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Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410521


SARS-CoV-2 infection has caused a global pandemic that has severely damaged both public health and the economy. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is multifunctional and plays an important role in ribonucleocapsid formation and viral genome replication. In order to elucidate its functions, interaction partners of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human cells were identified via affinity purification and mass spectrometry. We identified 160 cellular proteins as interaction partners of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein in HEK293T and/or Calu-3 cells. Functional analysis revealed strong enrichment for ribosome biogenesis and RNA-associated processes, including ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, ribosomal large and small subunits biogenesis, RNA binding, catalysis, translation and transcription. Proteins related to virus defence responses, including MOV10, EIF2AK2, TRIM25, G3BP1, ZC3HAV1 and ZCCHC3 were also identified in the N protein interactome. This study comprehensively profiled the viral-host interactome of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human cells, and the findings provide the basis for further studies on the pathogenesis and antiviral strategies for this emerging infection.

Front Immunol ; 12: 708184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346403


There is a worldwide pandemic of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; yet our understanding remains limited on the characteristic of antibodies, especially for dynamic long-term tracking. Sequential serum samples were collected up to 416 days post onset of symptoms (POS) from 102 patients who were hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and IgA levels targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD), spike 2 extracellular domain (S2-ECD), and nucleocapsid protein (N) were quantified as well as neutralizing activity. We were pleasantly surprised to find that the antibody remained detective and effective for more than a year POS. We also found the varied reactions of different antibodies as time passed: N-IgA rose most rapidly in the early stage of infection, while S2-IgG was present at a high level in the long time of observation. This study described the long traceable antibody response of the COVID-19 and offered hints about targets to screen for postinfectious immunity and for vaccination development of SARS-CoV-2.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology