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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 44(5): 689-693, 2023 May 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234043

ABSTRACT

A crucial lesson gained through the pandemic preparedness and response to COVID-19 is that all measures for epidemic control must be law-based. The legal system is related not only to public health emergency management per se but also to all aspects of the institutional supporting system throughout the lifecycle. Based on the lifecycle emergency management model, this article analyses the problems of the current legal system and the potential solutions. It is suggested that the lifecycle emergency management model shall be followed to establish a more comprehensive public health legal system and to gather the intelligence and consensus of experts with different expertise, including epidemiologists, sociologists, economists, jurist and others, which will collaboratively promote the science-based legislation in the field of epidemic preparedness and response for the establishment of a comprehensive legal system for public health emergency management and with Chinese characteristics.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Public Health , Humans , China , Pandemics/prevention & control , Emergencies
2.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2305597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

3.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; 1 (no pagination), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2263365

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 virus caused COVID-19 are in urgent need. Chansu has been reported to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects and widely used in Southeast Asian countries. This study aims to assess the efficacy of Chansu injection in treating patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized preliminary clinical trial was conducted and eligible patients were allocated to receive general treatment plus Chansu injection or only general treatment as control for 7 days. The primary outcomes of the oxygenation index PaO2/FiO2 and ROX, secondary outcomes of white blood cell count, respiratory support step-down time (RSST), safety indicators, etc were monitored. After 7 days of treatment, the oxygenation index was improved in 95.2% patients in the treatment group compared with 68.4% in the control group. The PaO2/FiO2 and ROX indices in the treatment group (mean, 226.27+/-67.35 and 14.01+/-3.99 respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (mean, 143.23+/-51.29 and 9.64+/-5.54 respectively). The RSST was 1 day shorter in the treatment group. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that Chansu injection contributed the most to the outcome of PaO2/FiO2. No obvious adverse effects were observed. The preliminary data showed that Chansu injection had apparent efficacy in improving the respiratory function of patients with severe COVID-19.Copyright © 2021 The Authors

4.
Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology ; 6(Suppl 1):55-56, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2289017

ABSTRACT

Background Telehealth and telemedicine have become indispensable healthcare delivery tools during the COVID-19 pandemic. Older individuals with cirrhosis have complex medical needs that are currently unmet due to the growing disease burden and decreased access to care. Delivering timely specialist care virtually to older adults with cirrhosis will likely be beneficial and acceptable to such patients;however, this has not yet been prospectively evaluated. Purpose The primary goal is to pilot the delivery of dual specialist care from a hepatologist and geriatrician, delivered virtually, for older adults living with liver cirrhosis who are at high risk of geriatric syndromes (age >/= 65 with frailty, undifferentiated cognitive impairment from dementia or hepatic encephalopathy, recurrent falls, risk factors for polypharmacy and moderate to severe malnutrition). Care is delivered using a dedicated hepatology-geriatric referral pathway. Primary objectives include evaluating the impact of this approach on emergency care and inpatient utilization, along with patient attitude and satisfaction to the virtual interdisciplinary care delivery model. Method This pilot quality improvement study was conducted in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Ethics approval was obtained from the Nova Scotia Health Research Ethics Board and the University of Alberta Research Ethics Board. Fifty to one hundred participants (age 65 years or older with at least one geriatric syndrome;diagnosis of liver cirrhosis by liver elastography or liver biopsy, or Fibrosis-4 Index for Liver Fibrosis greater than three and having radiological features of cirrhosis and/or portal hypertension) were recruited between September 2022 to December 2022 at the time of their hepatology consultation. After consent and screening, each patient underwent a telehealth appointment by zoom with a geriatrician within four weeks of their initial hepatology assessment. Follow-up by telephone using a standardized survey regarding ease of access and quality of their telehealth experience then occurred at 3-4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months for emergency room visits and hospital admission status. Result(s) Pending Conclusion(s) Pending Please acknowledge all funding agencies by checking the applicable boxes below Other Please indicate your source of funding;Pfizer Canada Disclosure of Interest J. Zhu Grant / Research support from: Pfizer Canada, F. Carr Grant / Research support from: Pfizer Canada, P. Tian: None Declared, M. McLeod: None Declared, M. MacFarlane: None Declared, S. De Coutere: None Declared, M. Sun: None Declared, K. Peltekian: None Declared

5.
Biodiversity Science ; 31(2), 2023.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2288420

ABSTRACT

Background: The 19th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP 19) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) took place in Panama from the 14th to the 25th of November 2022. The meeting was attended by 2,500 delegates representing more than 160 Parties and observers to the Convention. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted all CITES Parties and significantly disrupted the implementation of CITES. The CoP shared the actions and the experiences of the Parties, the Secretariat, the Committee members and observers in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress: Delegates reviewed 52 proposed amendments to the Appendices and discussed 91 agenda items. There was the highest proportion of proposals for new Appendix II species but the lowest number of revising annotation proposals the CoP 19 has considered in nearly 25 years. The CoP updated the regulation of international trade in over 600 species of animals and plants. In the adopted proposals, international trade in 50 species of freshwater turtles, 158 species of glass frogs, 100 species of sharks and rays, 150 species of trees and dozens of species of roseroots will be regulated as the newly revised lists are enforced. The CoP adopted the financing and the cost of the programme of work for the triennium 2023‒2025, with an overall budget being 6.1% higher compared to the triennium 2020‒2022. The Conference further refined compliance and enforcement requirements for elephants, big cats, totoaba and other wildlife species threatened with extinction. With the implementations of engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities, livelihoods-related issues have been relatively slow and hampered. Parties vigorously debated proposed amendments to the Rules of Procedure and criteria for the amendments of CITES Appendices, but no substantive amendments were adopted. A pilot version of the World Wildlife Trade Report and the Assessment Report on the Sustainable Use of Wild Species: Policy-Maker Summary were discussed and heard. CITES has added several new topics in the CoP to address new challenges, such as the role of CITES in reducing the risk of future zoonotic diseases associated with the international wildlife trade. The CoP 19 recommends interdisciplinary research to analyze the role of CITES in the conservation and sustainable use of forests. The Parties resolved to work on building gender equality into the international trade in wildlife, recognizing that women are often guardians of wildlife and biodiversity but, just as often, are not recognized or benefit from this trade. Prospects: Regardless of the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, China's CITES authorities made thorough preparations for the CoP, conducting research two years in advance and drafting a proposal a report which was submitted to the CoP 19, organized pre-session and in-session consultations with scientific authorities, collected information from all parties, and actively led the discussions in working groups, presenting a positive view of China in prioritizing ecological civilization and fulfilling its responsibilities as a major country. CITES will celebrate its 50th anniversary in 2023. The record 365 decisions in CoP 19 demonstrate that CITES Parties continue to take action to address the unprecedented pressures on species due to overexploitation and illegal trade. © 2023, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

6.
Biodiversity Science ; 31(2), 2023.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2288419

ABSTRACT

Background: The 19th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP 19) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) took place in Panama from the 14th to the 25th of November 2022. The meeting was attended by 2,500 delegates representing more than 160 Parties and observers to the Convention. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted all CITES Parties and significantly disrupted the implementation of CITES. The CoP shared the actions and the experiences of the Parties, the Secretariat, the Committee members and observers in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress: Delegates reviewed 52 proposed amendments to the Appendices and discussed 91 agenda items. There was the highest proportion of proposals for new Appendix II species but the lowest number of revising annotation proposals the CoP 19 has considered in nearly 25 years. The CoP updated the regulation of international trade in over 600 species of animals and plants. In the adopted proposals, international trade in 50 species of freshwater turtles, 158 species of glass frogs, 100 species of sharks and rays, 150 species of trees and dozens of species of roseroots will be regulated as the newly revised lists are enforced. The CoP adopted the financing and the cost of the programme of work for the triennium 2023‒2025, with an overall budget being 6.1% higher compared to the triennium 2020‒2022. The Conference further refined compliance and enforcement requirements for elephants, big cats, totoaba and other wildlife species threatened with extinction. With the implementations of engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities, livelihoods-related issues have been relatively slow and hampered. Parties vigorously debated proposed amendments to the Rules of Procedure and criteria for the amendments of CITES Appendices, but no substantive amendments were adopted. A pilot version of the World Wildlife Trade Report and the Assessment Report on the Sustainable Use of Wild Species: Policy-Maker Summary were discussed and heard. CITES has added several new topics in the CoP to address new challenges, such as the role of CITES in reducing the risk of future zoonotic diseases associated with the international wildlife trade. The CoP 19 recommends interdisciplinary research to analyze the role of CITES in the conservation and sustainable use of forests. The Parties resolved to work on building gender equality into the international trade in wildlife, recognizing that women are often guardians of wildlife and biodiversity but, just as often, are not recognized or benefit from this trade. Prospects: Regardless of the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, China's CITES authorities made thorough preparations for the CoP, conducting research two years in advance and drafting a proposal a report which was submitted to the CoP 19, organized pre-session and in-session consultations with scientific authorities, collected information from all parties, and actively led the discussions in working groups, presenting a positive view of China in prioritizing ecological civilization and fulfilling its responsibilities as a major country. CITES will celebrate its 50th anniversary in 2023. The record 365 decisions in CoP 19 demonstrate that CITES Parties continue to take action to address the unprecedented pressures on species due to overexploitation and illegal trade. © 2023, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

7.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2286480

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

8.
IEEE Access ; 11:24162-24174, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2250324

ABSTRACT

In developing countries, funding is a significant obstacle to receiving higher education. Brilliant but needy students cannot complete their studies since their parents are unemployed and their countries' economies are poor. As a result, the students' talents are not harnessed to their full potential. In order to help students obtain higher education and harness their full potential, governments provide student loans to students in higher education. The government provides loans to students through the ministry of education. The students pay back the loan with interest when they start working. Governments have been the sole funders of student loans. The emergence of COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine war have resulted in a global economic crisis. Because of the global economic crisis, the government's spending has increased. In order to help reduce the burden of government and thereby reduce spending, we intend to revolutionize the student loan program through blockchain and crowdsourcing. This work presents a blockchain-based crowdsourcing decentralized loan platform where investors will be brought on board to provide funds for students in higher education. The platform will allow students to apply for loans from investors through registered financial institutions. The students will pay back the loans with interest when they enter the workforce. The proposed platform will allow students to fund their education, investors will get interest on the money they invest, and governments can channel the money they put into student loan programs into other avenues. We perform a thorough security analysis and back the efficiency of our work with numerical results. © 2013 IEEE.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 41(6 Supplement):134, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2276692

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer(ca) and old age are risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 (C19+) disease, related morbidity and mortality. These patients (pts) were excluded from clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of 3 FDA approved C19 vaccines (vax). Genitourinary (GU) ca-prostate, bladder and kidney ca contribute to the majority of non-skin ca and median age of these pts range from 65-75 yrs. We aimed to study these highly vulnerable pts behavior and outcomes regarding C19 vax in comparison to non-GU ca pts (18-89 years). Method(s): A prospective and observational single center study. Adult ca pts seen in clinics from Nov 2021-Sept 2022 were randomly interviewed using telephone surveys after a verbal consent. Type of ca and therapy data were collected from pts' medical records. The survey included C19 disease status, vax status positive (+) or negative (-), reason for vax status, side effects (s.e), impact on ca Rx or ca progression. Data was entered on REDCap. The primary end point was rate of vaccination in adult ca pts. Secondary end points were to quantify C19 vax acceptance vs. hesitance, identify s.e of C19 vax and effect of C19 vax on outcomes in GU and non-GU Ca pts. Result(s): N=172;GU ca 21 (12.2%) and non-GUca 151 (87.8%). Among GU ca pts- 9 had prostate ca, 7 had bladder ca and 5 had renal ca. C19+ in 4 (19%) GU and 45 (30.2%) non-GU pts. GU pts: 90.5% received C19 vax (Pfizer 47.6%;Moderna 42.9%, J & J 0%);9.5% were not vaxed. Non-GU pts: 85.2% received C19 vax (Pfizer 39.1%;Moderna 43%, J & J 2.6%);14.8% were not vaxed. The top 3 risk factors for serious C19+ were age >65yr (76.2%), heart disease (61.9%) and BMI.30 (42.9%) in GU ca pts and age >65yr (46.4%), BMI.30 (35.1%) and smoking (19.9%) in non-GU ca pts. The top 3 reasons for C19 vax (+) in GU ca pts: protection against C19+ for self (81%), for others (47.6%) and provider recommendation (38.1%). The main reasons for vax hesitancy in C19 vax (-) GU ca pts: concern for allergy to the vax (4.8%) and prior C19 infection (4.8%). The common s.e of C19 vax reported in GU ca pts were injection site inflammation (19%), headache (4.8%), muscle/body aches (4.8%) but no lymphadenopathy. None of GU ca pts reported delay in Rx or progression of the disease due to C-19 vax. Conclusion(s): C19 vax were overall well tolerated and did not impact ca outcomes in pts with GU malignancies. Oncologists should discuss the importance of C19 vax in the context of ca.

10.
Food Science and Human Wellness ; 12(4):1351-1358, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2246623

ABSTRACT

The contamination of Atlantic salmon with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has impeded the development of the cold-chain food industry and posed possible risks to the population. Electron beam (E-beam) irradiation under 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy can effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in cold-chain seafood. However, there are few statistics about the quality changes of salmon exposed to these irradiation dosages. This work demonstrated that E-beam irradiation at dosages capable of killing SARS-CoV-2 induced lipid oxidation, decreased vitamin A content, and increased some amino acids and ash content. In addition, irradiation altered the textural features of salmon, such as its hardness, resilience, cohesiveness, and chewiness. The irradiation considerably affected the L*, a*, and b* values of salmon, with the L* value increasing and a*, b* values decreasing. There was no significant difference in the sensory evaluation of control and irradiated salmon. It was shown that irradiation with 2−7 kGy E-beam did not significantly degrade quality. The inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in salmon is advised at a dose of 2 kGy. © 2022

11.
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific ; 31, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241568

ABSTRACT

Overall survival (OS) is considered the standard clinical endpoint to support effectiveness claims in new drug applications globally, particularly for lethal conditions such as cancer. However, the source and reliability of OS in the setting of clinical trials have seldom been doubted and discussed. This study first raised the common issue that data integrity and reliability are doubtful when we collect OS information or other time-to-event endpoints based solely on simple follow-up records by investigators without supporting material, especially since the 2019 COVID-19 pandemic. Then, two rounds of discussions with 30 Chinese experts were held and 12 potential source scenarios of three methods for obtaining the time of death of participants, including death certificate, death record and follow-up record, were sorted out and analysed. With a comprehensive assessment of the 12 scenarios by legitimacy, data reliability, data acquisition efficiency, difficulty of data acquisition, and coverage of participants, both short-term and long-term recommended sources, overall strategies and detailed measures for improving the integrity and reliability of death date are presented. In the short term, we suggest integrated sources such as public security systems made available to drug inspection centres appropriately as soon as possible to strengthen supervision. Death certificates provided by participants' family members and detailed standard follow-up records are recommended to investigators as the two channels of mutual compensation, and the acquisition of supporting materials is encouraged as long as it is not prohibited legally. Moreover, we expect that the sharing of electronic medical records and the legal disclosure of death records in established health registries can be realized with the joint efforts of the whole industry in the long-term. The above proposed solutions are mainly based on the context of China and can also provide reference for other countries in the world. © 2022 The Authors

12.
Food Bioscience ; 52, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2237584

ABSTRACT

As a non-thermal food processing technology, Electron beam (E-beam) irradiation has been used to enhance microbial safety by deactivating unwanted spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in food industry. This study evaluated the effects of E-beam irradiation at doses killing SARS-COV-2 on qualities and sensory attributes. The results showed that irradiation caused little effect on the proximate composition, amino acid content, texture, and sensory attributes (P > 0.05). However, E-beam increased TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and lowered vitamin E content in dose-dependently. Irradiation up to 10 kGy significantly decreased unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content and inhibited the increase in TVB-N (The total volatile basic nitrogen) while reducing cohesiveness and chewiness (P < 0.05). E-beam irradiation with 7–10 kGy caused greater ΔE values (ΔE > 5) via the significant increase of b*, accompanied by big visual difference in shrimp (P < 0.05). A dose of 4 kGy E-beam irradiation was recommended without altering its physicochemical properties and sensory attributes. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd

13.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics ; 29(4), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2235528

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic metasurface biosensing has shown great potential in label-free detection of bio-nanoparticles with various sizes, such as cancer antigens, exosomes and SARS-CoV-2 virus. It typically relies on the immunoassay, but current studies usually neglect the perfect size matching between each target bio-nanoparticle and the surface near-field domain, which should be very critical for the enhancement of detection performance. In order to maximize the immunodetection capability for each bio-nanoparticle, we propose a plasmonic meta-biosensor based on the field-customized mechanism. Our design overcomes the serious interference of biofunctionalization and accomplishes a sensitivity of 27 times higher than the conventional nanoplasmonic counterpart. Our method also builds the important basis of single bio-nanoparticle immunodetection by a plasmonic metasurface. The customized plasmonic metasensing study implies a promising way towards ultra-low concentration biosensing or even single bio-nanoparticle detection for high-performance point-of-care-testing in the near future. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

14.
Infectious Microbes & Diseases ; 4(4):168-174, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2190911

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease, and it is important to detect early and monitor the disease trend for policymakers to make informed decisions. We explored the predictive utility of Baidu Search Index and Baidu Information Index for early warning of COVID-19 and identified search keywords for further monitoring of epidemic trends in Guangxi. A time-series analysis and Spearman correlation between the daily number of cases and both the Baidu Search Index and Baidu Information Index were performed for seven keywords related to COVID-19 from January 8 to March 9, 2020. The time series showed that the temporal distributions of the search terms "coronavirus," "pneumonia" and "mask" in the Baidu Search Index were consistent and had 2 to 3 days' lead time to the reported cases;the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.81. The Baidu Search Index volume in 14 prefectures of Guangxi was closely related with the number of reported cases;it was not associated with the local GDP. The Baidu Information Index search terms "coronavirus" and "pneumonia" were used as frequently as 192,405.0 and 110,488.6 per million population, respectively, and they were also significantly associated with the number of reported cases (r(s) > 0.6), but they fluctuated more than for the Baidu Search Index and had 0 to 14 days' lag time to the reported cases. The Baidu Search Index with search terms "coronavirus," "pneumonia" and "mask" can be used for early warning and monitoring of the epidemic trend of COVID-19 in Guangxi, with 2 to 3 days' lead time.

15.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):191, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188843

ABSTRACT

Using a sample of 4,182 UK adults aged 50 and above, this study explored the association of changes in health behaviours with weight and obesity during UK lockdown in Jun/Jul and Nov/Dec 2020. Over 30% adults reported more sitting, more TV watching or less exercise. Around 20% adults were engaged in eating more or sleeping less. More alcohol drinking happened in 12.3% adults. Results suggested that more sedentariness, more TV watching, less exercise, more eating and more alcohol drinking were associated with a significant increase in weight. Meanwhile, less sedentariness or less eating significantly reduced weight in Nov/Dec 2020. A higher risk of obesity was found in adults sitting, eating, or sleeping more than usual. Considering potential health risks associated with obesity in older population, weight management is necessary nationwide.

16.
2022 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE 2022 ; 2022-October, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191762

ABSTRACT

Despite the projection of an increase in the number of jobs in the computer science (CS) field by 13% from 2020 to 2030 in the United States (as reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics), the representation of women, especially women of color, in the field remains low. Lack of representation for women in computer science negatively impacts the growth of this demographic as it becomes harder for prospective individuals to envision themselves in the field when they do not see others like them already succeeding in CS. Studies have found that the retention of women in the field is stronger when the representation of women is evident in their environment, however, it is hard to come by considering the low population of women computer scientists. While new prospects may find fewer women in their CS departments in their college experience, or at their workplaces, there is a plethora of social media personalities and communities for them to engage in and find like-minded individuals.This full research paper investigates the experiences of women, or lack thereof, in CS communities centered around social media and how it contributes to their sense of belonging in the CS field at large. It is evident that there is limited scope in the existing literature that studies the impact social media participation has on CS women. This literature review distinguishes the narrow scope of literature focused on women's experiences with open-source software communities in CS from women's experiences with more generic widespread platforms such as Twitter, or Instagram. It argues for the expansion of knowledge for the effects of CS women's participation on such platforms and provides insight into approaches, such as photovoice, that may be utilized to study this space. The outcomes of this review reveal the potential of utilizing online platforms in retaining women in the CS workforce effectively. Considering the current status of many organizations that have switched from in-person to remote engagement due to COVID, this review contributes to the analysis of the effective use of technology and its impact at a critical time. © 2022 IEEE.

17.
7th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, ISAIR 2022 ; 1701 CCIS:21-39, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173956

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of COVID-19, intercity ride-sharing has become more and more popular due to its relatively little contact and low price and has gradually become one of the important ways of intercity transportation. The ride-sharing platform provides functions of information interaction among passengers and drivers, allocating the transportation tasks and recommending the optimal route planning. Existing ride-sharing platforms fail to take user's personalized needs into account when assigning tasks, and users have low satisfaction with the planned routes. This paper designs an allocation algorithm (Allocation Algorithm 4 Inter-city Carpool) for intercity carpool and proposes a pricing function related to the detour distance and user's satisfaction, so as to ensure the optimal benefits for ride-sharing platforms and drivers, as well as the optimal passenger satisfaction. The AA4IC algorithm is proved to be incentive compatible and budget balanced theoretically, and the effectiveness of allocation scheme generation and path planning is verified by experiments. When the algorithm is iterated 1000 times, the time is less than 200 s, and the task assignment under the optimal user satisfaction can be achieved. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

18.
Iranian Journal of Public Health ; 52(1):23-36, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2168276

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, the diagnostic efficacy of antigen test and antibody test were assessed. Additional-ly, the difference of sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were compared concerning efficacy of antibody test versus antigen test for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Methods: Online databases were searched for full-text publications and STATA software was used for data pooling and analysis before Sep 1st, 2022. Forrest plot was used to show the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio. Combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to show the area of under curve of complex data. Results: Overall, 25 studies were included. The sensitivity (0.68, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80) and specificity (0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) in antibody or antigen was calculated. The time point of test lead to heterogeneity. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 299.54 (95% CI: 135.61-661.64). Subgroup analysis indicated antibody test with sensitivity (0.59, 95% CI: 0.44-0.73) and specificity (0.98, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99) and antigen test with sensitivity of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.53-0.91) and specificity of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00). Higher AUC and DOR were proved in antigen test. Conclusion: The present study compared the efficacy of antibody test versus antigen test for COVID-19 di-agnosis. Better diagnostic efficacy, lower heterogeneity, and less publication bias of rapid antigen testing was suggested in this study. This study would help us to make better strategy about choosing rapid and reliable testing method in diagnosis of the COVID-19 disease. © 2023 Fu et al. Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

19.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology ; 22(9):178-188, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145635

ABSTRACT

Hairtail is one of the most popular marine fish. Since the outbreak of COVID -19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in numerous imported hairtails in China, posing significant health risks. Electron beam (E-beam) irradiation is an efficient and rapid method of inactivating microorganisms. Previous work found that specific doses of E-beam irradiation can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in cold-chain seafood. The article studied the effects of 2, 4, 7, 10 kGy of E-beam irradiation on the nutritional, physical, storage, and sensory quality of imported hairtail. The results showed that 4-10 kGy E-beam irradiation significantly reduced the vitamin A content of hairtail while significantly increasing its hardness, elasticity, adhesiveness, and chewiness. The dose of 10 kGy irradiation significantly decreased the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content of hairtail. It was shown that 2-10 kGy E-beam irradiation had no effect on the sensory quality of hairtail. In conclusion, a dose of 2 kGy was recommended in consideration of the keeping safety and quality in hairtail. © 2022 Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. All rights reserved.

20.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Web Services, ICWS 2022 ; : 343-348, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078220

ABSTRACT

Among different types of changes, a specific type named long-tailed change (LTC), induced by wide-spectrum and sporadic events (hereafter long-tailed business events (LBEs), poses fresh challenges to available change management solutions in business process management. The disorder in economic and social life caused by the competition of COVID-19 epidemics and countermeasures all over the world fully demonstrates the impact of this new change management problem. Based on the principle of separation of concerns, this paper proposes a systematic framework to solve the above problem. The solution consists of a low-code mechanism for process adaptation and business policy conformance. As a result, front-line practitioners can quickly react to changes by using a domain-specific language (DSL) while a corresponding verification of functional and non-functional attributes maintains compliance with business constraints. We validate the solution through a case study of an e-commerce scenario during the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 IEEE.

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