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1.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 5, 2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few specific medications have been proven effective for the treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we tested whether high-dose vitamin C infusion was effective for severe COVID-19. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, clinical trial was performed at 3 hospitals in Hubei, China. Patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the ICU were randomly assigned in as 1:1 ratio to either the high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) or the placebo. HDIVC group received 12 g of vitamin C/50 ml every 12 h for 7 days at a rate of 12 ml/hour, and the placebo group received bacteriostatic water for injection in the same way within 48 h of arrival to ICU. The primary outcome was invasive mechanical ventilation-free days in 28 days (IMVFD28). Secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality, organ failure (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score), and inflammation progression (interleukin-6). RESULTS: Only 56 critical COVID-19 patients were ultimately recruited due to the early control of the outbreak. There was no difference in IMVFD28 between two groups (26.0 [9.0-28.0] in HDIVC vs 22.0 [8.50-28.0] in control, p = 0.57). HDIVC failed to reduce 28-day mortality (P = 0.27). During the 7-day treatment period, patients in the HDIVC group had a steady rise in the PaO2/FiO2 (day 7: 229 vs. 151 mmHg, 95% CI 33 to 122, P = 0.01), which was not observed in the control group. IL-6 in the HDIVC group was lower than that in the control group (19.42 vs. 158.00; 95% CI -301.72 to -29.79; P = 0.04) on day 7. CONCLUSION: This pilot trial showed that HDIVC failed to improve IMVFD28, but might show a potential signal of benefit in oxygenation for critically ill patients with COVID-19 improving PaO2/FiO2 even though.

2.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 54: 166-172, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943015

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are indispensable components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has achieved great success in controlling AIDS epidemic in reducing drastically the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. RTIs are divided into two categories, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). In this review, the recent discoveries in NRTIs and NNRTIs, including approved anti-HIV drugs and noteworthy drug candidates in different development stages, are summarized, and their future direction is prospected.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 117, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) causes different morbidity risks to individuals in different age groups. This study attempts to quantify the age-specific transmissibility using a mathematical model. METHODS: An epidemiological model with five compartments (susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed [SEIAR]) was developed based on observed transmission features. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, those ≤ 14 years old; group 2, those 15 to 44 years old; group 3, those 45 to 64 years old; and group 4, those ≥ 65 years old. The model was initially based on cases (including imported cases and secondary cases) collected in Hunan Province from January 5 to February 19, 2020. Another dataset, from Jilin Province, was used to test the model. RESULTS: The age-specific SEIAR model fitted the data well in each age group (P < 0.001). In Hunan Province, the highest transmissibility was from age group 4 to 3 (median: ß43 = 7.71 × 10- 9; SAR43 = 3.86 × 10- 8), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 3.07 × 10- 9; SAR34 = 1.53 × 10- 8), group 2 to 2 (median: ß22 = 1.24 × 10- 9; SAR22 = 6.21 × 10- 9), and group 3 to 1 (median: ß31 = 4.10 × 10- 10; SAR31 = 2.08 × 10- 9). The lowest transmissibility was from age group 3 to 3 (median: ß33 = 1.64 × 10- 19; SAR33 = 8.19 × 10- 19), followed by group 4 to 4 (median: ß44 = 3.66 × 10- 17; SAR44 = 1.83 × 10- 16), group 3 to 2 (median: ß32 = 1.21 × 10- 16; SAR32 = 6.06 × 10- 16), and group 1 to 4 (median: ß14 = 7.20 × 10- 14; SAR14 = 3.60 × 10- 13). In Jilin Province, the highest transmissibility occurred from age group 4 to 4 (median: ß43 = 4.27 × 10- 8; SAR43 = 2.13 × 10- 7), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 1.81 × 10- 8; SAR34 = 9.03 × 10- 8). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 exhibits high transmissibility between middle-aged (45 to 64 years old) and elderly (≥ 65 years old) people. Children (≤ 14 years old) have very low susceptibility to COVID-19. This study will improve our understanding of the transmission feature of SARS-CoV-2 in different age groups and suggest the most prevention measures should be applied to middle-aged and elderly people.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039519, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639482

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The rapid worldwide spread of COVID-19 has caused a global health crisis. To date, symptomatic supportive care has been the most common treatment. It has been reported that the mechanism of COVID-19 is related to cytokine storms and subsequent immunogenic damage, especially damage to the endothelium and alveolar membrane. Vitamin C (VC), also known as L-ascorbic acid, has been shown to have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. A high dose of intravenous VC (HIVC) was proven to block several key components of cytokine storms, and HIVC showed safety and varying degrees of efficacy in clinical trials conducted on patients with bacterial-induced sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, we hypothesise that HIVC could be added to the treatment of ARDS and multiorgan dysfunction related to COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The investigators designed a multicentre prospective randomised placebo-controlled trial that is planned to recruit 308 adults diagnosed with COVID-19 and transferred into the intensive care unit. Participants will randomly receive HIVC diluted in sterile water or placebo for 7 days once enrolled. Patients with a history of VC allergy, end-stage pulmonary disease, advanced malignancy or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency will be excluded. The primary outcome is ventilation-free days within 28 observational days. This is one of the first clinical trials applying HIVC to treat COVID-19, and it will provide credible efficacy and safety data. We predict that HIVC could suppress cytokine storms caused by COVID-19, help improve pulmonary function and reduce the risk of ARDS of COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (identifiers: Clinical Ethical Approval No. 2020001). Findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04264533.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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