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1.
J Virol ; 96(12): e0041222, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874504

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and poses a significant threat to global health. N protein (NP), which is a major pathogenic protein among betacoronaviruses, binds to the viral RNA genome to allow viral genome packaging and viral particle release. Recent studies showed that NP antagonizes interferon (IFN) induction and mediates phase separation. Using live SARS-CoV-2 viruses, this study provides solid evidence showing that SARS-CoV-2 NP associates with G3BP1 and G3BP2 in vitro and in vivo. NPSARS-CoV-2 could efficiently suppress G3BP-mediated SG formation and potentiate viral infection by overcoming G3BP1-mediated antiviral innate immunity. G3BP1 conditional knockout mice (g3bp1fl/fL, Sftpc-Cre) exhibit significantly higher lung viral loads after SARS-CoV-2 infection than wild-type mice. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding the pathogenicity of NPSARS-CoV-2 and provide insight into new therapeutics targeting NPSARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE In this study, by in vitro assay and live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, we provide solid evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 NP associates with G3BP1 and G3BP2 in vitro and in vivo. NPSARS-CoV-2 could efficiently suppress G3BP-mediated SG formation and potentiate viral infection by overcoming antiviral innate immunity mediated by G3BP1 in A549 cell lines and G3BP1 conditional knockout mice (g3bp1-cKO) mice, which provide in-depth evidence showing the mechanism underlying NP-related SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis through G3BPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Mice , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
2.
Talanta ; 246: 123498, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805216

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains as a major threat to human society. A reliable, sensitive, rapid, and low requirement assay for serum neutralizing antibodies is needed as a pandemic management tool for estimation of revaccination time and implementation of "immune passport". Using gold nanoparticle (AuNR) as an immunosensor, we have established a semi-quantitative, instrument-free assay for measuring antibody level against SRAS-CoV-2 spike1 (S1) receptor binding domain (RBD) from fingertip blood samples. The testing results by the developed method correlated well with those obtained from conventional ELISA assay, indicating reliable quantitation could be achieved without use of plate reader. A declined of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody associated with vaccination time was observed, which agreed well with the data from other reports. The developed method provides a potentially complementary strategy for on-site measurement of COVID-19 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(3): 100242, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796017
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(3): 718-726, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740879

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess whether the observed numbers and seasonality of deaths in Australia during 2020 differed from expected trends based on 2015-19 data. METHODS: We used provisional death data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, stratified by state, age, sex and cause of death. We compared 2020 deaths with 2015-19 deaths using interrupted time series adjusted for time trend and seasonality. We measured the following outcomes along with 95% confidence intervals: observed/expected deaths (rate ratio: RR), change in seasonal variation in mortality (amplitude ratio: AR) and change in week of peak seasonal mortality (phase difference: PD). RESULTS: Overall 4% fewer deaths from all causes were registered in Australia than expected in 2020 [RR 0·96 (0·95-0·98)] with reductions across states, ages and sex strata. There were fewer deaths from respiratory illness [RR 0·79 (0·76-0·83)] and dementia [RR 0·95 (0·93-0·98)] but more from diabetes [RR 1·08 (1·04-1·13)]. Seasonal variation was reduced for deaths overall [AR 0·94 (0·92-0·95)], and for deaths due to respiratory illnesses [AR 0·78 (0·74-0·83)], dementia [AR 0.92 (0.89-0.95)] and ischaemic heart disease [0.95 (0.90-0.97)]. CONCLUSIONS: The observed reductions in respiratory and dementia deaths and the reduced seasonality in ischaemic heart disease deaths may reflect reductions in circulating respiratory (non-SARS-CoV-2) pathogens resulting from the public health measures taken in 2020. The observed increase in diabetes deaths is unexplained and merits further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Dementia , Australia/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Humans , Mortality , Pandemics
5.
Information Polity: The International Journal of Government & Democracy in the Information Age ; : 1-23, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1736729

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brings the topic of citizen data management (CDAMA) into the public eye. This study is one of the first attempts to analyze the national approaches for CDAMA applied by governments of different countries and continents in public sectors. The study first conducts a systematic overview of the representative contact tracing apps in 21 countries of four continents, collecting information of the four aspects of the CDAMA system. It then summarizes and analyzes the various governments’ approaches to the CDAMA system applied by different countries and continents based on the app overview. We found that governments’ priority between national safety (i.e., public health in this study) and citizen privacy is different in terms of their national approaches for CDAMA. For example, governments of Asian countries are more intrusive and hold a stricter attitude in their national CDAMA approach than countries elsewhere. Our study has contributions both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, it fills the literature gap about data management by adding the data management in governments;practically, the study provides the background information as well as implications for future debate and discussion on governments’ data management system and citizen data use. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Information Polity: The International Journal of Government & Democracy in the Information Age is the property of IOS Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315231

ABSTRACT

Currently, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) lacks clinically specific drugs. In this study, the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease(3CLpro)and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase(RdRp)were used as targets for virtual screening. After analysis of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation results, ZINC04259665,ZINC12659533 and ZINC70705490 have good docking scores,and they are stable in combination with 3CLpro/RdRp. The prediction of drug-like properties found that ZINC04259665 has good druggability and has the potential to further explore its anti-SARS-CoV-2.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315183

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the diagnostic value of three different examination methods of chest radiography (CXR), digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and Computed tomography (CT) scan on the diagnosis of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods: A retrospective analysis of three examination methods of chest: CXR, DTS, and CT scan of COVID-19 pneumonia patients diagnosed in our hospital from January, 23, 2020 to February, 29, 2020. And we compared three different imaging methods to COVID-19 display ability of pneumonia intrapulmonary lesions. Results: A total of 37 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were included. The CXR group (10/37) and DTS group (21/28) of 37 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed significant differences in intrapulmonary ground glass opacities ( P <0.05);DTS group (21/28) and CT group (25/27) showed no statistically significant differences in intrapulmonary ground glass opacities ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: Comparison of the three imaging methods of COVID-19 pneumonia, the diagnostic efficiency of CXR is low, which is easy to be false negative and miss lesions;diagnostic resolutions of DTS are higher than CXR, which can improve the ability to display the fine structure of intrapulmonary lesions;CT scan shows the intrapulmonary of COVID-19 pneumonia low-density ground glass opacities and internal structures have equal capacity compared with DTS. Therefore, DTS and CT are the best choices for the image diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e934102, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Heat-clearing and detoxifying herbs (HDHs) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus infection. However, their mechanism of action needs further study. This study aimed to explore the anti-coronavirus basis and mechanism of HDHs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Database mining was performed on 7 HDHs. Core ingredients and targets were screened according to ADME rules combined with Neighborhood, Co-occurrence, Co-expression, and other algorithms. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses were performed using the R language. Finally, high-throughput molecular docking was used for verification. RESULTS HDHs mainly acts on NOS3, EGFR, IL-6, MAPK8, PTGS2, MAPK14, NFKB1, and CASP3 through quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, indirubin alkaloids, ß-sitosterol, and isolariciresinol. These targets are mainly involved in the regulation of biological processes such as inflammation, activation of MAPK activity, and positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. Pathway analysis further revealed that the pathways regulated by these targets mainly include: signaling pathways related to viral and bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, influenza A, Ras signaling pathways; inflammation-related pathways such as the TLR, TNF, MAPK, and HIF-1 signaling pathways; and immune-related pathways such as NOD receptor signaling pathways. These pathways play a synergistic role in inhibiting lung inflammation and regulating immunity and antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS HDHs play a role in the treatment of coronavirus infection by regulating the body's immunity, fighting inflammation, and antiviral activities, suggesting a molecular basis and new strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 and a foundation for the screening of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Caspase 3/drug effects , Caspase 3/genetics , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/pharmacology , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Lignin/chemistry , Lignin/pharmacology , Luteolin/chemistry , Luteolin/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/drug effects , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Naphthols/chemistry , Naphthols/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sitosterols/chemistry , Sitosterols/pharmacology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/genetics
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 645938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526793

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 not only threatened the public's physical health but also brought unbearable psychological pressure, especially for those vulnerable groups like the elderly. However, studies on the psychological status of older adults during this public health emergency remained scant. This study aims to investigate the mental health status among the elderly Chinese population during COVID-19 pandemic and determine the influencing factors of psychological symptoms. Methods: From February 19 to March 19, 2020, an online survey was administered to Chinese older adults using a convenience sampling method. Information on demographic data, health status and other epidemic related factors were collected. Specifically, the study defined the psychological status as five primary disorder-depression, neurasthenia, fear, anxiety, and hypochondria-which were assessed by the Psychological Questionnaire for Emergent Event of Public Health (PQEEPH). Standard descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Results: Of 1,501 participants recruited from 31 provinces in China, 1,278 were valid for further analysis. Participants' scores on each sub-scale were described in median and interquartile [M(Q)]: depression [0.00 (0.33)], neurasthenia [0.00 (0.40)], fear [1.00 (0.83)], anxiety [0.00 (0.17)], hypochondria [0.00 (0.50)]. Chronic diseases (depression p = 0.001; neurasthenia p < 0.001; fear p = 0.023; anxiety p < 0.001; hypochondria p = 0.001) and the BMI index (depression p = 0.015; neurasthenia p = 0.046; fear p = 0.016; anxiety p = 0.015; hypochondria p = 0.013) had significant impacts on all of the five sub-scales. Specifically, the rural dwellers had a higher level of neurasthenia, fear, and hypochondria. Besides, education level (p = 0.035) and outbreak risk level (p = 0.004) had significant impacts on the depression. Higher household monthly income per capita (p = 0.031), and the community-level entry/exit control (p = 0.011) are factors against anxiety. Conclusions: Most elderly residents reported mild negative emotions during COVID-19 and more attention should be paid to the recognition and alleviation of fear. Our findings also identified factors associated with the mental health status of the elderly, which is of practical significance in the design and implementation of psychological interventions for this vulnerable population during COVID-19 and future emerging diseases.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292215

ABSTRACT

The full text of this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors due to author disagreement with the posting of the preprint. Therefore, the authors do not wish this work to be cited as a reference. Questions should be directed to the corresponding author.

13.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109793, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415261

ABSTRACT

The mortality risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been linked to the cytokine storm caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the inflammatory responses shared between COVID-19 and other infectious diseases that feature cytokine storms may therefore help in developing improved therapeutic strategies. Here, we use integrative analysis of single-cell transcriptomes to characterize the inflammatory signatures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COVID-19, sepsis, and HIV infection. We identify ten hyperinflammatory cell subtypes in which monocytes are the main contributors to the transcriptional differences in these infections. Monocytes from COVID-19 patients share hyperinflammatory signatures with HIV infection and immunosuppressive signatures with sepsis. Finally, we construct a "three-stage" model of heterogeneity among COVID-19 patients, related to the hyperinflammatory and immunosuppressive signatures in monocytes. Our study thus reveals cellular and molecular insights about inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and provides therapeutic guidance to improve treatments for subsets of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Transcriptome , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Data Analysis , Datasets as Topic , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 728762, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405444

ABSTRACT

People constantly talk to one another about the past, and in so doing, they recount certain details while remaining silent about others. Collaborative or conversational remembering plays an important role in establishing shared representations of the past (e.g., the 911 attacks, Covid-19). According to the socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting (SS-RIF) effect, a listener will forget about relevant but unpracticed information during communication, due to intentional or unintentional selective retrieval of data by the speaker. The SS-RIF paradigm has been applied to explain how collective memory is shaped within the context of conversation/discourse. This study sought to determine if SS-RIF occurred only during face-to-face communication, or whether shared memories could be developed through other types of conversation quite common in modern society. We also investigated whether a level of social interaction in the real-world presence of others is a necessary condition for inducing SS-RIF, and if listeners experience different degrees of SS-RIF due to different levels of perceived social presence. We observed the SS-RIF phenomenon in listeners both in real life and video; the degree of forgetting was the same for the two conditions. These results indicate that social presence may not be associated with SS-RIF. Public silence affects the formation of collective memory regardless of the face-to-face presence of others, and thus physical presence is not necessary to induce SS-RIF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interpersonal Relations , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
15.
J Anal Test ; 5(4): 298-313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404694

ABSTRACT

The first corona-pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a huge health crisis and incalculable damage worldwide. Knowledge of how to cure the disease is urgently needed. Emerging immune escaping mutants of the virus suggested that it may be potentially persistent in human society as a regular health threat as the flu virus. Therefore, it is imperative to identify appropriate biomarkers to indicate pathological and physiological states, and more importantly, clinic outcomes. Proteins are the performers of life functions, and their abundance and modification status can directly reflect the immune status. Protein glycosylation serves a great impact in modulating protein function. The use of both unmodified and glycosylated proteins as biomarkers has also been proved feasible in the studies of SARS, Zika virus, influenza, etc. In recent years, mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics, as well as proteomics approaches, advanced significantly due to the evolution of mass spectrometry. We focus on the current development of the mass spectrometry-based strategy for COVID-19 biomarkers' investigation. Potential application of glycoproteomics approaches and challenges in biomarkers identification are also discussed.

16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(8): e533-e541, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human infection with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Moscow, Lima, Kuwait, and Singapore to analyze the effects of climate factors on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: Collect the daily incidence of COVID-19 and related climate data in four areas, construct a negative binomial regression model, and analyze the correlation between the incidence of COVID-19 and meteorological factors. RESULTS: AH was the climate factor affecting the incidence of COVID-19 in Moscow, Lima, and Singapore; Ta and RH were the climate factors affecting the incidence of COVID-19 in Kuwait. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of COVID-19 in four areas were all associated with the humidity, and climate factors should be taken into consideration when epidemic prevention measures are taken, and environment humidification may be a feasible approach to decrease COVID-19 virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate , Humans , Humidity , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 97, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the comparison of COVID-19 pandemic responses and related factors in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. We aimed at evaluating the association of daily new COVID-19 cases with socio-economic and demographic factors, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response in BRICS countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on the COVID-19 pandemic and other indicators of BRICS countries from February 26, 2020 to April 30, 2021. We compared COVID-19 epidemic in BRICS countries and analyzed related factors by log-linear Generalized Additive Model (GAM) models. RESULTS: In BRICS countries, India had the highest totally of confirmed cases with 18.76 million, followed by Brazil (14.45 million), Russia (4.81 million), and South Africa (1.58 million), while China (0.10 million) had the lowest figure. South Africa had the lowest rate of administered vaccine doses (0.18 million) among BRICS countries as of April 30, 2021. In the GAM model, a 1 unit increase in population density and policy stringency index was associated with a 5.17% and 1.95% growth in daily new COVID-19 cases (P < 0.001), respectively. Exposure-response curves for the effects of policy stringency index on daily new cases showed that there was a rapid surge in number of daily new COVID-19 cases when the index ranged from 0 to 45. The number of infections climbed slowly when the index ranged from 46 to 80, and decreased when the index was above 80 (P < 0.001). In addition, daily new COVID-19 cases (all P < 0.001) were also correlated with life expectancy at birth (-1.61%), extreme poverty (8.95%), human development index (-0.05%), GDP per capita (-0.18%), diabetes prevalence (0.66%), proportion of population aged 60 and above (2.23%), hospital beds per thousand people (-0.08%), proportion of people with access to improved drinking water (-7.40%), prevalence of open defecation (0.69%), and annual tourist/visitor arrivals (0.003%), after controlling other confounders. Different lag structures showed similar results in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Strong policy response is crucial to control the pandemic, such as effective containment and case management. Our findings also highlighted the importance of reducing socio-economic inequalities and strengthening the resilience of health systems to better respond to public health emergencies globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Health Resources , Humans , India/epidemiology , Policy , Poverty , Russia/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations
20.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 551602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305657

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a pathogen causing severe respiratory disease in humans that emerged in June 2012, is a novel beta coronavirus similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). In this study, immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of MERS-CoV interacted with human translation elongation factor 1A (EF1A), an essential component of the translation system with important roles in protein translation, cytokinesis, and filamentous actin (F-actin) bundling. The C-terminal motif (residues 359-363) of the N protein was the crucial domain involved in this interaction. The interaction between the MERS-CoV N protein and EF1A resulted in cytokinesis inhibition due to the formation of inactive F-actin bundles, as observed in an in vitro actin polymerization assay and in MERS-CoV-infected cells. Furthermore, the translation of a CoV-like reporter mRNA carrying the MERS-CoV 5'UTR was significantly potentiated by the N protein, indicating that a similar process may contribute to EF1A-associated viral protein translation. This study highlights the crucial role of EF1A in MERS-CoV infection and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus infections.

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