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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 427, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795805

ABSTRACT

Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in COVID-19 patients were recently reported with unclear mechanism. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a cohort of COVID-19 patients without pre-existing metabolic-related diseases, and found new-onset insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-C in these patients. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which modulated the expression of secreted metabolic factors including myeloperoxidase, apelin, and myostatin at the transcriptional level, resulting in the perturbation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several lipids, including (±)5-HETE, (±)12-HETE, propionic acid, and isobutyric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers of COVID-19-induced metabolic dysregulation, especially in insulin resistance. Taken together, our study revealed insulin resistance as the direct cause of hyperglycemia upon COVID-19, and further illustrated the underlying mechanisms, providing potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19-induced metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
Cell Metab ; 34(3): 424-440.e7, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676683

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a systemic disease that may cause severe metabolic complications in multiple tissues including liver, kidney, and cardiovascular system. However, the underlying mechanisms and optimal treatment remain elusive. Our study shows that impairment of ACE2 pathway is a key factor linking virus infection to its secondary metabolic sequelae. By using structure-based high-throughput virtual screening and connectivity map database, followed with experimental validations, we identify imatinib, methazolamide, and harpagoside as direct enzymatic activators of ACE2. Imatinib and methazolamide remarkably improve metabolic perturbations in vivo in an ACE2-dependent manner under the insulin-resistant state and SARS-CoV-2-infected state. Moreover, viral entry is directly inhibited by these three compounds due to allosteric inhibition of ACE2 binding to spike protein on SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our study shows that enzymatic activation of ACE2 via imatinib, methazolamide, or harpagoside may be a conceptually new strategy to treat metabolic sequelae of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Methazolamide/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Male , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/virology , Methazolamide/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4083-4089, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have implemented mitigating non-pharmaceutical interventions. We investigated the impact of these interventions and changes in public behavior on the incidences of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the eastern of China. METHODS: From routine monitoring data collected in the capital of eastern China's Jiangsu Province, we extracted and analyzed the incidences of influenza; hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD); varicella; mumps; pertussis; and hepatitis B. We also investigated the changes in public behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic through telephone interviews and questionnaire surveys. RESULTS: Compared with the baseline (2017-2019), the incidences of all VPDs except influenza declined significantly in 2020 (HFMD decreased by 79.92%, varicella decreased by 7.71%, mumps decreased by 2.03%, pertussis decreased by 78.91%, and hepatitis B decreased by 0.31%). The reduction in reported cases in children (0-14 years) was greater than that in adults, and pertussis had the largest reduction (approximately 80%) in children. Influenza peaks in winter; in the three years before the COVID-19 pandemic, Influenza rates took an average of 10 weeks to recede to their lowest levels after the Spring Festival, while in 2020, this took only 1 week. A total of 366 outbreaks with 20,205 cases were reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the participants in the study, 94.2% of the interviewees avoided going to high-risk areas, 82.4% avoided going to crowded places, 92.9% wore masks when going out,88.4% washed their hands frequently, and 67.9% maintained social distance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed significant reductions in the incidences of VPDs after the implementation of a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Adult , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 93: 31-35, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyposmia is among the most common symptoms of COVID-19 patients. Previous research has mainly described this issue at the disease's early stages. Because olfactory impairment can indicate neurological degeneration, we investigated the possibility of permanent olfactory damage by assessing hyposmia during the late recovery stage of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Ninety-five patients were assessed with the Brief Smell Identification Test for Chinese (B-SITC) and Hyposmia Rating Scale (HRS) after 16 weeks from disease onset. Five weeks later, 41 patients were retested with B-SITC. RESULTS: At the first visit, hyposmia was identified in 26/82 (31.7%) and 22/95 (23.2%) of participants by HRS (HRS score ≤22) and B-SITC (B-SITC score <8), respectively. The rates of hyposmia in patients who performed B-SITC after 14-15 weeks, 16-17 weeks, and ≥18 weeks from disease onset were 7/25 (28%), 8/35 (23%) and 7/35 (20%), respectively, which demonstrated a trend of olfaction improvement as recovery time prolonging. Hyposmia percentages decreased from the first visit (34.1%) to the second visit (24.4%) for the 41 patients who completed 2 visits. B-SITC scores of the first-visit hyposmia participants increased significantly at the second visit (5.29 ± 2.02 to 8.29 ± 2.40; n = 14, P = 0.001). Severe cases tended to recover less than common cases. CONCLUSIONS: Hyposmia was present in up to one-third of COVID-19 patients after about 3 months from disease onset. Notable recovery of olfactory function was observed at a next 5-weeks follow-up. Clinical severity had little influence on olfactory impairment and recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
5.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(2):505, 2021.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1192880

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the effect of air pollutions emission reduction in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and its surrounding 26 cities("2 + 26" cities) from January to March in 2020 during the epidemic of COVID-19, the air quality model of nested air quality prediction modeling system(NAQPMS) was applied to conduct a few scenarios. The characteristics of air quality from January to March 2020, and during the periods before and after the epidemic of COVID-19 were investigated. The influences of meteorology, emergency emission reduction measures and social economic activities on ambient air quality as well as the uncertainties were elucidated and discussed. The results showed that the number of days achieving good and moderate air quality standard in "2+26" cities accounted for 59.6%, on average of 10.9% increase relative to the same period last year. The mean concentration of PM10、PM2.5、SO2、NO2、O3-8 h-90 per and CO-95 per in "2 + 26" cities from January to March in 2020 were 108, 76, 14, 109, 36μg/m3, and 2.3 mg/m3, respectively. During the epidemic period from January 24 to March 31, the concentrations of PM10, NO2, PM2.5, and CO decreased significantly compared with the period prior to the epidemic from January 1 to 23. In contrast to January to March in 2019, the PM2.5 concentrations of the cities along the Yan mountain and Taihang mountain increased by 1%~8% in 2020. However, the model simulations revealed that the emergency emission reduction measures potentially avoided twice of the regional heavy air pollution events, resulting in the quarterly mean PM2.5 concentration in "2 + 26" cities reduced by 6 to 26μg/m3. Due to the influence of the Spring Festival holiday and epidemic, the traffic emissions were reduced substantially. In contrast, the emissions from the industry such as coking and thermal power did not show large variations, and the negative impact of loose coal combustion on ambient air quality may become even more severe.

6.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(5): 1160-1169, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak negatively impacted the mental health and emotions of many individuals. The study presented here explores the mental health and emotion regulation experienced by undergraduate nursing students in China during the pandemic. Potential risk factors related to negative mental health symptoms were identified in this study. An online cross-sectional study including 342 respondents was performed from March 6, 2020, to April 1, 2020, at a University in China. A Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were used to evaluate mental health and emotions. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, or comorbid anxiety and depression were 55.0%, 56.4%, and 31.6%, respectively. The mean score of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression was 29.36 ± 8.00 and 15.55 ± 5.14. Lower scores for cognitive reappraisal and higher scores for expressive suppression were susceptible to symptoms of anxiety, depression, or comorbid anxiety and depression. Issues with mental health occurred in nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from this study provide a better understanding of the association between mental health and emotion regulation, which will help direct psychological intervention that relieves these issues during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Emotional Regulation , Students, Nursing , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 54: 166-172, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943015

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are indispensable components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has achieved great success in controlling AIDS epidemic in reducing drastically the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. RTIs are divided into two categories, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). In this review, the recent discoveries in NRTIs and NNRTIs, including approved anti-HIV drugs and noteworthy drug candidates in different development stages, are summarized, and their future direction is prospected.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans
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