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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 257, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967591

ABSTRACT

Highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants have continuously emerged and spread around the world, and updated vaccines and innovative vaccination strategies are urgently needed to address the global SARS-COV2 pandemic. Here, we established a series of Ad5-vectored SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines encoding multiple spike proteins derived from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron lineages and analyzed the antibody immune responses induced by single-dose and prime-boost vaccination strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Single-dose vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines tended to elicit the optimal self-matched neutralizing effects, and Ad5-B.1.351 produced more broad-spectrum cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse variants. In contrast, prime-boost vaccination further strengthened and broadened the neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants. The heterologous administration of Ad5-B.1.617.2 and Ad5-B.1.429 to Ad5-WT-primed mice resulted in superior antibody responses against most VOCs. In particular, the Omicron spike could only stimulate self-matched neutralizing antibodies with infrequent cross-reactivities to other variants used in single-dose vaccination strategies; moreover, with prime-boost regimens, this vaccine elicited an optimal specific neutralizing antibody response to Omicron, and prompted cross-antibody responses against other VOCs that were very similar to those obtained with Ad5-WT booster. Overall, this study delineated the unique characteristics of antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 VOC spikes with the single-dose or prime-boost vaccination strategies and provided insight into the vaccine development of next SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333135

ABSTRACT

Retro-2 directly interacts with an ER exit site protein, Sec16A, inhibiting ER exit of a Golgi tSNARE, Syntaxin5, which results in rapid re-distribution of Syntaxin5 to the ER. Recently, it was shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection disrupts the Golgi apparatus within 6–12 hours, while its replication was effectively inhibited by Retro-2 in cultured human lung cells. Yet, exactly how Retro-2 may influence ultrastructure of the Golgi apparatus and its function have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we characterized the effect of Retro-2 treatment on Golgi function and its ultrastructure using electron microscopy and EM tomography. Our results indicate that Retro-2 treatment significantly alters protein glycosylation at the Golgi without affecting secretion of either small or large cargos. Ultra-structural study of the Golgi revealed rapid accumulation of COPI-like vesicular profiles in the perinuclear area and a partial disassembly of the Golgi stack under electron microscope within 3–5 hours, suggesting altered Golgi organization in these cells. Retro-2 treatment in cells depleted of GRASP65/55, the two well-known Golgi stacking proteins, induced complete and rapid disassembly of the Golgi into individual cisterna. Taken together, these results suggest that Retro-2 profoundly alters Golgi structure and function to a much greater extent than previously anticipated.

3.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786480

ABSTRACT

Retro-2 directly interacts with an ER exit site protein, Sec16A, inhibiting ER exit of a Golgi tSNARE, Syntaxin5, which results in rapid re-distribution of Syntaxin5 to the ER. Recently, it was shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection disrupts the Golgi apparatus within 6–12 hours, while its replication was effectively inhibited by Retro-2 in cultured human lung cells. Yet, exactly how Retro-2 may influence ultrastructure of the Golgi apparatus and its function have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we characterized the effect of Retro-2 treatment on Golgi function and its ultrastructure using electron microscopy and EM tomography. Our results indicate that Retro-2 treatment significantly alters protein glycosylation at the Golgi without affecting secretion of either small or large cargos. Ultra-structural study of the Golgi revealed rapid accumulation of COPI-like vesicular profiles in the perinuclear area and a partial disassembly of the Golgi stack under electron microscope within 3–5 hours, suggesting altered Golgi organization in these cells. Retro-2 treatment in cells depleted of GRASP65/55, the two well-known Golgi stacking proteins, induced complete and rapid disassembly of the Golgi into individual cisterna. Taken together, these results suggest that Retro-2 profoundly alters Golgi structure and function to a much greater extent than previously anticipated.

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