathogens particularly in the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the extensive use of chemical disinfectants can threaten human health and ecosystems. To achieve robust and sustainable disinfection with minimal adverse impacts, we developed Fe single-atom and Fe-Fe double-atom catalysts for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The Fe-Fe double-atom catalyst supported on sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride outperformed other catalysts for oxidation, and it activated PMS likely through a nonradical route of catalyst-mediated electron transfer. This Fe-Fe double-atom catalyst enhanced PMS disinfection kinetics for inactivating murine coronaviruses (i.e., murine hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59)) by 2.17-4.60 times when compared to PMS treatment alone in diverse environmental media including simulated saliva and freshwater. The molecular-level mechanism of MHV-A59 inactivation was also elucidated. Fe-Fe double-atom catalysis promoted the damage of not only viral proteins and genomes but also internalization, a key step of virus lifecycle in host cells, for enhancing the potency of PMS disinfection. For the first time, our study advances double-atom catalysis for environmental pathogen control and provides fundamental insights of murine coronavirus disinfection. Our work paves a new avenue of leveraging advanced materials for improving disinfection, sanitation, and hygiene practices and protecting public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Mice , Animals , Humans , Disinfection , Virus Inactivation , Ecosystem , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peroxides , Catalysis
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(7): 4295-4304, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735181

ABSTRACT

To address the challenge of the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, photosensitized electrospun nanofibrous membranes were fabricated to effectively capture and inactivate coronavirus aerosols. With an ultrafine fiber diameter (∼200 nm) and a small pore size (∼1.5 µm), optimized membranes caught 99.2% of the aerosols of the murine hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59), a coronavirus surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, rose bengal was used as the photosensitizer for membranes because of its excellent reactivity in generating virucidal singlet oxygen, and the membranes rapidly inactivated 97.1% of MHV-A59 in virus-laden droplets only after 15 min irradiation of simulated reading light. Singlet oxygen damaged the virus genome and impaired virus binding to host cells, which elucidated the mechanism of disinfection at a molecular level. Membrane robustness was also evaluated, and in general, the performance of virus filtration and disinfection was maintained in artificial saliva and for long-term use. Only sunlight exposure photobleached membranes, reduced singlet oxygen production, and compromised the performance of virus disinfection. In summary, photosensitized electrospun nanofibrous membranes have been developed to capture and kill airborne environmental pathogens under ambient conditions, and they hold promise for broad applications as personal protective equipment and indoor air filters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanofibers , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Light , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5825-5832, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432413

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has focused attention on the need to develop effective therapeutics against the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and also against other pathogenic coronaviruses. In this study, we report on a kind of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, neferine, as a pan-coronavirus entry inhibitor. Neferine effectively protected HEK293/hACE2 and HuH7 cell lines from infection by different coronaviruses pseudovirus particles (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 [D614G, N501Y/D614G, 501Y.V1, 501Y.V2, 501Y.V3 variants], SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV) in vitro, with median effect concentration (EC50 ) of 0.13-0.41 µM. Neferine blocked host calcium channels, thus inhibiting Ca2+ -dependent membrane fusion and suppressing virus entry. This study provides experimental data to support the fact that neferine may be a promising lead for pan-coronaviruses therapeutic drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-175796
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