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ACS Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931305


Raman spectroscopy uncovered molecular scale markers of the viral structure of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and related viral inactivation mechanisms at the biological interface with silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics. A comparison of Raman spectra collected on the TY11-927 variant (lineage B.1.617.2; simply referred to as the Delta variant henceforth) with those of the JPN/TY/WK-521 variant (lineage B.1.617.1; referred to as the Kappa variant or simply as the Japanese isolate henceforth) revealed the occurrence of key mutations of the spike receptor together with profound structural differences in the molecular structure/symmetry of sulfur-containing amino acid and altered hydrophobic interactions of the tyrosine residue. Additionally, different vibrational fractions of RNA purines and pyrimidines and dissimilar protein secondary structures were also recorded. Despite mutations, hydrolytic reactions at the surface of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics induced instantaneous inactivation of the Delta variant at the same rate as that of the Kappa variant. Contact between virions and micrometric Si3N4 particles yielded post-translational deimination of arginine spike residues, methionine sulfoxidation, tyrosine nitration, and oxidation of RNA purines to form formamidopyrimidines. Si3N4 bioceramics proved to be a safe and effective inorganic compound for instantaneous environmental sanitation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(3): e2103287, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557802


The multiple mutations of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus have created variants with structural differences in both their spike and nucleocapsid proteins. While the functional relevance of these mutations is under continuous scrutiny, current findings have documented their detrimental impact in terms of affinity with host receptors, antibody resistance, and diagnostic sensitivity. Raman spectra collected on two British variant sub-types found in Japan (QK002 and QHN001) are compared with that of the original Japanese isolate (JPN/TY/WK-521), and found bold vibrational differences. These included: i) fractions of sulfur-containing amino acid rotamers, ii) hydrophobic interactions of tyrosine phenol ring, iii) apparent fractions of RNA purines and pyrimidines, and iv) protein secondary structures. Building upon molecular scale results and their statistical validations, the authors propose to represent virus variants with a barcode specially tailored on Raman spectrum. Raman spectroscopy enables fast identification of virus variants, while the Raman barcode facilitates electronic recordkeeping and translates molecular characteristics into information rapidly accessible by users.

COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , United Kingdom
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14571, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281993


OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is outbreaking globally. We aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics, cardiac injury, electrocardiogram and computed tomography (CT) features of patients confirmed Covid-19 and explored the prediction models for the severity of Covid-19. METHODS: A retrospective and single-centre study enrolled 98 laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 patients. Clinical data, electrocardiogram and CT features were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. RESULTS: There were 46 males and 52 females, with a median age of 44 years, categorised into three groups, including mild, moderate and severe/critical Covid-19. The rate of abnormal electrocardiograms in severe/critical group (79%) was significantly higher than that in the mild group (17%) (P = .027), which (r = 0.392, P = .005) positively related to the severity of Covid-19 (OR: 5.71, 95% CI: 0.45-3.04, P = .008). Age older than 60 years old, comorbidities, whether had symptoms on admission, fatigue, CT features, laboratory test results such as platelet count, lymphocyte cell count, eosinophil cell count, CD3+ cell count, CD4+ cell count, CD8+ cell count, the ratio of albumin/globulin decreased and D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) elevated were the risk factors for the increased severity of Covid-19. The logistic model, adjusted by age, lobular involvement score and lymphocyte cell count, could be applied for assessing the severity of Covid-19 (AUC, 0.903; Sensitivity, 90.9%; Specificity, 78.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Age >60 years old, chronic comorbidities, lymphocytopoenia and lobular involvement score were associated with the Covid-19 severity. The inflammation induced by Covid-19 caused myocardial injury with elevated BNP and cTnI level and abnormal electrocardiograms.

COVID-19 , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index