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1.
Transfusion ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to maintain the safety of blood products by avoiding the transfusion of units with known and novel viral pathogens. It is unknown whether COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) may contain pathogenic viruses (either newly acquired or reactivated) that are not routinely screened for by blood centers. METHODS: The DNA virome was characterized in potential CCP donors (n = 30) using viral genome specific PCR primers to identify DNA plasma virome members of the Herpesviridae [Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6A/B, human herpesvirus 7] and Anelloviridae [Torque teno viruses (TTV), Torque teno mini viruses (TTMV), and Torque teno midi viruses (TTMDV)] families. In addition, the RNA plasma virome was characterized using unbiased metagenomic sequencing. Sequencing was done on a HiSeq2500 using high output mode with a read length of 2X100 bp. The sequencing reads were taxonomically classified using Kraken2. CMV and EBV seroprevalence were evaluated using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. RESULTS: TTV and TTMDV were detected in 12 (40%) and 4 (13%) of the 30 study participants, respectively; TTMDV was always associated with infection with TTV. We did not observe TTMV DNAemia. Despite CMV and EBV seroprevalences of 33.3% and 93.3%, respectively, we did not detect Herpesviridae DNA among the study participants. Metagenomic sequencing did not reveal any human RNA viruses in CCP, including no evidence of circulating SARS-CoV-2. DISCUSSION: There was no evidence of pathogenic viruses, whether newly acquired or reactivated, in CCP despite the presence of non-pathogenic Anelloviridae. These results confirm the growing safety data supporting CCP.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0264298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021610

ABSTRACT

The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.33; 95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR = 4.36; CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR = 0.25; CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR = 0.31; 0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/therapy , Cough , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327587

ABSTRACT

The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 5.33;95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR=4.36;CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR=0.25;CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR=0.31;0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR=0.16;CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR=0.16;CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1253-1260, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583700

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and breakthrough infections are more common. Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses increase anti-spike IgG in some SOTRs, but it is uncertain whether neutralization of variants of concern (VOCs) is enhanced. We tested 47 SOTRs for clinical and research anti-spike IgG, pseudoneutralization (ACE2 blocking), and live-virus neutralization (nAb) against VOCs before and after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose (70% mRNA, 30% Ad26.COV2.S) with comparison to 15 healthy controls after two mRNA vaccine doses. We used correlation analysis to compare anti-spike IgG assays and focused on thresholds associated with neutralization. A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose increased median total anti-spike (1.6-fold), pseudoneutralization against VOCs (2.5-fold vs. Delta), and neutralizing antibodies (1.4-fold against Delta). However, neutralization activity was significantly lower than healthy controls (p < .001); 32% of SOTRs had zero detectable nAb against Delta after third vaccination compared to 100% for controls. Correlation with nAb was seen at anti-spike IgG >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the Euroimmun ELISA and >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the MSD research assay. These findings highlight benefits of a third vaccine dose for some SOTRs and the need for alternative strategies to improve protection in a significant subset of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0118621, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522902

ABSTRACT

Serologic point-of-care tests to detect antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are an important tool in the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of current point-of-care antibody tests developed for SARS-CoV-2 rely on lateral flow assays, but these do not offer quantitative information. To address this, we developed a novel antibody test leveraging hemagglutination, employing a dry card format currently used for typing ABO blood groups. Two hundred COVID-19 patient and 200 control plasma samples were reconstituted with O-negative red blood cells (RBCs) to form whole blood and added to dried viral-antibody fusion protein, followed by a stirring step and a tilting step, 3-min incubation, and a second tilting step. The sensitivities of the hemagglutination test, Euroimmun IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and receptor binding domain (RBD)-based CoronaChek lateral flow assay were 87.0%, 86.5%, and 84.5%, respectively, using samples obtained from recovered COVID-19 individuals. Testing prepandemic samples, the hemagglutination test had a specificity of 95.5%, compared to 97.3% and 98.9% for the ELISA and CoronaChek, respectively. A distribution of agglutination strengths was observed in COVID-19 convalescent-phase plasma samples, with the highest agglutination score (4) exhibiting significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than weak positives (2) (P < 0.0001). Strong agglutinations were observed within 1 min of testing, and this shorter assay time also increased specificity to 98.5%. In conclusion, we developed a novel rapid, point-of-care RBC agglutination test for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that can yield semiquantitative information on neutralizing antibody titer in patients. The 5-min test may find use in determination of serostatus prior to vaccination, postvaccination surveillance, and travel screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Hemagglutination Tests , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Clin Virol ; 145: 104997, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458634

ABSTRACT

Oral fluid (hereafter saliva) offers a non-invasive sampling method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. However, data comparing performance of salivary tests against commercially-available serologic and neutralizing antibody (nAb) assays are lacking. This study compared the performance of a laboratory-developed multiplex salivary SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay targeting antibodies to nucleocapsid (N), receptor binding domain (RBD) and spike (S) antigens to three commercially-available SARS-CoV-2 serologic enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, and BioRad) and nAb. Paired saliva and plasma samples were collected from 101 eligible COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors >14 days since PCR+ confirmed diagnosis. Concordance was evaluated using positive (PPA) and negative (NPA) percent agreement, and Cohen's kappa coefficient. The range between salivary and plasma EIAs for SARS-CoV-2-specific N was PPA: 54.4-92.1% and NPA: 69.2-91.7%, for RBD was PPA: 89.9-100% and NPA: 50.0-84.6%, and for S was PPA: 50.6-96.6% and NPA: 50.0-100%. Compared to a plasma nAb assay, the multiplex salivary assay PPA ranged from 62.3% (N) and 98.6% (RBD) and NPA ranged from 18.8% (RBD) to 96.9% (S). Combinations of N, RBD, and S and a summary algorithmic index of all three (N/RBD/S) in saliva produced ranges of PPA: 87.6-98.9% and NPA: 50-91.7% with the three EIAs and ranges of PPA: 88.4-98.6% and NPA: 21.9-34.4% with the nAb assay. A multiplex salivary SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay demonstrated variable, but comparable performance to three commercially-available plasma EIAs and a nAb assay, and may be a viable alternative to assist in monitoring population-based seroprevalence and vaccine antibody response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa574, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) is primarily ascribed as a source of neutralizing anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. However, the composition of other immune components in CCP and their potential roles remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to describe the composition and concentrations of plasma cytokines and chemokines in eligible CCP donors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 20 prepandemic healthy blood donors without SARS-CoV-2 infection and 140 eligible CCP donors with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Electrochemiluminescence detection-based multiplexed sandwich immunoassays were used to quantify plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations (n = 35 analytes). A SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization assay was also performed. Differences in the percentage of detection and distribution of cytokine and chemokine concentrations were examined by categorical groups using Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, respectively. RESULTS: Among CCP donors (n = 140), the median time since molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 was 44 days (interquartile range = 38-50) and 9% (n = 12) were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Compared with healthy blood donor controls, CCP donors had significantly higher plasma levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-15, IL-21, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1, but lower levels of IL-1RA, IL-8, IL-16, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < .0014). The distributions of plasma levels of IL-8, IL-15, and IFN-inducible protein-10 were significantly higher among CCP donors with high (≥160) versus low (<40) anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers (P < .0014). The median levels of IL-6 were significantly higher among CCP donors who were hospitalized versus nonhospitalized (P < .0014). CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in cytokine and chemokine composition of CCP suggests there is a different inflammatory state among the CCP donors compared with SARS-CoV-2 naive, healthy blood donors.

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