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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055903, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to report the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and other non-communicable diseases among migrant workers in Singapore admitted for COVID-19 infection, to highlight disease burden and the need for changes in health screening and healthcare delivery in this unique population. SETTING: The study was conducted in the largest tertiary hospital in Singapore. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 883 migrant workers who had mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 infection admitted to three isolation wards between 6 April 2020 and 31 May 2020 were included in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures were the prevalence of pre-existing and newly diagnosed comorbid conditions and the prevalence of CVRFs-diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia-and non-communicable diseases at the time of discharge. The OR of having specific CVRFs depending on country of origin was generated via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The median age of our study population was 45 years. 17.0% had pre-existing conditions and 25.9% received new diagnoses. Of the new diagnoses, 15.7% were acute medical conditions and 84.3% chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of CVRFs was higher in Southeast Asian and South Asian migrant workers compared with Chinese. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases on discharge was highest among Southeast Asians (49.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak in a large number of migrant workers in Singapore unmasked a significant disease burden among them, increasing stakeholders' interests in their welfare. Moving forward, system-level changes are necessary to deliver healthcare sustainably and effect improvements in migrant workers' health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore/epidemiology
2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 816778, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775711

ABSTRACT

Background: Although effective vaccines have been developed against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the level of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced after vaccination in the real world is still unknown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the level and persistence of NAbs induced by two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in China. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 1,335 people aged 18 years and over who were vaccinated with an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at Peking University People's Hospital from January 19 to June 23, 2021, for the detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. Results: The positive rate for NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 was 79-91% from the first month to the second month after the second vaccine dose. The gradual decline in positivity rate for NAb response was observed from 78% at 3 months post-vaccination to 0% at 12 months post-vaccination. When there was a 21-day interval between the two doses of vaccine, the NAb positivity rate was 0% 6 months after the second dose. NAb levels were significantly higher when the interval between two doses were 3-8 weeks than when it was 0-3 weeks (χ2 = 14.04, p < 0.001). There was a linear correlation between NAbs and IgG antibodies in 1,335 vaccinated patients. NAb levels decreased in 31 patients (81.6%) and increased in 7 patients (18.4%) over time in the series of 38 patients after the second vaccination. The NAb positivity rate was significantly higher in 18- to 40-year-old subjects than in 41- to 60-year-old subjects (t = -1.959, p < 0.01; t = 0.839, p < 0.01). Conclusion: The NAb positivity rate was the highest at the first and second month after the second dose of vaccine, and gradually decreased over time. With a 21-day interval between two doses of vaccine, neutralizing antibody levels persisted for only 6 months after the second dose of vaccine. Therefore, a third vaccine dose is recommended. Our results suggest that in cases in which NAbs cannot be detected, IgM/IgG antibodies can be detected instead. The level of NAbs produced after vaccination was affected by age but not by sex. Our results suggest that an interval of 21 to 56 days between shots is suitable for vaccination.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324480

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December of 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) exploded in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. Patients with COVID-19 demonstrated quite different appearances and outcomes in clinical manifestations. We aimed to figure out whether risk factors of the cystatin C (CysC) and the CysC rangeability are influencing the prognosis of COVID-19 patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: : 675 T2DM patients and 602 non-T2DM patients were divided into low CysC group, high CysC group and low CysC rangeability group, high CysC rangeability group according to the serum CysC level and the change range of CysC. Demographic characteristics, clinical data and laboratory results of the four groups were collected and analyzed. Results: : Our data showed that COVID-19 patients with high CysC level and CysC rangeability had more organic damage and higher mortality rate compared to those with low level or low rangeability of CysC. Furthermore, patients with higher CysC level and CysC rangeability also demonstrated higher blood lymphocytes (lymph), C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) which may greatly influence disease progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19. After adjusting for possible confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that CysC≤0.93mg/dl as a reference, CysC>0.93mg/dl were significantly associated with the risk of heart failure (OR=2.401, 95% CI: 1.118–5.156) and all-cause death (OR=2.734, 95% CI: 1.098-6.811);referring to CysC rangeability≤0, CysC rangeability>0 significantly associated with all-cause death (OR=4.029, 95% CI: 1.864-8.706). Further grouped by T2DM, these associations were stronger in T2DM than in non-T2DM. Conclusions: : It suggests that CysC level and CysC rangeability contribute to clinical manifestations and may influence the prognosis of COVID-19. The CysC is considered as a potential risk factor of the prognosis of COVID-19. Special medical care and appropriate intervention should be performed in COVID-19 patients with elevated CysC during hospitalization and later clinical follow-up, especially for those with T2DM.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 807737, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581268

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA), a noncoding RNA over 200nt in length, can regulate glycolysis through metabolic pathways, glucose metabolizing enzymes, and epigenetic reprogramming. Upon viral infection, increased aerobic glycolysis providzes material and energy for viral replication. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is the only protein-specified downstream of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) that bridges the gap between antiviral immunity and glycolysis. MAVS binding to RIG-I inhibits MAVS binding to Hexokinase (HK2), thereby impairing glycolysis, while excess lactate production inhibits MAVS and the downstream antiviral immune response, facilitating viral replication. LncRNAs can also regulate antiviral innate immunity by interacting with RIG-I and downstream signaling pathways and by regulating the expression of interferons and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Altogether, we summarize the relationship between glycolysis, antiviral immunity, and lncRNAs and propose that lncRNAs interact with glycolysis and antiviral pathways, providing a new perspective for the future treatment against virus infection, including SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 782913, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581150

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) has been coexisting with humans for almost 2 years, consistently impacting people's daily life, medical environment, and mental health. This study aimed to test the series mediation model triggered by childhood trauma, in which perceived psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic and sleep quality mediated the path sequentially and led to adverse mental health outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional design involving 817 participants were enrolled via WeChat online survey. Participants completed questionnaires, including demographic features, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Pearson correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regression were employed to examine the association of childhood trauma and psychological stress of COVID-19, sleep quality, and mental health status. In addition, a series mediate analysis was carried out to examine sequence mediating effects of psychological impact of COVID-19 and sleep quality between childhood trauma and mental health status. Results: The results showed that childhood trauma is positively and significantly related to psychological distress of COVID-19 pandemic, sleep quality, and mental health status (p < 0.05). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis shown that demographic features explained 4.4, 2.1, and 4.0% of the total variance in DASS-21, IES-R, and PSQI total scale scores, respectively. Adding childhood trauma significantly increased the model variance of DASS-21 (ΔR 2 = 0.129, F = 126.092, p = 0.000), IES-R (ΔR 2 = 0.062, F = 54.771, p = 0.000), and PSQI total scale scores (ΔR 2 = 0.055, F = 48.733, p = 0.000), respectively. Moreover, the series mediation model showed that the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and sleep quality were sequential mediators between childhood trauma and mental health status (proportion explained: 49.17%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Amid the ravages of COVID-19, childhood trauma predicts poor mental health status, in part because of greater psychological impact related to COVID-19 and poorer global sleep quality. In order to improve mental health, future researchers should pay more attention to individuals with childhood trauma, for its association with greater stress related to life events and poorer sleep quality.

6.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 355, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting the swine industry globally. Evaluation of antibody responses and neutralizing antibody titers is the most effective method for vaccine evaluation. In this study, the B cell line epitopes of PRRSV M protein were predicted, and two peptide ELISA assays were established (M-A110-129 ELISA, M-A148-174 ELISA) to detect antibodies against PRRSV M protein. Field serum samples collected from pig farms were used to validate the peptide ELISA and compare it with an indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of M-A110-129 ELISA and M-A148-174 ELISA were (111/125) 88.80%, (69/70) 98.57% and (122/125) 97.60%, (70/70) 100%, relative to indirect immunofluorescence assay. This peptide ELISA could detect antibodies against different genotypes of PRRSV including type 1 PRRSV, classical PRRSV, HP-PRRSV, and NADC30 like PRRSV, but not antibodies against other common swine viruses. The results of ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of the M-A110-129 ELISA and M-A148-174 ELISA were 0.967 and 0.996, respectively. Compared the concordance of results using two peptide ELISA assays, the IDEXX PRRSV X3 Ab ELISA and a virus neutralization test, were assessed using a series of 147 sera from pigs vaccinated with the NADC30-like PRRSV inactivated vaccine. The M-A148-174 ELISA had the best consistency, with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.8772. The concordance rates of the Hipra PRRSV ELISA kit, M-A110-129 ELISA and M-A148-174 ELISA in the field seropositive detection results were 91.08, 86.32 and 95.35%, relative to indirect immunofluorescence assay. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, compared with M-A110-129 ELISA, the PRRSV M-A148-174 ELISA is of value for detecting antibodies against PRRSV and the evaluation of the NADC30-like PRRSV inactivated vaccine, but the advantage is insufficient in serological early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 642452, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302108

ABSTRACT

Background: We investigated if the concentration and "rangeability" of cystatin C (CysC) influenced the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients suffering from, or not suffering from, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 675 T2DM patients and 572 non-T2DM patients were divided into "low" and "high" CysC groups and low and high CysC-rangeability groups according to serum CysC level and range of change of CysC level, respectively. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, and laboratory results of the four groups were analyzed. Results: COVID-19 patients with a high level and rangeability of CysC had more organ damage and a higher risk of death compared with those with a low level or low rangeability of CysC. Patients with a higher level and rangeability of CysC had more blood lymphocytes and higher levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. After adjustment for possible confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that CysC >0.93 mg/dL was significantly associated with the risk of heart failure (OR = 2.231, 95% CI: 1.125-5.312) and all-cause death (2.694, 1.161-6.252). CysC rangeability >0 was significantly associated with all-cause death (OR = 4.217, 95% CI: 1.953-9.106). These associations were stronger in patients suffering from T2DM than in those not suffering from T2DM. Conclusions: The level and rangeability of CysC may influence the prognosis of COVID-19. Special care and appropriate intervention should be undertaken in COVID-19 patients with an increased CysC level during hospitalization and follow-up, especially for those with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cystatin C/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 567381, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295701

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of mental health problems among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We applied an optimized search strategy across the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and four Chinese databases, with hand searching supplemented to identify relevant surveys. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess the prevalence and risk factors of mental health problems among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Heterogeneity was quantified using Q statistics and the I 2 statistics. The potential causes of heterogeneity were investigated using subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the robustness of the results. Results: We pooled and analyzed data from 20 studies comprising 10,886 healthcare workers. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, phobia, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and somatization symptoms was 24.1, 28.6, 44.1, 25.6, 35.0, 16.2, and 10.7%, respectively. Female and nurses had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety. Frontline healthcare workers had a higher prevalence of anxiety and a lower prevalence of depression than the those in the second-line. Furthermore, the proportion of moderate-severe depression and anxiety is higher in the frontline. Additionally, four studies reported on risk factors of mental health problems. Conclusions: In this systematic review, healthcare workers have a relatively high prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, phobia, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and somatization symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and focus should be on the healthcare workers at high risk of mental problems. Mental health problems in healthcare workers should be taken seriously, and timely screening and appropriate intervention for the high-risk group are highly recommended. Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020179189.

11.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa297, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990776

ABSTRACT

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10 times the effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the receptor binding domain, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19.

12.
Med Sci Educ ; 31(1): 197-201, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898198

ABSTRACT

Medical students were temporarily removed from direct patient contact activities during the COVID-19 pandemic, shortening the duration of ward-based attachment programs. Web-based workshops were organized to equip final year medical students with necessary skills to start work in a general medicine setting. Topics included case-based scenarios reviewing patients with new complaints, medical documentation, and inter-professional communication. They were conducted using an online video conference platform and utilized polling platforms, small group discussions, and the "Chat" function to promote interactivity. Web-based learning enables delivery of useful contents without compromising interactivity and clinical applicability during the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Science ; 369(6499): 77-81, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-667322

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2-specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a pilot-scale production of PiCoVacc, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate, which induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. These antibodies neutralized 10 representative SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting a possible broader neutralizing ability against other strains. Three immunizations using two different doses, 3 or 6 micrograms per dose, provided partial or complete protection in macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, respectively, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These data support the clinical development and testing of PiCoVacc for use in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
14.
Science ; 369(6499): 77-81, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197649

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2-specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a pilot-scale production of PiCoVacc, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate, which induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. These antibodies neutralized 10 representative SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting a possible broader neutralizing ability against other strains. Three immunizations using two different doses, 3 or 6 micrograms per dose, provided partial or complete protection in macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, respectively, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These data support the clinical development and testing of PiCoVacc for use in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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