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1.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L958-L959, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526552

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5654, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440471

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we generate and characterize a novel mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain, MASCp36, that causes severe respiratory symptoms, and mortality. Our model exhibits age- and gender-related mortality akin to severe COVID-19. Deep sequencing identified three amino acid substitutions, N501Y, Q493H, and K417N, at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MASCp36, during in vivo passaging. All three RBD mutations significantly enhance binding affinity to its endogenous receptor, ACE2. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of human ACE2 (hACE2), or mouse ACE2 (mACE2), in complex with the RBD of MASCp36, at 3.1 to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals the molecular basis for the receptor-binding switch. N501Y and Q493H enhance the binding affinity to hACE2, whereas triple mutations at N501Y/Q493H/K417N decrease affinity and reduce infectivity of MASCp36. Our study provides a platform for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and unveils the molecular mechanism for its rapid adaptation and evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 53(12): 2567-2575, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This paper was intended to describe the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with known chronic kidney disease (CKD) history. METHODS: Clinical information of 20 COVID-19 pneumonia patients with CKD history diagnosed between January 20th and March 1st, 2020 were collected in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. We listed the clinical baseline data, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography (CT) changes and processed a short period of follow-up of these 20 patients. RESULTS: Based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on admission, 6 patients were classified as stage 2 of CKD, 5 were as 3a, 2 were as 3b, 3 were as 4 and 4 were as 5, respectively. COVID-19 patients with CKD history were elder and hypertension was the most common comorbidity. Cough and fever accounted for more than 80% of the infectious cases. Lymphopenia, increased D-dimer and elevated infectious indications such as hypersensitive C response protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were also common among these patients. Ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the major manifestations in CT scans. 4 patients died and 7 patients underwent acute kidney injury (AKI) during observation. Among 16 discharged patients, 12 were with stable renal function and 4 had deteriorating renal function compared with that of admission. CONCLUSION: Compared to general population infected with SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 patients with CKD history had a preference to develop to severity with higher fatality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3910, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697036

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, has rapidly spread across the world, highlighting its high transmissibility, but the underlying morphogenesis and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the replication dynamics, cell tropism and morphogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in organotypic human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently and infects both ciliated and secretory cells in HAE cultures. In comparison, HCoV-NL63 replicates to lower titers and is only detected in ciliated cells. SARS-CoV-2 shows a similar morphogenetic process as other coronaviruses but causes plaque-like cytopathic effects in HAE cultures. Cell fusion, apoptosis, destruction of epithelium integrity, cilium shrinking and beaded changes are observed in the plaque regions. Taken together, our results provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism, replication and morphogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Morphogenesis/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory System/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropism , Virus Replication
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1499-1508, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324707

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to explore the intervention mechanism of Qingwen Baidu Yin in cytokine storm based on network pharmacology. TCMSP and TCMIP V2.0 server were used to predict all chemical components and action targets of Qingwen Baidu Yin. Diseases that could be treated by Qingwen Baidu Yin were predicted through Enrichr database. A compound target interaction(PPI) network diagram was constructed using STRING 11.0. OmicShare was used to analyzed the gene ontology(GO) enrichment and enrichment of the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway of core targets. Component-target-path network diagram was constructed with Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. After analysis of the database, 267 compounds were screened for Qingwen Baidu Yin, involving 1 450 targets, and a protein interaction network was constructed. Total 219 core target proteins were predicted, such as NFKB1, STAT1, RAF1, IL2, JAK1, IL6, TNF, BCL2 and other important targets, and 221 core target pathways were enriched, including cancer pathway, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus infection, chemokine signal pathway, PI3 K-AKT signal pathway, EB virus infection, virus carcinogenesis and T cell receptor signaling pathways, a collection of which were highly related to cytokine storms. GO annotation analysis suggested that Qingwen Baidu Yin Decoction may exert therapeutic effects by regulating protein phosphorylation, cell response to cytokine stimulation, cell proliferation, inflammatory response, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, and cytokine-mediated signaling pathways. This study revealed potential active components of Qingwen Baidu Yin in defending against cytokine storm and its possible mechanism of action, and provided theoretical basis and technical support for further clinical application of this prescription.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Cytokines , Gene Ontology , Protein Interaction Maps
6.
Nature ; 583(7818): 830-833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220333

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2. Here we infected transgenic mice that express human ACE2 (hereafter, hACE2 mice) with SARS-CoV-2 and studied the pathogenicity of the virus. We observed weight loss as well as virus replication in the lungs of hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of considerable numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and the accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. We observed viral antigens in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. These phenomena were not found in wild-type mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice. This mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutic agents and vaccines, as well as understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Transgenes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Complement 3d/genetics , Receptors, Complement 3d/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Weight Loss
7.
Chin. J. Microbiol. Immunol. ; 2(40): 103-109, 20200229.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-23278

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of different pre-sequencing sample processing modes on the results of whole genome sequencing with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) by taking the largest RNA virus (human coronavirus, HCoV) as the representative. Methods: Cell-cultured human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 strains were used as the representative samples and divided into different groups based on pre-sequencing processing modes as follows: untreated group, DNase and RNase treatment before nucleic acid extraction group, DNase treatment after nucleic acid extraction group, and DNase and RNase treatment before nucleic acid extraction and DNase treatment after nucleic acid extraction group. Nucleic acid samples of each group were analyzed by direct RNA sequencing (without amplification) and DNA sequencing after sequence independent single primer amplification (SISPA), respectively. Results: No significant difference in viral genome coverage rates was observed between different groups. The highest genome coverage and sequencing accuracy were obtained in DNase treatment after nucleic acid extraction group by direct RNA sequencing, and the ratio of viral reads and the sequencing depth of each locus were effectively improved by SISPA amplification. Conclusions: This study provided an optimized technical strategy for whole genome sequencing of RNA viruses such as coronavirus.

8.
Lancet ; 395(10224): 565-574, 2020 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-80

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. METHODS: We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus. FINDINGS: The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues. INTERPRETATION: 2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , DNA, Viral/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment
9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 727-733, 2020 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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