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World J Clin Cases ; 10(15): 4911-4916, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884758


BACKGROUND: The indwelling nasogastric tube is commonly used for supplying enteral nutrition to patients who are unable to feed themselves, and accurate positioning is essential in the indwelling nasogastric tube in the body of the aforementioned patients. In clinical practice, abdominal radiography, auscultation, and clinical determination of the pH of the gastric juice are routinely used by medical personnel to determine the position of the tube; however, those treatments have proved limitations in specific cases. There are few case reports on the precise positioning of the nasogastric tube in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), for whom a supply of necessary nutrition support is significant throughout the process of treatment. CASE SUMMARY: A 79-year-old patient, diagnosed with COVID-19 at the stage of combined syndromes with severe bacterial lung infection, respiratory failure, multiple co-morbidities, and a poor nutritional status, was presented to us and required an indwelling nasogastric tube for enteral nutrition support. After pre-treatment assessments including observation of the patient's nasal feeding status and examination of the nasal septal deviation, inflammation, obstruction, nasal leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, and other disorders that might render intubation inappropriate, we measured and marked the length of the nasogastric tube to be placed and delivered the tube to the intended length in the standard manner. Then further scrutiny was conducted to ensure that the tube was not coiled in the mouth, and gentle movements were made to avoid damage to the esophageal mucosa. However, back draw of the gastric juice using an empty needle failed, and the stethoscope could not be used for auscultation due to the specific condition presented by the internal organs of the patient, and the end of the tube was placed in saline with no bubbles spilling out. Therefore, it was not possible to determine whether the nasogastric tube was placed exactly in the stomach and no nutrient infusion was performed for the time being. Subsequently, the ultrasound probe was utilized to view the condition of the patient's stomach, where the nasogastric tube was found to be translucent and running parallel to the esophagus shaped as "=". The pre-conditions were achieved and 100 mL nutritional fluid was fed to the patient, who did not experience any discomfort throughout the procedure. His vital signs were stable with no adverse effects. CONCLUSION: We achieved successfully used ultrasound to position the nasogastric tube in a 79-year-old patient with COVID-19. The repeatable ultrasound application does not involve radiation and causes less disturbance in the neck, making it advantageous for rapid positioning of the nasogastric tube and worthy of clinical promotion and application.

Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 300, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351933


Elderly people and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, resulting in severe complications and high mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can exert antiviral functions and affect the response to COVID-19 in the elderly and people with diabetes. First, we identified four miRNAs (miR-7-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-223-3p) through high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, that are remarkably decreased in the elderly and diabetic groups. We further demonstrated that these miRNAs, either in the exosome or in the free form, can directly inhibit S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Serum exosomes from young people can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and S protein expression, while the inhibitory effect is markedly decreased in the elderly and diabetic patients. Moreover, three out of the four circulating miRNAs are significantly increased in the serum of healthy volunteers after 8-weeks' continuous physical exercise. Serum exosomes isolated from these volunteers also showed stronger inhibitory effects on S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study demonstrates for the first time that circulating exosomal miRNAs can directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and may provide a possible explanation for the difference in response to COVID-19 between young people and the elderly or people with comorbidities.

COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Exercise , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Virus Replication