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1.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; PP2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861132

ABSTRACT

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is an important cardiac rhythm disorder, which if left untreated can lead to serious complications such as a stroke. AF can remain asymptomatic, and it can progressively worsen over time; it is thus a disorder that would benefit from detection and continuous monitoring with a wearable sensor. We develop an AF detection algorithm, deploy it on a smartwatch, and prospectively and comprehensively validate its performance on a real-world population that included patients diagnosed with AF. The algorithm showed a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 97.4% over every 5-minute segment of PPG evaluated. Furthermore, we introduce novel algorithm blocks and system designs to increase the time of coverage and monitor for AF even during periods of motion noise and other artifacts that would be encountered in daily-living scenarios. An average of 67.8% of the entire duration the patients wore the smartwatch produced a valid decision. Finally, we present the ability of our algorithm to function throughout the day and estimate the AF burden, a first-of-this-kind measure using a wearable sensor, showing 98% correlation with the ground truth and an average error of 6.2%.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 921, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current era of big data, it is critical to address people's demand for health literacy. At present, the traditional mode of communicating scientific health knowledge and information technology is interchangeable, resulting in the emergence of a new mode of communicating health literacy. To publicize health education and health literacy in a targeted way, to meet the public's needs, and to understand how the public's demand for subjects, contents, and forms of health literacy service has changed in the era of COVID-19, the investigation of public's demand for health information and health literacy was conducted. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the differences in demand for health literacy service providers, contents, channels, forms, and facilities among Chinese citizens with different genders, ages, education levels, economic conditions, and living environments, and to provide reasonable recommendations for developing public health literacy. METHODS: Questionnaire Star was used to conduct a large sample of random online surveys. In Wuhan, Hubei Province, 2184 questionnaires were issued, 8 invalid questionnaires were eliminated, and 2176 were recovered, with an effective rate of 99.6%. IBM SPSS Statistics 20 was utilized to analyze the survey data. RESULTS: (1) In health literacy service providers selected by the public, the proportion of government departments or government collaboration with other institutions exceeded 73%, indicating that health literacy services are public goods; (2) access to health literacy services was lower in township areas than in urban areas (P < 0.001, 3) internet media and communicating with acquaintances, which have the highest popularity rate, were also the two channels that were least trusted by the public; and (4) the differences in contents and service channels of health literacy among residents with different genders, ages, education levels, economic status, and living environments were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: (1) It is recommended to establish an integrated health literacy service model with multi-center supply. Government departments, medical institutions, and media should cooperate effectively to provide health literacy services. (2) The government should pay attention to the fairness of health education and strengthen the supply of health literacy services in township areas. (3) It is critical to strengthen the public's ability to discriminate network information and pay attention to scientific thinking cultivation. (4) Health literacy service providers must focus on the differences between public demands and improve the connotation of health literacy services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Health Education/methods , Humans , Male , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792412

ABSTRACT

Porcine enteric coronaviruses have caused immense economic losses to the global pig industry, and pose a potential risk for cross-species transmission. The clinical symptoms of the porcine enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between the specific pathogens by symptoms alone. Here, a multiplex nucleic acid detection platform based on CRISPR/Cas12a and multiplex reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed for the detection of four diarrhea CoVs: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). With this strategy, we realized a visual colorimetric readout visible to the naked eye without specialized instrumentation by using a ROX-labeled single-stranded DNA-fluorescence-quenched (ssDNA-FQ) reporter. Our method achieved single-copy sensitivity with no cross-reactivity in the identification and detection of the target viruses. In addition, we successfully detected these four enteric CoVs from RNA of clinical samples. Thus, we established a rapid, sensitive, and on-site multiplex molecular differential diagnosis technology for porcine enteric CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742560

ABSTRACT

Proteinaceous nanovaccine delivery systems have significantly promoted the development of various high-efficiency vaccines. However, the widely used method of coupling the expression of scaffolds and antigens may result in their structural interference with each other. Monovalent streptavidin (mSA) is a short monomer sequence, which has a strong affinity for biotin. Here, we discuss an orthogonal, modular, and highly versatile self-assembled proteinaceous nanoparticle chassis that facilitates combinations with various antigen cargos by using mSA and biotin to produce nanovaccines. We first improved the yield of these nanoparticles by appending a short sugar chain on their surfaces in a constructed host strain. After confirming the strong ability to induce both Th1- and Th2-mediated immune responses based on the plasma cytokine spectrum from immunized mice, we further verified the binding ability of biotinylated nanoparticles to mSA-antigens. These results demonstrate that our biotinylated nanoparticle chassis could load both protein and polysaccharide antigens containing mSA at a high affinity. Our approach thus offers an attractive technology for combining nanoparticles and antigen cargos to generate various high-performance nanovaccines. In particular, the designed mSA connector (mSA containing glycosylation modification sequences) could couple with polysaccharide antigens, providing a new attractive strategy to prepare nanoscale conjugate vaccines.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321367

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, subsequently named SARS-CoV2) emerged worldwide since December, 2019. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Shaanxi province of China. Results: : 1. Among the 245 patients, 132 (53.9%) were males and 113 (46.1%) were females. The average age was 46.15±16.43 years, ranging from 3 to 89 years. 2. For the clinical type, 1.63% (4/245) patients were mild type , 84.90% (208/245) were moderate type, 7.76% (19/245) were severe type, 5.31% (13/245) were critical type and only 0.41% (1/245) was asymptomatic. 3. Of the 245 patients, 116 (47.35%) were input case, 114 (46.53%) were non-input case , and 15 (6.12%) were unknown exposure. 4. 48.57% (119/245) cases were family cluster , involving 42 families. The most common pattern of COVID-19 family cluster was between husband and wife or between parents and children.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315631

ABSTRACT

Background: 2019 Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may cause critical illness including severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our purpose is to was to analyze the radiological features of COVID-19 pneumonia and its association with clinical severity. Methods This retrospective study included 212 patients (122 males, Mean age, 45.6 ± 12.8 years) from 10 hospitals. Chest CT, chest X-ray (CXR), clinical and laboratory data at admission and follow-up CT were collected. Chest CT and CXR were reviewed and CT score of the involved lung was calculated. Results 94.3% patients had pneumonia on the baseline CT at admission. The most CT findings were as follows: GGO (140/200), GGO with consolidation (38/200) and consolidation (16/200) most involving the lower lobes with a predilection for the peripheral aspects. The CT score negatively correlated with Lymphocyte count while it positively correlated with C-reactive protein. ROC curve showed an optimal cutoff value of the CT score of 15 had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 96.5% for the prediction of severe status. Series CT showed GGO or consolidation gradually reduced in 52 patients while 6 patients had reticular opacities. 14 patients showed the normal CXR while GGO were found on CT. Conclusion COVID-19 pneumonia manifests as focal, multifocal ground-glass opacities with/without consolidations. Higher CT score correlated severe clinical status. CXR is yet insufficient for evaluation of COVID-19 pneumonia.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313415

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To provide a reference for CT imaging changes for patients discharged from a Fangcang shelter hospital, a large-scale, temporary hospital for the centralized treatment of patients with mild to moderate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to provide essential functions (isolation, triage, basic medical care, frequent monitoring and rapid referral, essential living and social engagement) to them.. Methods: : Patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 admitted to the Wuchang Fangcang Shelter Hospital who had undergone pre-discharge and previous CT scans were included. Changes in the CT imaging features were defined as progression, no change, improvement or recovery. Basic patient information was obtained, and imaging signs were compared between the two CT scans. Results: : A total of 83 patients were included. The median age was 53 years old. The course of disease was 28.3±10.7 days. CT imaging changes indicated progression, no change, improvement, and recovery in 3, 12, 66, and 2 patients, respectively. Between the two CT scans, the imaging signs showed a significant reduction in consolidation, a significant increase in fibrosis, and a reduction or / and thinning of ground-glass opacities. None of the patients showed signs of deterioration on follow-up and thus did not need to return to the hospital for treatment. Conclusion: In the COVID-19 Fangcang shelter hospital, given the shortage of medical staff and lack of medical resources, CT imaging diagnostic methods can be used to accurately discharge patients who had met the discharge criteria for isolation and observation from the Fangcang Shelter Hospital.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325403

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine is needed to end the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Data from the U.S. NCT04368728 and German EudraCT 2020-001038-36 vaccine trials was recently reported, showing the safety, tolerability, and antibody response of the BNT162b1 vaccine candidate. BNT162b1 encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain and is one of several RNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates under study. Here, we report preliminary results from a Phase I trial testing BNT162b1 in 144 healthy Chinese participants. The safety profile was broadly comparable to that seen in the American and German trials, with fever the only Grade 3 adverse event reported. Prime-boost vaccination with 10 µg or 30 µg BNT162b1 induced robust antibody responses in both younger (18 to 55 years of age) and older (65 to 85) Chinese adults, and interferon-γ T-cell responses to RBD antigen challenge were significantly higher in participants receiving BNT162b1 than those in placebo groups. The 30 µg dose induced increased reactogenicity as well as a more favorable vaccine-elicited virus-neutralizing response than the 10 µg dose in both younger and older Chinese adults. In conclusion, this first report of an mRNA vaccine in an Asian population showed similar results to BNT162b1 trials. This trial was funded by Fosun and BioNTech and registered under ChiCTR2000034825 and NCT04523571.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325205

ABSTRACT

Background: An increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of VTE in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies reporting VTE in COVID-19 patients up to June 27, 2020. The selected studies were predefined into the “suspected screening group” and the “routine screening group.” The VTE prevalence was calculated using random-effect models. Results: : We selected 20 studies including a total of 2763 COVID-19 patients. In 2203 COVID-19 patients from the suspected screening group, the pool VTE incidence was 15.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5–21.6%). In 560 COVID-19 patients from the routine screening group, the VTE prevalence was 40.8% (95% CI: 20.6–64.7%). Furthermore, the VTE incidence of critically ill COVID-19 patients from the two groups was 19.6% and 61.4%, respectively, which indicates that critically ill COVID-19 patients were more susceptible to VTE. Conclusions: : A high incidence of VTE was observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases. The incidence of VTE in COVID-19 patients from the routine screening group was higher than that in patients from the suspected screening group. This indicates that a lower threshold of suspicion to perform VTE imaging tests may be reasonable and there is an urgent need to adapt a regular screening strategy for VTE.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324777

ABSTRACT

Background: The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has created a pressing need to diagnose and screen a large number of close contacts of confirmed and suspected cases. Numerous nucleic acid detection kits are being rapidly developed and approved for viral etiological diagnosis;however, these are limited by the number of false negatives produced in clinical practice. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish serological detection methods to serve as supplementary diagnostics. Methods We (1) performed a conservation and specificity analysis of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein, which is the main target of serological diagnosis;(2) integrated various B-cell epitope prediction methods to obtain possible dominant epitope regions for the N protein;(3) applied ELISA to analyze differences in the serological antibody levels for different epitopes;and (4) identified N protein epitopes for IgG and IgM with high specificity. Results SARS-CoV-2 strains showed low mutation rates for the N protein, and the construction of a phylogeny was a good characterization of its molecular evolutionary lineage in relation to other coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 showed the closest genetic relationship with SARS-CoV, which showed multiple consecutive long conserved regions at the amino acid level, but differed substantially from other coronaviruses. Tests targeting the SARS-CoV-2 N protein produced strong positive results in SARS-CoV patients in recovery. Of the five epitope dominant regions, using N18-39 and N183-197 for IgG and IgM detection, respectively, can effectively overcome the limitations of cross-reactivity. Conclusions The patients infected with both SARS viruses may exhibit cross-reactivity when using the N protein for antibody detection. However, there are regions of the N protein that can be used for antibody detection and some of these regions showed good specificity even between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, and the antibody levels detected were consistent with those detected by the complete N protein. These findings provide a basis for serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 patients, and research ideas for developing vaccines.

12.
Comput Biol Med ; 143: 105272, 2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654271

ABSTRACT

Numerous serological detection kits are being rapidly developed and approved for screening and diagnosing suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. However, cross-reactivity between pre-existing antibodies against other coronaviruses and the captured antigens in these kits can affect detection accuracy, emphasizing the necessity for identifying highly specific antigen fragments for antibody detection. Thus, we performed a conservation and specificity analysis of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein. We also integrated various B-cell epitope prediction methods to obtain possible dominant epitope regions for the N protein, analyzed the differences in serological antibody levels for different epitopes using ELISA, and identified N protein epitopes for IgG and IgM with high-specificity. The SARS-CoV-2 N protein showed low mutation rates and shared the highest amino acid similarity with SARS-CoV; however, it differed substantially from other coronaviruses. Tests targeting the SARS-CoV-2 N protein produce strong positive results in patients recovering from SARS-CoV. The N18-39 and N183-197 epitopes for IgG and IgM detection, respectively, can effectively overcome cross-reactivity, and even exhibit good specificity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. The antibody levels detected with these were consistent with those detected using the complete N protein. These findings provide a basis for serological diagnosis and determining the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection in patients.

13.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610610

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rural residents have been shown to have limited access to reliable health information and therefore may be at higher risks for the adverse health effects of the COVID-19. The aim of this research is 2-fold: (1) to explore the impacts of demographic factors on the accessibility of health information;and (2) to assess the impacts of information channels on the reliability of health information accessed by rural residents in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Mixed methods research was performed to provide a relatively complete picture about the accessibility and reliability of health information in rural China in the face of the COVID-19. A quantitative research was conducted through surveying 435 Chinese rural residents and a qualitative study was performed through collecting materials from one of the most popular social media application (WeChat) in China. The logistic regression techniques were used to examine the impacts of demographic factors on the accessibility of health information. The Content analysis was performed to describe and summarize qualitative materials to inform the impacts of information channels on the reliability of health information. Results: Age was found to positively associate with the accessibility of health information, while an opposite association was found between education and the accessibility of health information. Rural residents with monthly income between 3,001 CNY and 4,000 CNY were the least likely to access health information. Rural residents who worked/studied from home were more likely to access health information. Meanwhile, health information tended to be derived from non-official social media channels where rumors and unverified health information spread fast, and the elderly and less-educated rural residents were more likely to access health misinformation. Conclusions: Policy makers are suggested to adopt efficient measures to contain the spread of rumors and unverified health information on non-official social media platforms during the outbreak of a pandemic. More efforts should be devoted to assist the elderly and less-educated rural residents to access reliable health information in the face of a pandemic outbreak.

14.
Build Simul ; 15(5): 871-884, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446245

ABSTRACT

The design of indoor airflow environments can significantly reduce the risk of respiratory epidemic infections indoors. Some studies have successfully developed theoretical models for calculating the effect of airflow fields on infection rates. However, up until now, studies have primarily focused on simulating and calculating the distribution of viral infection rates in current building scenarios. Due to the lack of a direct influence model for the design parameters and infection rate calculation, the present studies lack a quantitative analysis of the design parameters. This paper investigates the building openings design approach in a medium-sized kindergarten in Germany, intending to explore passive-based design solutions to improve the building's ability to prevent the virus' spread. We calculate the infection rate distribution in space by CFD combined with the Wells-Riley model. And then, use the Grasshopper platform to build an optimization model with the design parameters of building openings and infection rate values to discuss the relationship between geometric parameters and infection rate variation. The results show that the building openings' design parameters in transition spaces significantly affect the indoor infection rate under the condition that the input wind speed at the building openings is stable. We can see that optimizing building openings significantly reduces the average infection rate in space. The infection rate in the area with the largest decrease can be reduced by 18.41%. The distribution of infection rate in space is much more uniform, and the excess area is significantly reduced. This study has implications for future research and practice in designing public buildings under the influence of long-standing and cyclical outbreaks of epidemics.

15.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. RESULTS: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

16.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 8972-8981, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. Monitoring viral transmission and disease characteristics as the disease spreads globally is vital. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and source of infection in patients with secondary transmission of COVID-19 outside the outbreak area. METHODS: The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data of five patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University (Ningxia, China) from 1 January 2020 to 1 March 2020 were presented. The final follow-up evaluation was performed on 12 March 2020. RESULTS: The five participants included two couples and a young woman, none of whom had visited Hubei. It was likely that four of the participants had been infected by exposure to asymptomatic visitors from Wuhan. The other participant lived in a densely-populated community with potential COVID-19 cases. A variety of symptoms were presented by four participants, including cough, fevers, sputum, breathlessness, chest pain, fatigue, sore limbs, sore throats, headaches, and rhinorrhea. A severe infection, with dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, was experienced by one participant who had a history of chronic bronchitis. A single participant was asymptomatic, but had ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on chest imaging. Another two participants also displayed GGOs. Lymphopenia was noted in three participants. During the follow-up period, all participants were cured and discharged to their homes. CONCLUSIONS: This study included patients who had acquired infections of COVID-19 through local transmission. These findings will provide a better understanding of secondary transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fever , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 788-796, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343437

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 relies on its spike protein to invade host cells by interacting with the human receptor protein Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes 2 (ACE2). Therefore, designing an antibody or small-molecular entry blockers is of great significance for virus prevention and treatment. This study identified five potential small molecular anti-virus blockers via targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by combining in silico technologies with in vitro experimental methods. The five molecules were natural products that binding to the RBD domain of SARS-CoV-2 was qualitatively and quantitively validated by both native Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Anti-viral activity assays showed that the optimal molecule, H69C2, had a strong binding affinity (dissociation constant KD) of 0.0947 µM and anti-virus IC50 of 85.75 µM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Adv Mater ; 32(42): e2002940, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743232

ABSTRACT

Recent years have seen enormous advances in nanovaccines for both prophylactic and therapeutic applications, but most of these technologies employ chemical or hybrid semi-biosynthetic production methods. Thus, production of nanovaccines has to date failed to exploit biology-only processes like complex sequential post-translational biochemical modifications and scalability, limiting the realization of the initial promise for offering major performance advantages and improved therapeutic outcomes over conventional vaccines. A Nano-B5 platform for in vivo production of fully protein-based, self-assembling, stable nanovaccines bearing diverse antigens including peptides and polysaccharides is presented here. Combined with the self-assembly capacities of pentamer domains from the bacterial AB5 toxin and unnatural trimer peptides, diverse nanovaccine structures can be produced in common Escherichia coli strains and in attenuated pathogenic strains. Notably, the chassis of these nanovaccines functions as an immunostimulant. After showing excellent lymph node targeting and immunoresponse elicitation and safety performance in both mouse and monkey models, the strong prophylactic effects of these nanovaccines against infection, as well as their efficient therapeutic effects against tumors are further demonstrated. Thus, the Nano-B5 platform can efficiently combine diverse modular components and antigen cargos to efficiently generate a potentially very large diversity of nanovaccine structures using many bacterial species.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/immunology , Vaccination , Antigens/immunology , Proteins/metabolism
19.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 176: 113867, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312868

ABSTRACT

Prophylactic vaccines have evolved from traditional whole-cell vaccines to safer subunit vaccines. However, subunit vaccines still face problems, such as poor immunogenicity and low efficiency, while traditional adjuvants are usually unable to meet specific response needs. Advanced delivery vectors are important to overcome these barriers; they have favorable safety and effectiveness, tunable properties, precise location, and immunomodulatory capabilities. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic summary of the delivery systems to cover a wide range of infectious pathogens. We herein summarized and compared the delivery systems for major or epidemic infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. We also included the newly licensed vaccines (e.g., COVID-19 vaccines) and those close to licensure. Furthermore, we highlighted advanced delivery systems with high efficiency, cross-protection, or long-term protection against epidemic pathogens, and we put forward prospects and thoughts on the development of future prophylactic vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 653245, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311388

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among the first batch of students returning to a college during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to explore the correlation of suicidal ideation with family characteristics and social support. Methods: A cluster sampling survey with a self-designed questionnaire was conducted among the first batch of students returning to a college in Wuhu, China. The Positive and Negative Suicidal ideation (PANSI) and Social Support Scale (SSRS) were used to define students' suicidal ideation and social support, respectively. The influence of family characteristics and social support on the students' suicidal ideation was investigated using multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Two thousand seven hundred valid questionnaires were collected, including 673 males (24.9%) and 2,027 females (75.1%), in this study. A total of 146 students (5.4%) showed suicidal ideation. Male respondents reported higher rates (7.9%) than females (4.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a higher risk level of residence before returning to school and lower objective support were the risk factors for suicidal ideation in males. In contrast, a higher level of maternal education, a poorer relationship with the mother, and lower scores for subjective support and support availability had significant effects on females' suicidal ideation. Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study, and lacks comparison to the time point unaffected by COVID-19. Moreover, it was limited by COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control restrictions, and the differences in returning to school in different regions. Only one college was investigated in this study, and all of the respondents were sophomores, so there may be some limitations in the representativeness of the sample and extrapolation of the results. Conclusion: Family characteristics and social support have had an important influence on suicidal ideation among students returning to school during the COVID-19 epidemic. Some gender differences were identified. Targeted interventions are needed for early prevention and control.

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