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1.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 35(7):2437-2464, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236369

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis research aims to use meta-analytical structural equation modeling to look into how hospitality employees use technology at work. It further investigates if the relationship between the constructs of the technology acceptance model (TAM) is moderated by job level (supervisory versus non-supervisory) and different cultures (eastern versus western).Design/methodology/approachIn total, 140 relationships from 30 empirical studies (N = 6,728) were used in this study's data analysis in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis.FindingsThe findings demonstrated that perceived usefulness had a greater influence on "user attitudes” and "acceptance intention” than perceived ease of use. This study also identified that the effect sizes of relationships among TAM constructs appeared to be greater for supervisory employees or in eastern cultures than for those in non-supervisory roles or western cultures.Practical implicationsThe findings provide valuable information for practitioners to increase the adoption of employee technology. Practitioners need to focus on the identification of hospitality employee attitudes, social norms and perceived ease of use. Moreover, hospitality practitioners should be cautious when promoting the adoption of new technologies to employees, as those at different levels may respond differently.Originality/valueThis is the very first empirical investigation to meta-analyze the predictive power of the TAM in the context of hospitality staff technology adoption at the workplace. The findings also demonstrated differences in the predictive power of TAM constructs according to job level and cultural differences.

2.
J Sci Educ Technol ; 31(4): 461-472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982266

ABSTRACT

As a result of COVID-19, various forms of education and teaching are moving online. However, the notion of an online STEM camp is still in its beginnings, and there is little relevant research and experience in this context. At the beginning of April 2021, the research team launched an online STEM charity camp with the theme of "Shen Nong Tastes Herbs." Participants included 113 third- and fourth-grade primary school students ranging from 8 to 12 years of age from four schools in Karamay, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region with weak educational capabilities. The camp lasted for 3 days and included 7 activities, while remote teaching was accomplished through Dingtalk. Pre- and post-test questionnaires and interviews were used to explore the impact of this camp on students. We found that online STEM camps could improve students' self-efficacy, computational thinking, and task value, and there is a significant improvement in the self-efficacy (p = 0.000) and task value (p = 0.001) dimensions. In addition, students with high self-efficacy had higher scores in the other two dimensions. Finally, we summarized the experiences and gains of students and teachers and proposed suggestions for developing online camps based on this experience. [Table: see text]. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10956-022-09967-y.

3.
Mol Gen Microbiol Virol ; 37(3): 159-166, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198383

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the disease that has been identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the prophylactic treatment of SARS-CoV-2 is still under investigation. The effective delivery of eukaryotic expression plasmids to the immune system's inductive cells constitutes an essential requirement for generating effective DNA vaccines. Here, we have explored the use of Salmonella typhimurium as vehicles to deliver expression plasmids orally. The attenuated Salmonella phoP was constructed by the one-step gene inactivation method, and plasmid-encoded the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was transform into the Salmonella phoP by electroporation. Western blot experiment was used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 expression on 293T cells. Wistar rats were immunized orally with Salmonella that carried a eukaryotic expression plasmid once a week for three consecutive weeks. The ELISA was performed to measure the SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG at rat's serum samples. pSARS-CoV-2 can be successfully expression on 293T cells, and all immunized animals generated immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, indicating that a Salmonella-based vaccine carrying the Spike gene can elicit SARS-CoV-2-specific secondary immune responses in rats. Oral delivery of SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccines using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium may help develop a protective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(8): 1031-1038, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872440

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a kind of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease, which mainly damages nerves, the brain, and the spinal cord. Recently, several clinical cases reported the relativity between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the development of MS, but the mechanism of how COVID-19 affects the occurrence of MS was still not clear. It is bioinformatics technology that we use to explore the potential association at the gene level. The genetic information related to the two diseases was collected from the DisGNET platform for functional protein network analysis and used STRING to identify the complete gene set. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was analyzed by STRING. Finally, in the GEO database, we selected peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) RNA sequencing data (GSE164805, GSE21942) from COVID-19 patients and MS patients to verify the potential cross mechanism between the two diseases. The similar gene set of immune or inflammation existed between the patients with COVID-19 and ones with MS, including L2RA, IFNG, IL1B, NLRP3, and TNF. Interaction network analysis among proteins revealed that IL1B, P2RX7, IFNB1, IFNB1, TNF, and CASP1 enhanced the network connectivity between the combined gene set of COVID-19 and MS associated with NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling. The involvement of NLR signaling in both diseases was further confirmed by comparing peripheral blood monocyte samples from COVID-19 and MS patients. Activation of NLR signaling was found in both COVID-19 and MS. The PBMC samples analyses also indicated the involvement of the NLR signaling pathway. Taken together, our data analyses revealed that the NLR signaling pathway might play a critical role in the COVID-19-related MS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , COVID-19/complications , Computational Biology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , NLR Proteins , Signal Transduction
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261771, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622341

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of unconventional emergencies leads to a surge in demand for emergency supplies. How to effectively arrange emergency production processes and improve production efficiency is significant. The emergency manufacturing systems are typically complex systems, which are difficult to be analyzed by using physical experiments. Based on the theory of Random Service System (RSS) and Parallel Emergency Management System (PeMS), a parallel simulation and optimization framework of production processes for surging demand of emergency supplies is constructed. Under this novel framework, an artificial system model paralleling with the real scenarios is established and optimized by the parallel implementation processes. Furthermore, a concrete example of mask shortage, which occurred at Huoshenshan Hospital in the COVID-19 pandemic, verifies the feasibility of this method.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans
6.
Cell Rep ; 37(12): 110126, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556413

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that the high mortality caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus primarily results from complications of a cytokine storm. Therefore, it is critical to identify the key factors participating in the cytokine storm. Here we demonstrate that interferon-induced protein 35 (IFP35) plays an important role in the cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus infection. We find that the levels of serum IFP35 in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 correlates with severity of the syndrome. Using mouse model and cell assays, we show that IFP35 is released by lung epithelial cells and macrophages after SARS-CoV-2 or influenza virus infection. In addition, we show that administration of neutralizing antibodies against IFP35 considerably reduces lung injury and, thus, the mortality rate of mice exposed to viral infection. Our findings suggest that IFP35 serves as a biomarker and as a therapeutic target in virus-induced syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/blood , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Cities ; 120: 103485, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458673

ABSTRACT

The public hearing is a vital method to obtain citizen participation and information gathering for urban policy decision making. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused local planning departments around the nation to rethink their strategy, especially when many citizens are unable to use many of the new strategies because of the rural digital divide. While fully online meetings would be ideal for the current situation, the reality is that the lack of Internet and technology severely limits public participation among certain populations and in certain regions. This paper analyzed nine counties in the state of Florida, USA, in terms of population, COVID-19 cases, Internet broadband availability, and public hearing strategies, as well as survey data regarding public hearings, to produce best practices for holding a public hearing during the pandemic. A hybrid public hearing approach is the most effective method given the circumstances, and best practices and future approaches are provided and discussed to help bridge the digital divide. These resulting best practices will inform local residents, developers, planners, and decision-makers moving forward in the pandemic and ensure that the public voice can be heard with openness and transparency without compromising the applicants' and citizens' safety and health.

8.
Chinese Journal of Gerontology ; 40(8):1627-1630, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1451819

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods Four elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the isolation ward of Jinhua Central Hospital from January 22 to February 6, 2020 were selected as the research objects. Clinical data were collected, and general conditions, clinical symptoms, blood tests and CT images were analyzed. The characteristics of learning. Results Among the 4 elderly patients, 3 were general type, 1 was critically ill, 2 were males, and 2 were females, all with a history of underlying diseases. The imaging examination is in line with the typical changes of typical COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusion Elderly COVID-19 patients should pay more attention to the rapid progress of the disease, other system conditions, combined medication and thrombosis risk, and individualized treatment should be given.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1289-1298, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults. METHODS: Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose. RESULTS: In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 24), 10-µg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-µg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-µg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254403, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 poses a severe threat worldwide. This study analyzes its propagation and evaluates statistically the effect of mobility restriction policies on the spread of the disease. METHODS: We apply a variation of the stochastic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered model to describe the temporal-spatial evolution of the disease across 33 provincial regions in China, where the disease was first identified. We employ Bayesian Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods to estimate the model and to characterize a dynamic transmission network, which enables us to evaluate the effectiveness of various local and national policies. RESULTS: The spread of the disease in China was predominantly driven by community transmission within regions, which dropped substantially after local governments imposed various lockdown policies. Further, Hubei was only the epicenter of the early epidemic stage. Secondary epicenters, such as Beijing and Guangdong, had already become established by late January 2020. The transmission from these epicenters substantially declined following the introduction of mobility restrictions across regions. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial transmission network is able to differentiate the effect of the local lockdown policies and the cross-region mobility restrictions. We conclude that both are important policy tools for curbing the disease transmission. The coordination between central and local governments is important in suppressing the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China , Humans , Models, Statistical , Physical Distancing , Travel/statistics & numerical data
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 642452, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302108

ABSTRACT

Background: We investigated if the concentration and "rangeability" of cystatin C (CysC) influenced the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients suffering from, or not suffering from, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 675 T2DM patients and 572 non-T2DM patients were divided into "low" and "high" CysC groups and low and high CysC-rangeability groups according to serum CysC level and range of change of CysC level, respectively. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, and laboratory results of the four groups were analyzed. Results: COVID-19 patients with a high level and rangeability of CysC had more organ damage and a higher risk of death compared with those with a low level or low rangeability of CysC. Patients with a higher level and rangeability of CysC had more blood lymphocytes and higher levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. After adjustment for possible confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that CysC >0.93 mg/dL was significantly associated with the risk of heart failure (OR = 2.231, 95% CI: 1.125-5.312) and all-cause death (2.694, 1.161-6.252). CysC rangeability >0 was significantly associated with all-cause death (OR = 4.217, 95% CI: 1.953-9.106). These associations were stronger in patients suffering from T2DM than in those not suffering from T2DM. Conclusions: The level and rangeability of CysC may influence the prognosis of COVID-19. Special care and appropriate intervention should be undertaken in COVID-19 patients with an increased CysC level during hospitalization and follow-up, especially for those with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cystatin C/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288898

ABSTRACT

2020 and 2021 have been unprecedented years due to the rapid spread of the modified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus around the world. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes atypical infiltrated pneumonia with many neurological symptoms, and major sleep changes. The exposure of people to stress, such as social confinement and changes in daily routines, is accompanied by various sleep disturbances, known as 'coronasomnia' phenomenon. Sleep disorders induce neuroinflammation, which promotes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and entry of antigens and inflammatory factors into the brain. Here, we review findings and trends in sleep research in 2020-2021, demonstrating how COVID-19 and sleep disorders can induce BBB leakage via neuroinflammation, which might contribute to the 'coronasomnia' phenomenon. The new studies suggest that the control of sleep hygiene and quality should be incorporated into the rehabilitation of COVID-19 patients. We also discuss perspective strategies for the prevention of COVID-19-related BBB disorders. We demonstrate that sleep might be a novel biomarker of BBB leakage, and the analysis of sleep EEG patterns can be a breakthrough non-invasive technology for diagnosis of the COVID-19-caused BBB disruption.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Sleep Wake Disorders/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19/virology , Circadian Rhythm , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sleep Wake Disorders/metabolism
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(22): 2944-2962, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268364

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a global pandemic and poses a major threat to human health worldwide. In addition to respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and liver damage in moderate and severe cases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant proteins, participating in COVID-19-mediated inflammation and liver injury. Here, we show the novel reciprocal regulation between NRF2 and inflammatory mediators associated with COVID-19-related liver injury. Additionally, we describe some mechanisms and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation Mediators , Liver Diseases/virology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
14.
International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research ; 15(2):218-226, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1226619

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to ascertain the types of mitigation strategies used around the world to tackle the harassment of visitors by microtraders, the target population for these strategies, the number and ratio of countries/territories where used and to posit ideas on how the academy may assist in improving their effectiveness.Design/methodology/approachA total of 247 archives from 73 countries/territories were analysed using typological analysis, cross tabulation and frequency analysis.FindingsEight broad strategies were found. The top three most common were: policing, media/communication and legislative strategies. In total, 79 specific strategies were also named. The strategies targeted various groups at the destination. This paper then concluded with eight sub-streams for future trader harassment of visitor research being identified. They are research focussing on criminological, learning, research design and data analysis, environmental planning and design, work analysis and design, communication, technological and social infrastructure solutions.Originality/valueThis paper was the first to look at trader harassment mitigation strategies globally and the first to propose sub-streams in the area of visitor harassment research.

15.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 292-296, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207215

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a high-risk factor for exacerbation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes a high rate of mortality. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the warning and monitoring of severe patients, and early identify the severe and critically severe types in time in the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, it is necessary to pay attention to the adverse reactions and damage to vital target organs caused by treatment drugs. This study reports the successful experience of diagnosis and treatment of an older patient with COVID-19 accompanied by progressive renal impairment, and pertinent literature was reviewed to help clinicians raise awareness of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(7): 1705-1713, 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus 2019 in December 2019 has spread all around the globe and has caused a pandemic. There is still no current effective guidance on the clinical management of COVID-19. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been shown to be one of the therapeutic approaches to alleviate pneumonia and symptoms through their immunomo-dulatory effect in COVID-19 patients. CASE SUMMARY: We describe the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Hangzhou to explore the role of human menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) in the treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, we review the immunomodulation effect including non-specific and specific immune functions of MenSCs for the therapy of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: MenSCs can be helpful to find a promising therapeutic approach for COVID-19.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077468

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses massive economic losses in the global poultry industry. Here, we firstly report the construction and immunogenicity comparison of virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the S, M and E proteins (SME-VLPs); VLPs carrying the S and M proteins (SM-VLPs); and VLPs carrying the M and E proteins (ME-VLPs) from the dominant serotype representative strain GX-YL5 in China. The neutralizing antibody response induced by the SME-VLPs was similar to that induced by the inactivated oil vaccine (OEV) of GX-YL5, and higher than those induced by the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and commercial live vaccine H120. More importantly, the SME-VLPs elicited higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes than the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and OEV of GX-YL5. Compared with the OEV of GX-YL5, higher levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were also induced by the SME-VLPs. Moreover, the mucosal immune response (sIgA) induced by the SME-VLPs in the tear and oral swabs was comparable to that induced by the H120 vaccine and higher than that induced by the OEV of GX-YL5. In the challenge experiment, the SME-VLPs resulted in significantly lower viral RNA levels in the trachea and higher protection scores than the OEV of GX-YL5 and H120 vaccines, and induced comparable viral RNA levels in the kidneys, and tear and oral swabs to the OEV of GX-YL5. In summary, among the three VLPs, the SME-VLPs carrying the S, M and E proteins of IBV could stimulate the strongest humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses and provide effective protection, indicating that it would be an attractive vaccine candidate for IB.

18.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 51(9):2257-2264, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-860154

ABSTRACT

For the sake of verifying the immunogenicity of candidate epitope-polypeptide, the B and T cell epitopes of S1 protein of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 strain were predicted and the corresponding epitope-polypeptides were synthesized, and then were used to immunize mice, the immune effect was analyzed. Five epitope-polypeptides against S1 protein of IBV H120 strain were selected by epitope prediction software and acquired by chemical synthesis, then were immunized to mice. The specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and T lymphocyte subsets induced by each epitope-polypeptides were analyzed by indirect ELISA, neutralization test and flow cytometry. The ELISA results showed that the five epitope-polypeptides had good reactivity. The antibody titers of antisera induced by the five epitope-polypeptides sorted from high to low as follows: Pep76-106, Pep240-257, Pep511-537, Pep403-421, Pep135-172. The neutralization test results showed that the neutralization titers of antisera induced by the five epitope-polypeptides groups in mice were higher than that of the blank control group, and the order of neutralization titers was Pep240-257 = Pep403-421 = Pep511-537 > Pep76-106 = Pep135-172. The flow cytometry results showed that the percentages of CD3+, CD4+CD8- and CD8+CD4- T lymphocytes in all the five epitope-polypeptides groups were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the blank control group. The number of the CD3+ and CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes sorted from large to small as follows: Pep403-421, Pep240-257, Pep76-106, Pep511-537 and Pep135-172. The number of the CD8+CD4- T lymphocytes sorted from large to small as follows: Pep403-421, Pep76-106, Pep511-537, Pep240-257 and Pep135-172. In conclusion, Pep240-257, Pep76-106 and Pep403-421 could induce humoral immunity among the five epitope-polypeptides, while Pep403-421 could induce cellular immunity. Thus, peptide of Pep403-421 could induce cellular immunity and humoral immunity. This study laid a foundation for further understanding the immunological characteristics of the S1 protein and the development of diagnostic reagents and effective epitope vaccines.

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