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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(6): 691-696, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) remains a serious health threat worldwide. We aimed to investigate whether low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can promote organ function recovery in moderate Covid-19 pneumonia patients. METHODS: We initiated an LMWH protocol in Covid-19 patients with increased D-dimer, body mass index >30 kg/m2 or a history of diabetes from January 18, 2020 at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. In this retrospective study, we assigned moderate Covid- 19 pneumonia patients admitted between January 18th and April 18, 2020 receiving the LMWH protocol to the LMWH group. Moderate patients who met the inclusion criteria but did not receive LMWH protocol were included in the control group by 1:2 propensity score matching. General clinical information, indicators for renal function, arterial blood gas analyses, arterial blood lactic acid content (mmol/L), and coagulation indexes at 0 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 11 days after admission were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were 41 patients in the LMWH group and 82 patients in the control group. General information in both groups were similar. Compared to the control group, the arterial blood lactic acid content (mmol/L) at day 11 (1.3 [1.1, 1.7] vs. 1.2 [0.9, 1.3], P = 0.016) was reduced in the LMWH group. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the LMWH group was higher than that in the control group at day 7 (108.54 [89.11, 128.17] vs. 116.85 [103.39, 133.47], P = 0.039) and day 11 (113.74 [94.49, 126.34] vs. 128.31 [112.75, 144, 12], P  = 0.003). The serum creatinine levels (Scr) in the LMWH group were lower than that in the control group at day 7 (62.13 [51.47, 77.64] vs. 55.49 [49.50, 65.75], P = 0.038) and day 11 (63.35 [50.17, 75.73] vs. 51.62 [44.62, 61.24], P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: LMWH treatment can reduce arterial blood lactic acid levels and improve eGFR in moderate Covid-19 pneumonia patients. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to further investigate this issue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org.cn, ChiCTR2000034796.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , China , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactic Acid , Retrospective Studies
2.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 36, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805604

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) has aroused concerns over their increased infectivity and transmissibility, as well as decreased sensitivity to SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Such exigencies call for the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines or inhibitors to combat the circulating SARS-CoV-2 NAb-escape variants and other sarbecoviruses. In this study, we isolated a broadly NAb against sarbecoviruses named GW01 from a donor who recovered from COVID-19. Cryo-EM structure and competition assay revealed that GW01 targets a highly conserved epitope in a wide spectrum of different sarbecoviruses. However, we found that GW01, the well-known sarbecovirus NAb S309, and the potent SARS-CoV-2 NAbs CC12.1 and REGN10989 only neutralize about 90% of the 56 tested currently circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 including Omicron. Therefore, to improve efficacy, we engineered an IgG-like bispecific antibody GW01-REGN10989 (G9) consisting of single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) of GW01 and REGN10989. We found that G9 could neutralize 100% of NAb-escape mutants (23 out of 23), including Omicron variant, with a geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentration of 8.8 ng/mL. G9 showed prophylactic and therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection of both the lung and brain in hACE2-transgenic mice. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses revealed that GW01 and REGN10989 bind to the receptor-binding domain in different epitopes and from different directions. Since G9 targets the epitopes for both GW01 and REGN10989, it was effective against variants with resistance to GW01 or REGN10989 alone and other NAb-escape variants. Therefore, this novel bispecific antibody, G9, is a strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2, NAb-escape variants, and other sarbecoviruses that may cause future emerging or re-emerging coronavirus diseases.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 91, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751707

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is no effective drugs for treating clinically COVID-19 except dexamethasone. We previously revealed that human identical sequences of SARS-CoV-2 promote the COVID-19 progression by upregulating hyaluronic acid (HA). As the inhibitor of HA synthesis, hymecromone is an approved prescription drug used for treating biliary spasm. Here, we aimed to investigate the relation between HA and COVID-19, and evaluate the therapeutic effects of hymecromone on COVID-19. Firstly, HA was closely relevant to clinical parameters, including lymphocytes (n = 158; r = -0.50; P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (n = 156; r = 0.55; P < 0.0001), D-dimer (n = 154; r = 0.38; P < 0.0001), and fibrinogen (n = 152; r = 0.37; P < 0.0001), as well as the mass (n = 78; r = 0.43; P < 0.0001) and volume (n = 78; r = 0.41; P = 0.0002) of ground-glass opacity, the mass (n = 78; r = 0.48; P < 0.0001) and volume (n = 78; r = 0.47; P < 0.0001) of consolidation in patient with low level of hyaluronan (HA < 48.43 ng/mL). Furthermore, hyaluronan could directly cause mouse pulmonary lesions. Besides, hymecromone remarkably reduced HA via downregulating HAS2/HAS3 expression. Moreover, 89% patients with hymecromone treatment had pulmonary lesion absorption while only 42% patients in control group had pulmonary lesion absorption (P < 0.0001). In addition, lymphocytes recovered more quickly in hymecromone-treated patients (n = 8) than control group (n = 5) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that hymecromone is a promising drug for COVID-19 and deserves our further efforts to determine its effect in a larger cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyaluronic Acid , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hymecromone/metabolism , Hymecromone/pharmacology , Mice , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327270

ABSTRACT

The highly mutated and transmissible Omicron variant has provoked serious concerns over its decreased sensitivity to the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and evasion from most anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In this study, we explored the possibility of combatting the Omicron variant by constructing bispecific antibodies based on non-Omicron NAbs. We engineered ten IgG-like bispecific antibodies with non-Omicron NAbs named GW01, 16L9, 4L12, and REGN10987 by fusing the single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) of two antibodies through a linker and then connecting them to the Fc region of IgG1. Surprisingly, eight out of ten bispecific antibodies showed high binding affinity to the Omicron receptor-binding domain (RBD) and exhibited extreme breadth and potency against pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) including Omicron, as well as authentic Omicron(+R346K) variants. Six bispecific antibodies containing the cross-NAb GW01 neutralized Omicron variant and retained their abilities to neutralize other sarbecoviruses. Bispecific antibodies inhibited Omicron infection by binding to the ACE2 binding site. A cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure study of the representative bispecific antibody FD01 in complex with the Omicron spike (S) revealed 5 distinct trimers and one unique bi-trimer conformation. The structure and mapping analyses of 34 Omicron S variant single mutants elucidated that two scFvs of the bispecific antibody synergistically induced the RBD-down conformation into 3-RBD-up conformation, enlarged the interface area, accommodated the S371L mutation, improved the affinity between a single IgG and the Omicron RBD, and hindered ACE2 binding by forming bi-trimer conformation. Our study offers an important foundation for anti-Omicron NAb design. Engineering bispecific antibodies based on non-Omicron NAbs may provide an efficient solution to combat the Omicron variant.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316025

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) remains a serious health threat worldwide. It is crucial to explore effective treatment measures that reduce mortality. Our aim was to investigate whether low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can reduce organ injury in patients with Covid-19 pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. We initiated a LMWH protocol from January 18th 2020. LMWH was injected subcutaneously at 4100U per day until the D-dimer(DD) level returned to normal, or 5-7 days after admission, whichever occurred first. Admitted patients who received LMWH between January 18th and February 17th 2020 were assigned to the LMWH group. Patients admitted between January 18th and February 17th who did not receive LMWH anticoagulant therapy were the control group. All patients in both groups were aged >18 years, were not pregnant, had no tumors and were in accordance with the following inclusion criteria: 1) DD increased on admission;2) Body mass index(BMI) >30;3) History of diabetes. The exclusion criteria were: 1) Platelets <30x10 9 /L or fibrinogen <150 mg/dL;2) Pregnancy and lactation;3) Presence of blood system diseases;4) Immunosuppression;5) Diseases with a potential risk of bleeding;6) Receiving anticoagulant drugs or antiplatelet drugs during treatment. General clinical information, indicators for renal function, arterial blood gas analyses and blood lactic acid content were recorded in the two groups 0 (Day 0), 3 (Day 3), 7 (Day 7), and 11 (Day 11) and 15 (Day 15) days after admission. Results: There were 48 patients in the LMWH group and 74 patients in the control group. General information, including age, gender, co-existing diseases and onset-to-admission time in both groups was similar. Compared to the control group, LMWH treatment improved the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reduced the serum creatinine level (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN),arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) and arterial blood lactic acid content. However, LMWH treatment reduced arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). Conclusion: LMWH might be beneficial to improve renal function, CO2 discharge and microcirculation during the early phase of Covid-19 patients . Further randomized controlled trials(RCTs) are warranted in order to further investigate this issue. Trial registration ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000034796. Registered 19 July 2020 - Retrospectively registered, http:// www. chictr.org.cn/listbycreater.aspx.

6.
Curr Opin Virol ; 52: 9-14, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509709

ABSTRACT

With more than 200 million people affected and 4.5 million deaths so far, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become one of the greatest disasters in human history. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) are a known complication of viral respiratory infections, and are significantly associated with poorer outcomes in COVID-19 patients despite antibiotic treatments. The increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria and the decreasing options available in our antimicrobial armory worsen this crisis and call for alternative treatment options. As natural killers of bacteria, phages are recognized as promising alternatives to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, little is known about their use for treating SBIs during virus pandemics such as COVID-19. This review highlights the situation of SBIs in COVID-19 patients, and the distinct strengths and limitations of phage therapy for their containment.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Phage Therapy , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 785-792, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217481

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to the new pandemic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and are a source of nosocomial transmission in airborne infectious isolation rooms (AIIRs). Here, we performed comprehensive environmental contamination surveillance to evaluate the risk of viral transmission in AIIRs with 115 rooms in three buildings at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, during the treatment of 334 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in AIIRs was low (1.62%, 25/1544) due to the directional airflow and strong environmental hygiene procedures. However, we detected viral RNA on the surface of foot-operated openers and bathroom sinks in AIIRs (viral load: 55.00-3154.50 copies/mL). This might be a source of contamination to connecting corridors and object surfaces through the footwear and gloves used by HCWs. The risk of infection was eliminated by the use of disposable footwear covers and the application of more effective environmental and personal hygiene measures. With the help of effective infection control procedures, none of 290 HCWs was infected when working in the AIIRs at this hospital. This study has provided information pertinent for infection control in AIIRs during the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Hospitals, Isolation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Environmental Microbiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk Factors , Viral Load
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 625881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133910

ABSTRACT

T cells play a critical role in coronavirus diseases. How they do so in COVID-19 may be revealed by analyzing the epigenetic chromatin accessibility of cis- and trans-regulatory elements and creating transcriptomic immune profiles. We performed single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC) and single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing (seq) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of severely ill/critical patients (SCPs) infected with COVID-19, moderate patients (MPs), and healthy volunteer controls (HCs). About 76,570 and 107,862 single cells were used, respectively, for analyzing the characteristics of chromatin accessibility and transcriptomic immune profiles by the application of scATAC-seq (nine cases) and scRNA-seq (15 cases). The scATAC-seq detected 28,535 different peaks in the three groups; among these peaks, 41.6 and 10.7% were located in the promoter and enhancer regions, respectively. Compared to HCs, among the peak-located genes in the total T cells and its subsets, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, from SCPs and MPs were enriched with inflammatory pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway. The motifs of TBX21 were less accessible in the CD4+ T cells of SCPs compared with those in MPs. Furthermore, the scRNA-seq showed that the proportion of T cells, especially the CD4+ T cells, was decreased in SCPs and MPs compared with those in HCs. Transcriptomic results revealed that histone-related genes, and inflammatory genes, such as NFKBIA, S100A9, and PIK3R1, were highly expressed in the total T cells, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, both in the cases of SCPs and MPs. In the CD4+ T cells, decreased T helper-1 (Th1) cells were observed in SCPs and MPs. In the CD8+T cells, activation markers, such as CD69 and HLA class II genes (HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DRB5), were significantly upregulated in SCPs. An integrated analysis of the data from scATAC-seq and scRNA-seq showed some consistency between the approaches. Cumulatively, we have generated a landscape of chromatin epigenetic status and transcriptomic immune profiles of T cells in patients with COVID-19. This has provided a deeper dissection of the characteristics of the T cells involved at a higher resolution than from previously obtained data merely by the scRNA-seq analysis. Our data led us to suggest that the T-cell inflammatory states accompanied with defective functions in the CD4+ T cells of SCPs may be the key factors for determining the pathogenesis of and recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chromatin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , Calgranulin B/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Class Ia Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/genetics , Epigenome/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Lymphocyte Activation , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transposases/metabolism , Up-Regulation
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 612-618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127286

ABSTRACT

Phage therapy is recognized as a promising alternative to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, its use has not been reported for treating secondary bacterial infections during virus pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We enrolled 4 patients hospitalized with critical COVID-19 and pulmonary carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections to compassionate phage therapy (at 2 successive doses of 109 plaque-forming unit phages). All patients in our COVID-19-specific intensive care unit (ICU) with CRAB positive in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum samples were eligible for study inclusion if antibiotic treatment failed to eradicate their CRAB infections. While phage susceptibility testing revealed an identical profile of CRAB strains from these patients, treatment with a pre-optimized 2-phage cocktail was associated with reduced CRAB burdens. Our results suggest the potential of phages on rapid responses to secondary CRAB outbreak in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/etiology , Acinetobacter Infections/therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii/virology , Bacteriophages/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/therapy , Phage Therapy , Podoviridae/physiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 568-580, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune protective mechanisms during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain to be deciphered for the development of an effective intervention approach. METHODS: We examined early responses of interleukin 37 (IL-37), a powerful anti-inflammatory cytokine, in 254 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients before any clinical intervention and determined its correlation with clinical prognosis. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes elevation of plasma IL-37. Higher early IL-37 responses were correlated with earlier viral RNA negative conversion, chest computed tomographic improvement, and cough relief, consequently resulted in earlier hospital discharge. Further assays showed that higher IL-37 was associated with lower interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8) and higher interferon α responses and facilitated biochemical homeostasis. Low IL-37 responses predicted severe clinical prognosis in combination with IL-8 and C-reactive protein. In addition, we observed that IL-37 administration was able to attenuate lung inflammation and alleviate respiratory tissue damage in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that IL-37 plays a protective role by antagonizing inflammatory responses while retaining type I interferon, thereby maintaining the functionalities of vital organs. IL-37, IL-8, and C-reactive protein might be formulated as a precise prediction model for screening severe clinical cases and have good value in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Interleukin-1/blood , Adult , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Middle Aged
11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 25: 100478, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health. New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol. Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group). The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital. This study is registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262. FINDINGS: A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group. Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups. No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups. CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 5.0 days (IQR 3.0-9.0) in the experimental group versus 8.5 days (IQR 3.0-17.0) in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (4.5 days [IQR 2.0-7.0]) than the control group did (10.0 days [IQR 6.0-21.0])(p<0.005), in viral RNA reversion of 6.0 days (IQR 2.0-13.0) in the experimental group vs 9.5 days (IQR 3.0-23.0) in the control group (p < 0.05), and in the median hospitalization stays of 12.0 days (IQR 7.0-20.0) in the experimental group vs 15.0 days (IQR 10.0-25.0) in the control group (p<0.001), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization. These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2. FUNDING: National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.

12.
Med (N Y) ; 2(1): 99-112.e7, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global public health concern due to relatively easy person-to-person transmission and the current lack of effective antiviral therapy. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis remain largely unknown. METHODS: Genome-wide screening was used to establish intraviral and viral-host interactomes. Quantitative proteomics was used to investigate the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proteome signature in COVID-19. FINDINGS: We elucidated 286 host proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 and >350 host proteins that are significantly perturbed in COVID-19-derived PBMCs. This signature in severe COVID-19 PBMCs reveals a significant upregulation of cellular proteins related to neutrophil activation and blood coagulation, as well as a downregulation of proteins mediating T cell receptor signaling. From the interactome, we further identified that non-structural protein 10 interacts with NF-κB-repressing factor (NKRF) to facilitate interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction, which potentially contributes to IL-8-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils and the overexuberant host inflammatory response observed in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study not only presents a systematic examination of SARS-CoV-2-induced perturbation of host targets and cellular networks but it also reveals insights into the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers cytokine storms, representing a powerful resource in the pursuit of therapeutic interventions. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Project of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission, Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty, Innovative Research Team of High-level Local Universities in Shanghai, Interdisciplinary Program of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, SII Challenge Fund for COVID-19 Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large Research Infrastructure of Maintenance and Remolding Project, and Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Technology Talent Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Proteomics , Virulence Factors
13.
EMBO J ; 39(24): e105896, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903069

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by dysregulated immune responses, metabolic dysfunction and adverse effects on the function of multiple organs. To understand host responses to COVID-19 pathophysiology, we combined transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to identify molecular markers in peripheral blood and plasma samples of 66 COVID-19-infected patients experiencing a range of disease severities and 17 healthy controls. A large number of expressed genes, proteins, metabolites, and extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) exhibit strong associations with various clinical parameters. Multiple sets of tissue-specific proteins and exRNAs varied significantly in both mild and severe patients suggesting a potential impact on tissue function. Chronic activation of neutrophils, IFN-I signaling, and a high level of inflammatory cytokines were observed in patients with severe disease progression. In contrast, COVID-19-infected patients experiencing milder disease symptoms showed robust T-cell responses. Finally, we identified genes, proteins, and exRNAs as potential biomarkers that might assist in predicting the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data refine our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical progress of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genomics/methods , Humans , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Male , Metabolomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100547, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemic outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 are worsening around the world, and there are no target drugs to treat COVID-19. IFN-κ inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2; and TFF2 is a small secreted polypeptide that promotes the repair of mucosal injury and reduces the inflammatory responses. We used the synergistic effect of both proteins to treat COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, randomized, clinical trial involving patients with moderate COVID-19. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2 every 24 h for six consecutive dosages in addition to standard care (experimental group) or standard care alone (control group). The primary endpoint was the time until a viral RNA negative conversion for SARS-CoV-2 in all clinical samples. The secondary clinical endpoint was the time of CT imaging improvement. Data analysis was performed per protocol. This study was registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262. FINDINGS: Between March 23 and May 23 of 2020, 86 COVID-19 patients with symptoms of moderate illness were recruited, and 6 patients were excluded due to not matching the inclusion criteria (patients with pneumonia through chest radiography). Among the remaining 80 patients, 40 patients were assigned to experimental group, and the others were assigned to control group to only receive standard care. Efficacy and safety were evaluated for both groups. The time of viral RNA negative conversion in experimental group (Mean, 3·80 days, 95% CI 2·07-5·53), was significantly shorter than that in control group (7·40 days, 95% CI 4·57 to 10·23) (p = 0.031), and difference between means was 3·60 days. The percentage of patients in experimental group with reversion to negative viral RNA was significantly increased compared with control group on all sampling days (every day during the 12-day observation period) (p = 0·037). For the secondary endpoint, the experimental group had a significantly shorter time until improvement was seen by CT (Mean 6·21 days, N = 38/40, 95% CI 5·11-7·31) than that in control group (8·76 days, N = 34/40, 95% CI 7·57-9·96) (p = 0.002), and difference between means was 2·55 days. No discomfort or complications during aerosol inhalation were reported to the nurses by any experimental patients. INTERPRETATION: In conclusion, we found that aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 in combination with standard care is safe and superior to standard care alone in shortening the time up to viral RNA negative conversion in all clinical samples. In addition, the patients in experimental group had a significantly shortened CT imaging improvement time than those in control group. This study suggested that this combination treatment is able to facilitate clinical improvement (negative for virus, improvement by CT, reduced hospitalization stay) and thereby result in an early release from the hospital. These data support the need for exploration with a large-scale trial of IFN-κ plus TFF2 to treat COVID-19. FUNDING: Funding was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.

15.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1356-1362, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718296

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health. The association between clinical characteristics of the virus and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against this virus have not been well studied. Objective: To examine the association between clinical characteristics and levels of NAbs in patients who recovered from COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, a total of 175 patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 who were hospitalized from January 24 to February 26, 2020, were followed up until March 16, 2020, at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, China. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infections were diagnosed and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing of nasopharyngeal samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2-specific NAb titers. Secondary outcomes included spike-binding antibodies, cross-reactivity against SARS-associated CoV, kinetics of NAb development, and clinical information, including age, sex, disease duration, length of stay, lymphocyte counts, and blood C-reactive protein level. Results: Of the 175 patients with COVID-19, 93 were female (53%); the median age was 50 (interquartile range [IQR], 37-63) years. The median length of hospital stay was 16 (IQR, 13-21) days, and the median disease duration was 22 (IQR, 18-26) days. Variable levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs were observed at the time of discharge (50% inhibitory dose [ID50], 1076 [IQR, 448-2048]). There were 10 patients whose NAb titers were less than the detectable level of the assay (ID50, <40), and 2 patients who showed very high titers of NAbs, with ID50 levels of 15 989 and 21 567. NAbs were detected in patients from day 4 to 6 and reached peak levels from day 10 to 15 after disease onset. NAbs were unable to cross-react with SARS-associated CoV and NAb titers correlated with the spike-binding antibodies targeting S1 (r = 0.451; 95% CI, 0.320-0.564; P < .001), receptor binding domain (r = 0.484; 95% CI, 0.358-0.592; P < .001), and S2 regions (r = 0.346; 95% CI, 0.204-0.473; P < .001). NAb titers at the time of discharge were significantly higher in the 82 men (1417 [IQR, 541-2253]) than those in the 93 women (905 [IQR, 371-1687]) (median difference, 512; 95% CI, 82-688; P = .01) and at the time of follow-up in 56 male patients (1049 [IQR, 552-2454]) vs 61 female patients (751 [IQR, 216-1301]) (median difference, 298; 95% CI, 86-732; P = .009). Plasma NAb titers were significantly higher in 56 older (1537 [IQR, 877-2427) and 63 middle-aged (1291 [IQR, 504-2126]) patients than in 56 younger patients (459 [IQR, 225-998]) (older vs younger: median difference, 1078; 95% CI, 548-1287; P < .001; middle-aged vs younger: median difference, 832; 95% CI, 284-1013; P < .001). The NAb titers were correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels (r = 0.508; 95% CI, 0.386-0.614; P < .001) and negatively correlated with lymphocyte counts (r = -0.427; 95% CI, -0.544 to -0.293; P < .001) at the time of admission. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, among 175 patients who recovered from mild COVID-19 in Shanghai, China, NAb titers to SARS-CoV-2 appeared to vary substantially. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications of differing NAb titers for protection against future infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1537-1545, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611841

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is prevalent around the world. We aimed to describe epidemiological features and clinical course in Shanghai. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 325 cases admitted at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, between January 20 and February 29, 2020. Results: 47.4% (154/325) had visited Wuhan within 2 weeks of illness onset. 57.2% occurred in 67 clusters; 40% were situated within 53 family clusters. 83.7% developed fever during the disease course. Median times from onset to first medical care, hospitalization and negative detection of nucleic acid by nasopharyngeal swab were 1, 4 and 8 days. Patients with mild disease using glucocorticoid tended to have longer viral shedding in blood and feces. At admission, 69.8% presented with lymphopenia and 38.8% had elevated D-dimers. Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan. Severe-critical patients were 8% with a median time from onset to critical disease of 10.5 days. Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen. The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion: COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported. Rapid identification, and effective control measures helped to contain the outbreak and prevent community transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
17.
Biosci Trends ; 14(3): 161-167, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593589

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a serious public health threat to the whole world, and the number of infected is still rising dramatically at this moment. Several studies have confirmed that cytokine storms play a critical role in causing a case to worsen from mild to severe or critical. The current treatment for cytokine storms is limited, so the international medical community is focusing on a specific and effective remedy. Jaktinib hydrochloride is a broad spectrum JAK inhibitor. It can inhibit cytokine-induced immune activation by multiple mechanisms and also slow viral proliferation by inhibiting AAK1 without causing unacceptable toxicity. Jaktinib hydrochloride has great potential for the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(6): 438, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591593

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Since its first report in December 2019, despite great efforts made in almost every country worldwide, this disease continues to spread globally, especially in most parts of Europe, Iran, and the United States. Here, we update the recent understanding in clinical characteristics, diagnosis strategies, as well as clinical management of COVID-19 in China as compared to Italy, with the purpose to integrate the China experience with the global efforts to outline references for prevention, basic research, treatment as well as final control of the disease. Being the first two countries we feel appropriate to evaluate the evolution of the disease as well as the early result of the treatment, in order to offer a different baseline to other countries. It is also interesting to compare two countries, with a very significant difference in population, where the morbidity and mortality has been so different, and unrelated to the size of the country.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Theranostics ; 10(12): 5613-5622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203318

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly develop respiratory failure or even die, underscoring the need for early identification of patients at elevated risk of severe illness. This study aims to quantify pneumonia lesions by computed tomography (CT) in the early days to predict progression to severe illness in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included confirmed COVID-19 patients. Three quantitative CT features of pneumonia lesions were automatically calculated using artificial intelligence algorithms, representing the percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (PGV), semi-consolidation volume (PSV), and consolidation volume (PCV) in both lungs. CT features, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and d-dimer, on day 0 (hospital admission) and day 4, were collected to predict the occurrence of severe illness within a 28-day follow-up using both logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. Results: We included 134 patients, of whom 19 (14.2%) developed any severe illness. CT features on day 0 and day 4, as well as their changes from day 0 to day 4, showed predictive capability. Changes in CT features from day 0 to day 4 performed the best in the prediction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87~0.99; C-index=0.88, 95% CI 0.81~0.95). The hazard ratios of PGV and PCV were 1.39 (95% CI 1.05~1.84, P=0.023) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.17~2.38, P=0.005), respectively. CT features, adjusted for age and gender, on day 4 and in terms of changes from day 0 to day 4 outperformed APACHE-II, NLR, and d-dimer. Conclusions: CT quantification of pneumonia lesions can early and non-invasively predict the progression to severe illness, providing a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
J Infect ; 80(5): e1-e6, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P <0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P <0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR = 0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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